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Baltic Sea microalgae transform cement flue gas into valuable biomass
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (MPEA)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (MPEA)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (MPEA)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (MPEA)
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2015 (English)In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 11, 227-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We show high feasibility of using cement industrial flue gas as CO2 source for microalgal cultivation. The toxicity of cement flue gas (12-15% CO2) on algal biomass production and composition (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates) was tested using monocultures (Tetraselmis sp., green algae, Skeletonema marinoi, diatom) and natural brackish communities. The performance of a natural microalgal community dominated by spring diatoms was compared to a highly productive diatom monoculture S. marinoi fed with flue gas or air-CO2 mixture. Flue gas was not toxic to any of the microalgae tested. Instead we show high quality of microalgal biomass (lipids 20-30% DW, proteins 20-28% DW, carbohydrates 15-30% DW) and high production when cultivated with flue gas addition compared to CO2-air. Brackish Baltic Sea microalgal communities performed equally or better in terms of biomass quality and production than documented monocultures of diatom and green algae, often used in algal research and development. Hence, we conclude that microalgae should be included in biological solutions to transform waste into renewable resources in coastal waters. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2015. Vol. 11, 227-233 p.
Keyword [en]
Microalgae, Baltic Sea, Flue gas, Biomass composition, Natural communities, Brackish
National Category
Microbiology Bioenergy Bioremediation
Research subject
Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-45559DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2015.07.001ISI: 000363046900029OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-45559DiVA: diva2:843074
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2015-07-25 Created: 2015-07-25 Last updated: 2017-04-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Microalgae - future bioresource of the sea?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microalgae - future bioresource of the sea?
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Unicellular microalgae are a renewable bioresource that can meet the challenge forfood and energy in a growing world population. Using sunlight, CO2, nutrients,and water, algal cells produce biomass in the form of sugars, proteins and oils, allof which carry commercial value as food, feed and bioenergy. Flue gas CO2 andwastewater nutrients are inexpensive sources of carbon and fertilizers. Microalgaecan mitigate CO2 emissions and reduce nutrients from waste streams whileproducing valuable biomass.My focus was on some of the challenging aspects of cultivating microalgae ascrop: the response of biomass production and quality to seasonality, nutrients andbiological interactions. Approach spans from laboratory experiments to large-scaleoutdoor cultivation, using single microalgal strains and natural communities insouthern (Portugal) and northern (Sweden) Europe.Half of the seasonal variation in algal oil content was due to changes in light andtemperature in outdoor large-scale cultures of a commercial strain (Nannochloropsisoculata). Seasonal changes also influence algal oil composition with more neutrallipids stored in cells during high light and temperature. Nitrogen (N) stress usuallyenhances lipid storage but suppresses biomass production. Our manipulationshowed that N stress produced more lipids while retaining biomass. Thus,projecting annual biomass and oil yields requires accounting for both seasonalchanges and N stress to optimize lipid production in commercial applications.Baltic Sea microalgae proved to be a potential biological solution to reduce CO2emissions from cement flue gas with valuable biomass production. A multi-speciescultivation approach rather than single-species revealed that natural or constructedcommunities of microalgae can produce equivalent biomass quality. Diversecommunities of microalgae can offer resilience and stability due to more efficientresource utilization with less risk of contamination, less work and cost for culturemaintenance.Stable algal biomass production (annual basis) was achieved in outdoor pilot-scale(1600 L) cultivation of Baltic Sea natural communities using cement flue gas as aCO2 source. Results indicate favorable algal oil content at northern Europeanlatitudes compared to southern European latitudes.My thesis establishes the potential of cultivating microalgae as a bioresource inScandinavia, and using a community approach may be one step towardssustainable algal technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2015
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 227/2015
Keyword
Microalgae, algal cultivation, bioresource, bioenergy, CO2 mitigation, multi-species community approach, seasonal variation
National Category
Biological Sciences Ecology Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Natural Science, Aquatic Ecology; Natural Science, Biotechnology; Environmental Science, Environmental technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46512 (URN)978-91-87925-75-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-16, Hörsalen Fullriggaren, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-28 Created: 2015-09-28 Last updated: 2015-09-28Bibliographically approved

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Olofsson, MartinLindehoff, ElinSvensson, FredrikLegrand, Catherine
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