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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Wilmer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Sociala interaktioner i video-slots: En kvalitativ studie om intresset för sociala interaktioner i video-slots och hur det kan utformas för att skapa en bra spelupplevelse samt om det kan bidra till en sundare spelstil2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate whether there is an interest in social interactions in video-slots and how that can be designed to give users a good user experience. Online casino is the form of gaming that has increased most in popularity in Sweden in recent years and the video-slots gametype are growing the most. Previous studies shows that there is a driving force to do things together and that strengthens and enriches experiences. Studies on social interactions in online games clearly shows that enjoyment is an important element for playing. The purpose is also to investigate if social interactions in video-slots can provide a healthier game for people who have gambling problems. 

    Video-slots is a hedonic motivation system (HMS) and is used to give the user pleasure and joy in a system. The theory on which the study is based on is HMSAM, which is an HMS specific model that has been used to create an understanding of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, joy, control and curiosity, which can affect internal motivation. Internal motivation is needed for users to be able to deepen and continue to use an HMS-system.

    The study has a qualitative approach and qualitative semi-structured interviews have been used in the collection of empirical data. The focus has been on the users' experiences, their motivations, driving forces, control and desires regarding social interactions in the playing of video-slots.The questions in the interviews are based on HMSAM, but also on the basis of the Octalysis gamification framework. The results from the data collection were analyzed on the basis of the categories and patterns that were created. The analysis showed a great motivation to play video-slots online together and that it would enhance their gaming experience. Even though it had simplified their gaming sessions and higher community when the majority of the informants already played video-slots today together, but with their own constructed methods. The analysis also showed that the informants play primarily for the pleasure and excitement. Based on the data from the interviews, design proposals were made, in support of the gamification framework. The design proposals resulted in six graphical interface sketches with functions that were considered to create a good user experience.

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    fulltext
  • 2.
    Ahlstrand, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Interaktion med en digital tjänst: En kvalitativ studie om hur god interaktion för en samhällstjänst kan utformas för medborgare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern society, our interaction with services is continuous and offers opportunities for a richer everyday life. One example is that state agencies provide their services digitally to simplify and improve community services to citizens. At the same time, interaction with digital services poses a challenge for users. These challenges can be the reason why users of the Swedish Consumer Agency’s service Budgetkalkylen expressed opportunities for improvement. In this thesis, usefulness, usability and cognitive load is used to examine the interaction between users and the service Budgetkalkylen. This is to contribute with proposals for improvement concerning usefulness, usability and cognitive load. The theory describes how the cognitive load on our working memory affects the constituents of the usability of a system. Usability, which is important when interplay with a product is of concern, form together with utility the products usefulness. The usefulness of a system is the reason why a product is used to achieve goals. To investigate this, a study with a qualitative approach has been conducted containing interviews and user testing. The data collection was carried out with students who had no prior experience with the service. The result shows that parts of the interaction that constituted high cognitive load reduced the usability of the service. Splitting up the tasks and information in smaller steps, giving more clear instructions and adapting the instructional design to the users level of knowledge is considered to reduce the cognitive load. The utility was expressed as a means to create a holistic view of their finances. Some wanted more proactivity through being able to set up saving goals and some wanted to use it more reactively. Literature describing that cognitive load affects usability was supported by this study. The method of examining the cognitive load to find definices in the interaction was also supported. 

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    Interaktion med en digital tjänst
  • 3.
    Akiskali, Turkan
    et al.
    Akdeniz University, Türkiye.
    Kitapci, Olgun
    Akdeniz University, Türkiye.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Dataset - Literature on service robots in the hospitality industry2022Data set
  • 4.
    Aleksikj, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visualization of Quantified Self data from Spotify using avatars2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased interest for self-tracking through the use of technology has given birth to the Quantified Self movement. The movement empowers users to gain self-knowledge from their own data. The overall idea is fairly recent and as such it provides a vast space for exploration and research. This project contributes to the Quantified self movement by proposing a concept for visualization of personal data using an avatar. The overall work finds inspiration in Chernoff faces visualization and it uses parts of the presentation method within the project design.  

    This thesis presents a visualization approach for Quantified Self data using avatars. It tests the proposed concept through a user study with two iterations. The manuscript holds a detailed overview of the designing process, questionnaire for the data mapping, implementation of the avatars, two user studies and the analysis of the results. The avatars are evaluated using Spotify data. The implementation offers a visualization library that can be reused outside of the scope of this thesis.

    The project managed to deliver an avatar that presents personal data through the use of facial expressions. The results show that the users can understand the proposed mapping of data. Some of the users were not able to gain meaningful insights from the overall use of the avatar, but the study gives directions for further improvements of the concept. 

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Using Mobile Augmented Reality to Facilitate Public Engagement2017In: Extended Papers of the International Symposium on Digital Humanities (DH 2016) / [ed] Koraljka Golub, Marcelo Milrad, CEUR-WS , 2017, Vol. 2021, p. 99-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents our initial efforts towards the development of a framework for facilitating public engagement through the use of mobile Augmented Reality (mAR), that fall under the overall project title "Augmented Reality for Public Engagement" (PEAR). We present the concept, implementation, and discuss the results from the deployment of a mobile phone app (PEAR 4 VXO). The mobile app was used for a user study in conjunction with a campaign carried out by Växjö municipality (Sweden) while exploring how to get citizens more engaged in urban planning actions and decisions. These particular activities took place during spring 2016.One of the salient features of our approach is that it combines novel ways of using mAR together with social media, online databases, and sensors, to support public engagement. In addition, the data collection process and audience engagement were tested in a follow-up limited deployment.The analysis and outcomes of our initial results validate the overall concept and indicate the potential usefulness of the app as a tool, but also highlight the need for an active campaign from the part of the stakeholders.Our future efforts will focus on addressing some of the problems and challenges that we have identified during the different phases of this user study.

