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Monitoring urban copper flows in Stockholm, Sweden: implications of changes over time
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Statistics Sweden.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
2017 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 4, 903-912 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for copper (Cu) was conducted, in which theinflow, stock, and outflow (in the form of diffuse emissions to soil and water) for Stockholmwere estimated for 2013 and compared with a previous study from 1995, hence allowing adiscussion on changes over time. A large number of applications containing Cu were analyzed(including power cables, copper alloys, heavy electrical equipment, tap water systems, roofs,cars, various consumer electronics, wood preservatives, and contact cables for the railroad).The results show that the inflow of Cu to Stockholm has increased between 1995 and 2013,both in total and per person, mainly as the result of an increase in heavy electrical equipment,power cables, and cars. The stock remains relatively unchanged, whereas the outflow hasincreased. For the outflow, the emission increase from brake linings is of greatest quantitativeimportance, with an estimated 5.8 tonnes annual emission of Cu to the environment ofStockholm in 2013 compared to 3.9 tonnes in 1995. Given that increasing inflows of limitedresources drive the global demand, continuous monitoring of flows through society andmanagement of outflow routes are crucial, including improvement of national legislationand regional environmental plans as well as efforts to increase resource-use efficiency andrecycling

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2017. Vol. 21, no 4, 903-912 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46807DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12470ISI: 000409310500008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-46807DiVA: diva2:862186
Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2017-09-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Diffuse emissions from goods - influences on some societal end products
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diffuse emissions from goods - influences on some societal end products
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2015. 166 p.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 229/2015
Keyword
Arsenic, bismuth, CCA-treated wood, copper, material flow analysis, silver, substance flow analysis, urban flows
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46805 (URN)978-91-87925-80-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-06, Fullriggaren, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-21 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-21Bibliographically approved

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Amneklev, JennieAugustsson, AnnaBergbäck, Bo
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CiteExportLink to record
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