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Tree-thinking and nemertean systematics
University of Gothenburg.
1996 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 1996.
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Ecology, Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51380Libris ID: 16266963ISBN: 91-628-1952-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-51380DiVA, id: diva2:914769
Public defence
1996-04-26, Föreläsningssalen, Zoologen, Medicinalgatan 18, Göteborg, 16:38 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-03-25 Last updated: 2016-04-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Homoplasy, character function and nemertean systematics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Homoplasy, character function and nemertean systematics
1994 (English)In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 234, no 2, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We question recent claims that cladistic analysis is inapplicable in nemerteans (phylum Nemertea) due to a supposedly high degree of convergence. We further argue that terms like convergence and parallelism are historical sayings and only make sense in a phylogenetic context. Therefore, an approach aiming to produce phylogenetic hypotheses cannot be rejected on the grounds of a high degree of convergence before the actual hypothesis. Convergence is not an empirical observation, but a conclusion made after an analysis. We also discuss the view that knowledge of a character's function is a prerequisite for phylogenetic analysis and conclude that this is an invalid approach. Function, like any other way of sharpening our observations, helps in formulating non-phylogenetic hypotheses of homology, but the crucial test is congruence with other characters on a phylogeny.

National Category
Biological Systematics Zoology
Research subject
Ecology, Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51375 (URN)10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb06073.x (DOI)
Available from: 2016-03-25 Created: 2016-03-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Cladistic analysis of the eureptantic nemerteans (Nemertea : Hoplonemertea)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cladistic analysis of the eureptantic nemerteans (Nemertea : Hoplonemertea)
1995 (English)In: Invertebrate taxonomy, ISSN 0818-0164, E-ISSN 1445-4572, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1211-1229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A phylogeny for the 34 species we consider well enough described in the suborder Eureptantia (phylum Nemertea) is inferred by cladistic analysis based on 38 morphological characters. The phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that many previously recognised genera and families are paraphyletic. These findings are discussed and compared with earlier classifications. We also present an identification key to the species based on the cladistic analysis.

Keywords
fylogeni, systematik, taxonomi
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Natural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51361 (URN)10.1071/IT9951211 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-02-07 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Biogeographic patterns and the evolution of eureptantic nemerteans
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogeographic patterns and the evolution of eureptantic nemerteans
1996 (English)In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 325-342Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The origin and evolution of the eureptantic nemerteans is discussed from a biogeographic point of view. It is most likely that East Indian Ocean was part of the ancestral distribution of the Eureptantia. The area cladogram estimated by Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA) is to a high degree congruent with a vicariance explanation of the evolution of the Eureptantia and suggests an ancestral distribution concordant with the Tethys Sea. A general area cladogram based on a combined BPA analysis of eureptantic nemerteans and acanthuroid fishes is reconstructed and suggested as a hypothesis of the relationships between east Indian Ocean, west Indian Ocean, west Pacific Ocean, east Atlantic Ocean, west Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean. This tree is compared with cladograms from the same areas based on other taxa.

Keywords
fylogeni, systematik, taxonomi
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Ecology, Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51351 (URN)10.1006/bijl.1996.0039 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-02-07 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
4. Concepts and components in cladistic biogeography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concepts and components in cladistic biogeography
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Ecology, Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51379 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-25 Created: 2016-03-25 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
5. Taxonomy and philosophy of names
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taxonomy and philosophy of names
1998 (English)In: Biology & Philosophy, ISSN 0169-3867, E-ISSN 1572-8404, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 233-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although naming biological clades is a major activity in taxonomy, little attention has been paid to what these names actually refer to. In philosophy, definite descriptions have long been considered equivalent to the meaning of names and biological taxonomy is a scientific application of these ideas. One problem with definite descriptions as the meanings of names is that the name will refer to whatever fits the description rather than the intended individual (clade). Recent proposals for explicit phylogenetic definitions of clade names suffer from similar problems and we argue that clade names cannot be defined since they lack intension. Furthermore we stress the importance of "tree-thinking" for phylogenetic reference to work properly.

Keywords
reference, meaning, individual, class, definition, clade, evolution, phylogeny, phylogenetic taxonomy, systematics, tree-thinking, cladistics, intention, extension
National Category
Philosophy Biological Systematics
Research subject
Social Sciences, Practical Philosophy; Natural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51362 (URN)10.1023/A:1006583910214 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-02-08 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
6. Tree-thinking and nemertean systematics, with a systematization of the Eureptantia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tree-thinking and nemertean systematics, with a systematization of the Eureptantia
1998 (English)In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 365, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

I review how some influential nemertean systematistshave perceived and illustrated phylogenetic trees andargue that the nineteenth century nemerteantaxonomists still influence many contemporarynemertean taxonomists to a high degree. By showing hownineteenth century systematics differs from moremodern views on trees, I hope to convey the advantagesof a cladistic approach to tree-thinking and nemerteansystematics. Furthermore I propose a systematizationof the Eureptantia that illustrates the cladisticapproach to tree-thinking but, more importantly, isalso a better representation of eureptantic phylogenythan previous classifications.

Keywords
Phylogeny, cladistics, taxonomy, systematics, classification, evolution, history, chronicle, Nemertea, Hoplonemertea, fylogeni, systematik, taxonomi
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Research subject
Natural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51357 (URN)10.1023/A:1003174326275 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-02-08 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved

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Härlin, Mikael

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  • apa
  • harvard1
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