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    Alissandrakis_Reski_PEAR_2017.pdf
  • 6.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visualizing dynamic text corpora using Virtual Reality2018In: ICAME 39 : Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018: Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society : Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 205-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, data visualization has become a major area in Digital Humanities research, and the same holds true also in linguistics. The rapidly increasing size of corpora, the emergence of dynamic real-time streams, and the availability of complex and enriched metadata have made it increasingly important to facilitate new and innovative approaches to presenting and exploring primary data. This demonstration showcases the uses of Virtual Reality (VR) in the visualization of geospatial linguistic data using data from the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) project (see Laitinen et al 2017). The NTS data for this demonstration comprises a full year of geotagged tweets (12,443,696 tweets from 273,648 user accounts) posted within the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The dataset includes over 50 metadata parameters in addition to the tweets themselves.

    We demonstrate the potential of using VR to efficiently find meaningful patterns in vast streams of data. The VR environment allows an easy overview of any of the features (textual or metadata) in a text corpus. Our focus will be on the language identification data, which provides a previously unexplored perspective into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region.

    Our VR prototype utilizes the HTC Vive headset for a room-scale VR scenario, and it is being developed using the Unity3D game development engine. Each node in the VR space is displayed as a stacked cuboid, the equivalent of a bar chart in a three-dimensional space, summarizing all tweets at one geographic location for a given point in time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr). Each stacked cuboid represents information of the three most frequently used languages, appropriately color coded, enabling the user to get an overview of the language distribution at each location. The VR prototype further encourages users to move between different locations and inspect points of interest in more detail (overall location-related information, a detailed list of all languages detected, the most frequently used hashtags). An underlying map outlines country borders and facilitates orientation. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the VR system provides an interface to explore the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), which enables users to explore data over time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr-time).

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we will also briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity.

  • 7.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Visualizing rich corpus data using virtual reality2019In: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, E-ISSN 1797-4453, Vol. 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an approach that utilizes immersive virtual reality (VR) to explore and interact with corpus linguistics data. Our case study focuses on the language identification parameter in the Nordic Tweet Stream corpus, a dynamic corpus of Twitter data where each tweet originated within the Nordic countries. We demonstrate how VR can provide previously unexplored perspectives into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region and showcase its geospatial variation. We utilize a head-mounted display (HMD) for a room-scale VR scenario that allows 3D interaction by using hand gestures. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the interface enables exploration of the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), making it particularly useful for diachronic investigations.

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity. Our empirical results detail students’ reactions to working in this environment. The discussion part examines the benefits, prospects and limitations of using VR in visualizing corpus data.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Ida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Strömbäck, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Anpassning av digital teknik för äldre människor: En kvalitativ studie med smartspeglar som inriktning2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many people who belong to older generations find it difficult to keep up with today's digitalized society. This can be due to fear, anxiety, low self-esteem, lack of motivation and interest. It may also be because older people do not see any benefit in implementing the technology in their lives. This shows a negative attitude towards using the technology. Poor usability and user-friendliness are the two factors that mainly affect this. The experience of such can in turn determine their acceptance of using the technology. The client for this study wants to make everyday life easier for older people and is working on developing an aid in the form of a smart mirror.The definition of a smart mirror is difficult. The common denominators for smart mirrors are above all that they consist of a digital screen with a mirror in front, can display various previous information and digital material and these can be tailored to the user (Smart Mirror Guide, 2021). There are more terms for this product, e.g. "magic mirror".This study helps to identify the wishes and functions of the target group regarding the interface in the smart mirror. This was done by conducting a literature study in the form of finding out previous research in related areas, a theoretical framework consisting of usability, user-friendliness and TAM 2, interviews with people belonging to the target group and the creation of a prototype based on the data from the interviews. User testing was performed on the prototype with follow-up questions. Qualitative data has been collected in this project and it led to a conclusion and two answered research questions. Results and conclusions are based on previous research, the theoretical framework, interviews and user tests. The conclusion is that digital technology can be difficult to handle for the older target group and to prevent this, part of the conclusion consists of suggestions for solutions, especially for the interface in the smart mirror that this study focuses on. A synthesis was developed to achieve a useful design for this target group. Further suggestions are to provide an educational introduction to the product so that the user understands the benefits and how this should be used. A consistently simple design of interfaces is important for this target group. Designers should, as far as possible, try to understand users' past experiences and preconceived notions. They should also avoid making users feel that any errors that occur are due to them, let users decide for themselves which features should be visible to reduce the risk of confusion. The study also shows that their experience of usability and user-friendliness are two major factors that can increase the chance of technology acceptance for this target group.

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    Anpassning av digital teknik för äldre människor
  • 9.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Lindh, Beatrice
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    En design för alla: Att skapa ett gränssnitt för barn och ungdomar med ADHD: Specialpedagogers, speciallärare och assisterande lärares bedömningar av barnens behov.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on how WCAG:s supplemental guidelines for those with cognitive impairment meet the needs of children between 10-16 years with ADHD. 

    The digitalization in society has contributed to the fact that accessibility in interfaces has become increasingly important, not least for children with cognitive impairments. During the past 15 years, the amount of people diagnosed with ADHD has increased. Literature shows that school-aged children with ADHD experience an abundance of academic and pedagogical problems. This means that the child will probably feel too harshly treated, which later can affect the child's self-esteem. People with impairments can often experience difficulties that lead to disability due to the structure of society. Digital solutions are a part of such an exclusive structure, if they are not designed to be accessible to people with impairments. The ideal is to achieve universal design: a solution that can be used by anyone without the need for adaptation or compromise, a design for all. 

    This study helps to identify the needs of children with ADHD and contributes with an understanding of how WCAG's guidelines capture these needs. This has been investigated through the study's investigation model that connects the needs of children with ADHD with the cognitive accessibility guidelines from WCAG:s.

    The results and conclusions are based on literature, the investigation model and semi structured interviews. The results of the study shows the importance of further development of the investigation model, in order to strive for a framework that can guide the design of a website to be accessible to children with ADHD. Further presented are theoretical implications that present the theoretical contribution that the study entailed, as well as practical implications where design proposals are given to further include children with ADHD's needs.

    The conclusion of the study is that WCAG's supplemental guidelines for including individuals with cognitive disabilities are relevant for achieving accessibility for children with ADHD. On the other hand, the study shows that the existing guidelines are not sufficient and need to be supplemented with additional guidelines to include the needs of children with ADHD. The investigation model should be validated and further developed, but this study has contributed with a foundation for additional research.

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    En design för alla
  • 10.
    Aronsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Wilsson, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Gör kunden ingen björntjänst: Hur kunder och deras upplevelse kan stödjas i användandet av tjänster i mobilenheter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har som syfte att besvara hur en kund använder sig av kundservice som stöd och hur en självservicetjänst i en mobilenhet kan utformas för att ge en positiv kundupplevelse. Nya kunder tenderar att lämna tjänster de inte förstår och motivationen att använda sig av kundtjänst skiljer sig mellan kundgrupper. Som fallstudie har vi undersökt Svenska Spels tjänst Stryktipset. En kvalitativ studie har genomförts där nya ovana kunder i åldern 18-29 deltagit i användartest, observationer har genomförts på traditionell kundtjänst och intervjuer med ombud. Detta har resulterat i en förståelse för problemsituationer i kundupplevelsen, mobilenheten och vilket stöd de olika servicekanalerna ger. Designkoncept har tagits fram som visar på hur detta stöd kan se ut och hur det kan hjälpa kunden i sitt användande. Studien visar på att kunder behöver stöd i att förstå hur en tjänst fungerar, vad målet med tjänsten är och hur kunden bör gå till väga. Genom skapandet av en självservicetjänst kan kunden få ett bra stöd i sitt användande och genom att kunden tilldelas kontroll och får relevant information stärks kundupplevelsen positivt. En Självservicetjänst stödjer nya kunder på ett effektivt sätt innan kunden stöter på problem vilket tar bort negativa faktorer som hjälplöshet och motivationsbrist som gör att kunden kan avsluta sitt användande. En självservicetjänst framstår som ett positivt stöd i användandet av Svenska Spels mobilenhet och kan ge ett bra stöd åt användaren som inte andra servicekanaler kan erbjuda.

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    Gör kunden ingen björntjänst
  • 11.
    Ax, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Obrelius, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Vad har du på menyn?: Designriktlinjer för naturliga interaktioner och mobilitet i en stationär miljö2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today many companies have intranet failing to meet the users need and the most frequent complaint is that users do not find what they are looking for. This leads companies to lose both time and money on having employees that are unable to utilize the system in a sufficient manner, which often leads to expensive educational costs and loss of productivity. The primary reason that information is not found is that there is a lack of a consistent navigation tool that clearly indicates where the user should go to find what he/she is looking for. Design and structure in an interface plays a large role when it comes to how users understand and interpret an interface. However, the difficulty is that it tends to be visually disruptive and provide a cognitive load. Currently are a strong development of mobile devices taking place and questions are raised regarding how these interfaces can be optimized to make it easier for the user. Especially, when it comes to the mobile context and the limitations it causes. To make it easier are designers advised to develop natural interactions which are supposed to ease the cognitive load. This study therefore explores how design principles stemming from natural interactions, together with the mobility, affect the usability and ease of use for work in a desktop environment. The study has been conducted upon request of CLX Networks, a company that provide solutions for, among others, sms, voice and data. The assignment has entailed suggestions of improvements of the company’s intranet menu, which has been considered as inadequate by CLX.

    In this study, a user test of CLX’s current intranet menu was performed as well as five interviews with employees that work and use the system. The interviews concerned the topics of findability, actability, usability and mobile usability. Continuously was a card sorting performed to let the informants themselves visualize a proposed menu. The results from the empirical investigation were used to create an interactive prototype. Design principles from findability, actability, usability and natural interactions have been utilized in the creation of the new menu.

    Based on the investigations performed in this study is it possible to conclude that design principles from natural interactions and the mobility have a positive influence on ease of use concerning the menu in the graphical interface in a desktop environment. The study also confirms that a combination of the two viewpoints, natural interactions and desktop paradigm that facilitate the usage and cognitive load, which previously was troublesome for the employees. 

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    Designriktlinjer för naturliga interaktioner och mobilitet i en stationär miljö
  • 12.
    Babar, Ayesha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Kanani, Carine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Monitoring of Vital Signs Parameters with ICTs: A Participatory Design Approach2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of internet-based technologies, the design and adoption of wireless wearable and smart devices have been a growing study spot in all domains. The healthcare sector as many others is making technological progress to improve healthcare services and patients wellbeing and avoid or minimize the use of manual and traditional practices such as the use of paper notes to record the vital signs parameters data. The vital signs parameters are the most monitored physiology features, they produce a big amount of data and request a close follow up to define the health condition of a patient. Continuous vital signs monitoring involves the usage of different devices and systems, which if appropriate positively impact the activities involved, by enabling the continuous generation of data and information about the overall health status of patients and contribute to the wellbeing of individuals, in terms of preventing and reducing fatal risks. To investigate this situation, this research’s focus was in three parts; first, investigate recent research about patient’s health predictions based on vital signs parameters and the impacts of continuous monitoring on the care given. Second, explore the availability in terms of i.e. sensors used in devices that can continuously track vital signs parameters. Last, to provide a possible design recommendation to improve and/or replace the existing devices for vital signs parameters measuring and monitoring in emergency and post-operative care.

    A qualitative approach and participatory design approach were used to collect data. The qualitative part was achieved through interviews and the participatory design part was accomplished by the future workshop and two prototyping techniques, paper and digital prototypes. The findings of this research were analysed using conceptual analysis, and also discussed using those concepts. Together with the participants, this research resulted in three design suggestions which if implemented shall improve the vital signs continuous monitoring activities, by facilitating the healthcare professionals in their clinical responsibilities and improving the patients wellbeing while admitted in Emergency and Post-operative wards.

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    Monitoring of Vital Signs Parameters with ICTs A Participatory Design Approach
  • 13.
    Bahadur Thapa, Ratan
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University, Norway.
    Ferati, Mexhid
    Oslo and Akershus University, Norway.
    Giannoumis, G. Anthony
    Oslo and Akershus University, Norway.
    Using non-speech sounds to increase web image accessibility for screen-reader users2017In: Proceedings of the 35th ACM International Conference on the Design of Communication, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: ACM Press, 2017, article id 19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen-reader users access images on the Web using alternative text delivered via synthetic speech. However, research shows that this is a tedious and unsatisfying experience for blind users, because text-to-speech applications lack expressiveness. This paper, poses an alternative approach using an experiment that compares audemes, a type of non-speech sounds, with alternative text delivered using synthetic speech. In a pilot study with fourteen sighted users, findings show that audemes perform better across many areas. Specifically, audemes required lower mental and temporal demands and led to less effort and frustration and better task performance. Moreover, participants recognized audemes with higher accuracy and lower errors. Audemes were also perceived as more engaging compared to alternative text delivered using synthetic speech. Additionally, audemes were found to be richer in delivering information. This study suggests that non-speech sounds could substitute or complement alternative text when describing images on the Web.

  • 14.
    Batangouna, Steve Jehu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Effektiv presentation av information inom underhållsarbete2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har granskat och analyserat på vilka sätt information kan rapporteras direkt från operatören, med hjälp av handdatorer, till underhållspersonalen och produktionschefen utan att fördröjas. Studien har genomförts med tanke på att, i dagsläget, finns det en del viktig information som inte visualiseras och rapporteras inom företagen i tid och på ett bra sätt. Denna situation bidrar till att olika mätningar som genomförs inom företaget grundas på felaktiga informationer som inte är baserade på tidsaktuella och kvalitativa data, och inte baserad på analys av de verkliga aktiviteterna som sker på verksamhetsgolvet. I samband med användningen av Internet och introduktion av konceptet e-underhåll inom industrin, har operatörens roll ändrat från att vara passiv till att bli en aktiv aktör. Den här studien baserar på artiklar och böcker som först och främst handlar om IT, informationsteknologi och e-underhåll, men också på en fallstudie där observationer och intervjuer gjordes på plats på företaget CC Pack i Tibro. Studien har efter analys av det sätt på vilket informationen överförs idag inom företaget, kommit till ett nytt sätt att överföra och rapportera informationen mellan operatörerna, underhållspersonalen och produktionschefen. Detta betyder att informationen, med hjälp av det nya digitala formuläret som kommer att finnas i handdatorer, kommer att rapporteras i realtid när felen inträffar på maskinen. Detta kommer vidare att leda till att informationen ska medverka till att bestämma vilken maskin som ska prioriteras vid underhållsarbete. Det nya sättet att visualisera information med hjälp av handdatorer kommer därtill att minska beslutstid inom underhåll. Produktionschefen kommer att få in i systemet alla stopptider från maskiner i produktionen. E-underhåll är ett relativt nytt område som har flera fördelar men som företagen inte har hunnit utnyttja på ett bra sätt eftersom de resurser som finns inte används på ett effektivt sätt.

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    Steve Jehu Batangouna
  • 15.
    Berggren, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Tham, Beatrice
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Upplevelsen av e-handelns hittbarhet: En kvalitativ studie om global och lokal navigation avseende UX och hittbarhet2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Retail has for a long time gone from physical stores to internet-based trade. In addition, e-commerce has expanded by 60 percent since 2020 as a result of the Corona pandemic. This development is partly due to the fact that new consumers have switched to shopping online, existing e-commerce customers have increased spending and that the habit of shopping online has increased.

    Today, there are many different types of e-commerce sites. The largest share is aimed directly at consumers. Many Websites in e-commerce today have a wide range of products, which leads to information-heavy menus. This requires greater demands on the navigation structure and findability as it affects the user experience of interacting with the system. Because users have different strategies for achieving their information goals, e-commerce Websites must be built based on the knowledge of categorizing products and labels. There must also be an understanding of users' behavioral patterns in their navigation strategies, so that the system helps to achieve the users information goals and provides a positive user experience.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors in e-commerce's global and local navigation, regarding UX and findability that affect consumers' experience. Previous research shows that the critical design problem is not to gather as much information as possible but rather finding the right information. The way people navigate the web to meet their information needs are often by obtaining as much essential information as possible in a short period of time. This mainly explains why they do not scroll and click on links aimlessly. The survey methods applied in this study were qualitative user tests that were observed, followed by a system usability scale (SUS), and supplementary qualitative semi-structured interviews.

    The user study was conducted at one data collection occasion and the methods were considered suitable to find out the users' subjective experiences, attitudes and perceptions. It could be ascertained through the study that various factors affect the user experience both positively and negatively. It is individual how the user navigates the website, interprets labels and which products they expect to find under a certain categorization. A general behavior could also be demonstrated regarding navigation strategies, interpretation of labels and expectations of product placement, which were often based on a recognition factor based on previous experience.

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  • 16.
    Bergstedt, Simon
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    The loot box dilemma: A qualitative thesis of video game players interactions and mitigation of unethical aspects in loot boxes.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In-game purchase options are referred to as microtransactions and have become a common revenue for modern video games. Microtransactions refer to small payments made inside of video games to acquire game content. The phenomenon of microtransactions is often related to "loot boxes". The definition of loot boxes are items in video games that players can buy with real-world money, the loot boxes, when opened contain randomised rewards. The rise of microtransactions has led to concerns for vulnerable users overspending with currently no regulation or consumer protection. The chance-based nature of loot boxes has arisen discussion regarding the similarities of loot boxes and gambling. The apparent similarity is that the player is risking the loss of real-world money for a small chance of getting a valuable reward. The thesis aims to research video game players motivations, experiences and gameplay habits, to establish guidelines for loot box systems later. Empirical methods, such as surveys and semi-structured interviews, were used to collect data. Established theories Hedonic motivation-system acceptance model (HMSAM) and Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) were used as a theoretical framework to understand the collected data. The results of the empirical data display negative attitudes towards loot boxes. Themes were made to make sense of the attitudes and provide an understanding of the negative attitudes. A design solution in the form of guidelines was developed based on the themes. The guidelines were implemented in a design prototype and thereafter evaluated by participants with a user experience questionnaire. The results of the user evaluation illustrate a positive attitude towards the design, but not convincing enough. Participants raised concerns about a few features of the design and had difficulties to see the features be implemented in the future. Therefore, arguments for further research of the guidelines were established

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  • 17.
    Bergsten, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Franzén, Gabriel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    När äldre vuxna möter ny teknik: En kvalitativ undersökning kring digitalisering och digitalatjänster bland äldre vuxna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The survey has been conducted about how older adults use digital services on the Internet,

    what their thoughts are about them and the problems that can arise during use. The

    purpose of the survey is to treat the qualitative data to see what factors affect older adults

    to use various digital services to operate in society. This purpose has arisen from the

    problem which older adults are the smallest but fastest growing user group to take

    advantage of digital opportunities, today's society more or less requires that you have

    some sort of digital knowledge to be able to benefit from its services. Based on the

    objective, we have formulated our research question "Older adults are the fastest growing

    group of digital users, but in total still the lowest represented user group. What contributes

    to the rapid rise and what can we learn from the users of today on how to develop digital

    services for this age group in the future?" We chose to write about this project because we

    think that the subject is relevant and interesting to explore. Since one can see the obvious

    problems regarding this in everyday life, we chose to more deeply explore the area to give

    us a broader view. We have used qualitative methods like observations and semistructured

    interviews, these have been applied from prior knowledge of how to perform

    these methods to enable a good data collection. We have also created our own modified

    model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Unified Theory of

    Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) used to measure technology acceptance.

    The modified model is applied to the information we developed from them qualitative

    methods. The results from four informants indicate that there are critical factors that

    influence the use of digital services such as experience and needs, but these factors are

    individual and varies from person to person resulting in that there is not a single answer to

    the question but must be answered for each individual service.

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  • 18.
    Bern, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Liljeström, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    “Request to speak, button”: Accessibility for visually impaired VoiceOver users on social live audio chat platforms2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has become an inevitable part of everyday life. With the focus to a large extent being on image and video sharing, accessibility for the visually impaired is not always granted. However, new types of social platforms with live audio chats at their core have shown potential to stand out as particularly inclusive of visually impaired users. Taking a standpoint in the Technology-to-Performance Chain model, the study aimed to create a better understanding of the subjective user experience of visually impaired users of social live audio chat platforms by identifying what influences accessibility, especially when it comes to taking part of and creating audio content.

    The topic was approached in the form of a case study. Qualitative data collection was conducted with a combination of observations and product assessment, expert interviews a well as user interviews. The aim was to create a better understanding of the subjective user experience of visually impaired users.

    The results suggest audio-based platforms have the potential to fit the visually impaired users well. A limited scope of the platform, having voice-based communication at the core and a limited number of visual elements all influence accessibility. A sufficient amount of adjustable VoiceOver adds to the accessibility of the platform. Furthermore, the results indicate being aware of user behaviour and the inaccessibility it might lead to is of importance. Concludingly, applying a UX perspective is deemed as of importance as the results indicate it often is the intangible, subjective user perspective which can highlight what influences accessibility.

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  • 19.
    Beyene, Wondwossen
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Ferati, Mexhid
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    A Case for Adaptation to Enhance Usability and Accessibility of Library Resource Discovery Tools2017In: Universal Access in Human–Computer Interaction. Design and Development Approaches and Methods, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10277, p. 145-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Library resource discovery tools (RDTs) are the latest generation of library catalogs that enable searching across disparate databases and repositories from a single search box. Although such “Google-like” experience has been applauded as a benefit for library users, there still exist usability and accessibility problems related to the diversity of user goals, needs, and preferences. To better understand these problems, we conducted an extensive literature review and in this process, we initially grouped issues into three categories: interface, resource description, and navigation. Based on these categories, we propose adaptation as an alternative approach to enhance the usability and accessibility of RDTs. The adaptations could be conducted on three levels pertaining to categories of issues found, namely: interface, information, and navigation level. The goal of this paper is to suggest how the process of adaptation could be considered in order to mitigate usability and accessibility issues of RDT interfaces.

  • 20.
    Björinder, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Utvärdering av mobila gränssnitt för användare med nedsatt syn: Evaluation of mobile interfaces for visually impaired users2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study came about during ongoing discussions with a newly started company that plans to launch an application focused on fitness and health. The application must be accessible to a broad user group, this include users with some kind of disability. A large percentage of the population and a potentially large percentage of the company ́s prospective users have some kind of disability that can complicate use of the service, impaired vision is the most common kind of disability today. This study is based on the need to develop a concise and effective evaluation model intended to evaluate usability and to detect any possible problems that exist for users with visual impairments when using mobile services. Qualitative data has been collected from user testing and subsequent interviews. All test participants have a mild alternatively moderate visual impairment, the usability expert who carried out the heuristic evaluation is not visually impaired. The presented usability model has been tested and analyzed by posing as the basis for the heuristic evaluation, results found in this stage are then compared with results obtained from user testing in order to determine whether satisfactory results are met. The model shows satisfactory results based on obtained data, problems detected during the heuristic evaluation corresponds in a consistent manner with problems that emerged during user testing. The study indicates that there is a lack of specific and easy to use usability models for the evaluation of mobile services with a focus on visually impaired users. Such a model can preferably be used in order to increase usability and provide a more accessible service. Existing usability frameworks are often extensive and targeted at a broad user group. They can be supplemented with a time and cost efficient usability model directed at evaluating accessibility for a specific user group. The presented model is based on the principles of Universal Design which will hopefully contribute to a greater usability for the general user as well. In addition to improved usability a potentially great economic profit can be made by developing a more accessible service that can be used by more users. The study is based on proven methods and has support in existing theory which contributes to a higher quality assurance, however, the narrow scope of the study contributes to the necessity of further testing. 

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  • 21.
    Blagojevic, Dragoljub
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Juliano, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Tower? Yes, plane?: En kvalitativ studie av fjärrstyrd flygledningsmiljö2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing modernization of Air Traffic Management is in effect to keep up with the forecasted increase in air traffic by 2035. As a part of this modernization a product was developed by Saab AB to control air traffic from remote control towers with a system of cameras, called “Digital Tower”. With the purpose of increasing the knowledge about the needs of Air Traffic Controllers and general flight safety with increased amount of flight traffic, this study researched the cognitive load within the operative Digital Tower environment in service. Currently the interactive interface within the work environment has limited flexibility and possibilities for adaptation. The study has therefore answered the question about how these limited adaptations affect the Air Traffic Controllers work and collaboration between them. The study has used qualitative methods in order to answer the question, by using a contextual inquiry which includes observations and interviews of the Air Traffic Controllers in their context. The result was analyzed by using Distributed Cognition theory, which made it possible to analyze the distributed cognition between people and artifacts within the context. The conclusion of the study is that the limited adaptations of the interface negatively affects the cognitive load, but has not been identified as a crucial interference for the Air Traffic Controllers. The centralized work environment has a strong presence of colleagues, which has led to the colleagues compensating for the limited interface by physically unburden the workload in critical situations.

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  • 22.
    Bons, Julia
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, Germany.
    Geyer, Cornelia
    University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, Germany.
    Geisler, Stefan
    University of Applied Sciences Ruhr West, Germany.
    Familienangehörige spielerisch zusammenführen2014In: Mensch und Computer 2014 - Workshopband: 14 Fachübergreifende Konferenz für Interaktive und Kooperative Medien – Interaktiv unterwegs - Freiräume gestalten / [ed] Michael Koch, Andreas Butz, Johann Schlichter, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, Vol. 14, p. 95-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Immer mehr Familienangehörige leben in der heutigen Zeit voneinander getrennt. Durch weite Entfer-nungen zueinander ist die Gefahr besonders hoch, dass der Kontakt zu einem reinen Informations-austausch ohne gemeinsames Erleben abflacht. In diesem Paper wird ein Konzept vorgestellt, das Fa-milienmitglieder durch ein verteiltes Spiel verbindet trotz räumlicher Trennung. Dazu werden über einem Touchtisch und einem Bildschirm auf Seite einer älteren Person und einem normalen PC oder Tablet auf Seite der Angehörigen eine Verbindung mit Videotelefonie aufgebaut und dadurch die Spie-ler gegenübergestellt. Eine Anwendung ermöglicht es beiden Gruppen, ein einfaches Gesellschafts-spiel, wie z. B. Mensch-ärgere-dich-nicht, miteinander zu spielen. Beim Design der beiden grafischen Benutzeroberflächen werden die Bedürfnisse beider Nutzergruppen beachtet.

  • 23.
    Borgo, Rita
    et al.
    Kings College London, UK.
    Lee, Bongshin
    Microsoft Research, USA.
    Bach, Benjamin
    Microsoft Research - Inria, France.
    Fabrikant, Sara
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jianu, Radu
    City University London, UK.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Kobourov, Stephen
    University of Arizona, USA.
    McGee, Fintan
    Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Luxembourg.
    Micallef, Luana
    Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    von Landesberger, Tatiana
    Darmstadt University, Germany.
    Ballweg, Katrin
    Darmstadt University, Germany.
    Diehl, Stephan
    University Trier, Germany.
    Simonetto, Paolo
    Swansea University, UK.
    Zhou, Michelle
    Juji, USA.
    Crowdsourcing for Information Visualization: Promises and Pitfalls2017In: Evaluation in the Crowd: Crowdsourcing and Human-Centered Experiments / [ed] Daniel Archambault, Helen Purchase, and Tobias Hoßfeld, Springer, 2017, p. 96-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowdsourcing offers great potential to overcome the limitations of controlled lab studies. To guide future designs of crowdsourcing-based studies for visualization, we review visualization research that has attempted to leverage crowdsourcing for empirical evaluations of visualizations. We discuss six core aspects for successful employment of crowdsourcing in empirical studies for visualization – participants, study design, study procedure, data, tasks, and metrics & measures. We then present four case studies, discussing potential mechanisms to overcome common pitfalls. This chapter will help the visualization community understand how to effectively and efficiently take advantage of the exciting potential crowdsourcing has to offer to support empirical visualization research.

  • 24.
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    et al.
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Pianini, Danilo
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Cabri, Giacomo
    Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    De Sanctis, Martina
    GSSI, Italy.
    Viroli, Mirko
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Casadei, Roberto
    Università di Bologna, Italy.
    Dobson, Simon
    University of St Andrews, UK.
    On the Social Implications of Collective Adaptive Systems2020In: IEEE technology & society magazine, ISSN 0278-0097, E-ISSN 1937-416X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Collect ive Adaptive Systems (CASs) exist in nature: think of ant colonies, where large collectives of ants operate autonomously but interact with other ants and the environment to provide resilient global behaviors that sustain their colony. Following scientific studies that were aimed at understanding and predicting the evolution of these systems, and fueled by technological advances, research has started to investigate CAS engineering: the methods, tools, and techniques for building CASs. This naturally leads to a vision where collectives of humans and computational elements, situated both in the digital and physical worlds, collaborate to give rise to "intelligent" collective behavior supporting novel kinds of applications and services. Humans can be involved in two ways: both as users and as components of the CAS, in the sense that human behaviors and limitations are often integral to the system description. This has significant social implications that need to be considered by CAS researchers: in this paper, we share a discussion that took place between some experts thinking about CAS engineering, focusing on the social implication of CASs and related open research challenges. We hope that this provides a useful context for future research projects, research grant proposals, and research directions.

  • 25.
    Büschel, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Chen, Jian
    The Ohio State University, USA.
    Dachselt, Raimund
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Drucker, Steven
    Microsoft Research, USA.
    Dwyer, Tim
    Monash University, Australia.
    Görg, Carsten
    University of Colorado, USA.
    Isenberg, Tobias
    Inria & Université Paris-Saclay, France.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    North, Chris
    Virginia Tech, USA.
    Stuerzlinger, Wolfgang
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Interaction for Immersive Analytics2018In: Immersive Analytics / [ed] Kim Marriott, Falk Schreiber, Tim Dwyer, Karsten Klein, Nathalie Henry Riche, Takayuki Itoh, Wolfgang Stuerzlinger, and Bruce H. Thomas, Springer, 2018, p. 95-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we briefly review the development of natural user interfaces and discuss their role in providing human-computer interaction that is immersive in various ways. Then we examine some opportunities for how these technologies might be used to better support data analysis tasks. Specifically, we review and suggest some interaction design guidelines for immersive analytics. We also review some hardware setups for data visualization that are already archetypal. Finally, we look at some emerging system designs that suggest future directions.

  • 26.
    Cabrera Morales, Cynthia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Adielsson, Anneli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Beslutsfattande och Gränssnittsdesign: Gränssnittsdesign och dess påverkan på hur människan fattar beslut2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A humans’ way of thinking and making decisions is an absolute unique feature of hers. It is unique because every single person has different understandings, experiences and values. This research is about understands how it is possible to affect a person’s way of making decisions, through manipulating an interface, and what factors includes in decision-making. As there are many factors that have an impact on decision-making, was this research specialized on the user and his cognitive characteristics, such as, attention and perception, as well as a recess on decision-making and interface design. This was done to get the result of how an interface affects a human that interacts with it.There were several methods used, during this research, such as a survey, personas, prototypes, user tests and observations, to get enough data to analyze. There are several elements that have an impact on a humans decision-making, and a model has been made that works as a guideline for interface design. The model describes what elements effect and how they affect a person, through an interface. After making user tests and personas, were these results compared to the model, which could give a proper answer to this research. An important factor that was noticed, was that hot and cold media plays an important role in an interface design, since hot and cold media can be interpreted differently by a person.

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  • 27.
    Cernea, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    User-Centered Collaborative Visualization2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last couple of years have marked the entire field of information technology with the introduction of a new global resource, called data. Certainly, one can argue that large amounts of information and highly interconnected and complex datasets were available since the dawn of the computer and even centuries before. However, it has been only a few years since digital data has exponentially expended, diversified and interconnected into an overwhelming range of domains, generating an entire universe of zeros and ones. This universe represents a source of information with the potential of advancing a multitude of fields and sparking valuable insights. In order to obtain this information, this data needs to be explored, analyzed and interpreted.

    While a large set of problems can be addressed through automatic techniques from fields like artificial intelligence, machine learning or computer vision, there are various datasets and domains that still rely on the human intuition and experience in order to parse and discover hidden information. In such instances, the data is usually structured and represented in the form of an interactive visual representation that allows users to efficiently explore the data space and reach valuable insights. However, the experience, knowledge and intuition of a single person also has its limits. To address this, collaborative visualizations allow multiple users to communicate, interact and explore a visual representation by building on the different views and knowledge blocks contributed by each person.

    In this dissertation, we explore the potential of subjective measurements and user emotional awareness in collaborative scenarios as well as support flexible and user-centered collaboration in information visualization systems running on tabletop displays. We commence by introducing the concept of user-centered collaborative visualization (UCCV) and highlighting the context in which it applies. We continue with a thorough overview of the state-of-the-art in the areas of collaborative information visualization, subjectivity measurement and emotion visualization, combinable tabletop tangibles, as well as browsing history visualizations. Based on a new web browser history visualization for exploring user parallel browsing behavior, we introduce two novel user-centered techniques for supporting collaboration in co-located visualization systems. To begin with, we inspect the particularities of detecting user subjectivity through brain-computer interfaces, and present two emotion visualization techniques for touch and desktop interfaces. These visualizations offer real-time or post-task feedback about the users’ affective states, both in single-user and collaborative settings, thus increasing the emotional self-awareness and the awareness of other users’ emotions. For supporting collaborative interaction, a novel design for tabletop tangibles is described together with a set of specifically developed interactions for supporting tabletop collaboration. These ring-shaped tangibles minimize occlusion, support touch interaction, can act as interaction lenses, and describe logical operations through nesting operations. The visualization and the two UCCV techniques are each evaluated individually capturing a set of advantages and limitations of each approach. Additionally, the collaborative visualization supported by the two UCCV techniques is also collectively evaluated in three user studies that offer insight into the specifics of interpersonal interaction and task transition in collaborative visualization. The results show that the proposed collaboration support techniques do not only improve the efficiency of the visualization, but also help maintain the collaboration process and aid a balanced social interaction. 

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  • 28.
    Cernea, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. University of Kaiserslautern.
    Ebert, Achim
    University of Kaiserslautern.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    A Study of Emotion-triggered Adaptation Methods for Interactive Visualization2013In: UMAP 2013 Extended Proceedings: Late-Breaking Results, Project Papers and Workshop Proceedings of the 21st Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization. Rome, Italy, June 10-14, 2013 / [ed] Shlomo Berkovsky, Eelco Herder, Pasquale Lops & Olga C. Santos, CEUR-WS.org , 2013, Vol. 997, p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the size and complexity of datasets increases, both visual-ization systems and their users are put under more pressure to oer quickand thorough insights about patterns hidden in this ocean of data. Whilenovel visualization techniques are being developed to better cope withthe various data contexts, users nd themselves increasingly often undermental bottlenecks that can induce a variety of emotions. In this paper,we execute a study to investigate the eectiveness of various emotion-triggered  adaptation  methods  for  visualization  systems.  The  emotionsconsidered are boredom and frustration, and are measured by means ofbrain-computer interface technology. Our ndings suggest that less intru-sive adaptive methods perform better at supporting users in overcomingemotional states with low valence or arousal, while more intrusive onestend to be misinterpreted or perceived as irritating.

  • 29.
    Cernea, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Ebert, Achim
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Visualizing Group Affective Tone in Collaborative Scenarios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large set of complex datasets require the use of collaborative visualization solutions in order to harness the knowledge and experience of multiple experts. However, be it co-located or distributed, the collaboration process is inherently fragile, as small mistakes in communication or various human aspects can quickly derail it. In this paper, we introduce a novel visualization technique that highlights the group affective tone (GAT), also known as the presence of homogeneous emotional reactions within a group. The goal of our visualization is to improve users’ awareness of GAT, thus fostering a positive group affective tone that has been proven to increase effectiveness and creativity in collaborative scenarios. 

  • 30.
    Cernea, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. University of Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    A Survey of Technologies on the Rise for Emotion-Enhanced Interaction2015In: Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, ISSN 1045-926X, E-ISSN 1095-8533, Vol. 31, no A, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are a major part of the human existence and social interactions. Some might say that emotions are one of the aspects that make us truly human. However, while we express emotions in various life settings, the world of computing seems to struggle with supporting and incorporating the emotional dimension. In the last decades, the concept of affect has gotten a new upswing in research, moving beyond topics like market research and product development, and further exploring the area of emotion-enhanced interaction.

    In this article, we highlight techniques that have been employed more intensely for emotion measurement in the context of affective interaction. Besides capturing the functional principles behind these approaches and the inherent volatility of human emotions, we present relevant applications and establish a categorization of the roles of emotion detection in interaction. Based on these findings, we also capture the main challenges that emotion measuring technologies will have to overcome in order to enable a truly seamless emotion-driven interaction.

  • 31.
    Cernea, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. University of Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Truderung, Igor
    University of Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Ebert, Achim
    An Interactive Visualization for Tabbed Browsing Behavior Analysis2014In: Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics: Theory and Applications / [ed] Sebastiano Battiato, Sabine Coquillart, Robert S. Laramee, Andreas Kerren, and José Braz, Springer, 2014, p. 69-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web browsers are at the core of online user experience, enablinga wide range of Web applications, like communication, games, entertainment, development, etc. Additionally, given the variety and complexity of online-supported tasks, users have started parallelizing and organizing their online browser sessions by employing multiple browser windows and tabs. However, there are few solutions that support analysts and casual users in detecting and extracting patterns from these parallel browsing histories. In this paper we introduce WebComets, an interactive visualization for exploring multi-session multi-user parallel browsing logs. After highlighting visual and functional aspects of the system, we introduce a motif-based contextual search for enabling the filtering and comparison of user navigation patterns. We further highlight the functionality of WebComets with a use case. Our investigations suggest that parallel browser history visualization can offer better insight into user tabbed browsing behavior and support the recognition of online navigation patterns.

  • 32.
    Cernea, Daniel
    et al.
    Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern .
    Weber, Christopher
    Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern .
    Ebert, Achim
    Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern .
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Emotion Scents: A Method of Representing User Emotions on GUI Widgets2013In: Proceedings  of SPIE 8654: Visualization and Data Analysis 2013, Burlingame, California, USA, February 3, 2013, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. 86540F-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world of desktop interfaces has been dominated for years by the concept of windows and standardized user interface (UI) components. Still, while supporting the interaction and information exchange between the users and the computer system, graphical user interface (GUI) widgets are rather one-sided, neglecting to capture the subjective facets of the user experience. In this paper, we propose a set of design guidelines for visualizing user emotions on standard GUI widgets (e.g., buttons, check boxes, etc.) in order to enrich the interface with a new dimension of subjective information by adding support for emotion awareness as well as post-task analysis and decision making. We highlight the use of an EEG headset for recording the various emotional states of the user while he/she is interacting with the widgets of the interface. We propose a visualization approach, called emotion scents, that allows users to view emotional reactions corresponding to di erent GUI widgets without in uencing the layout or changing the positioning of these widgets. Our approach does not focus on highlighting the emotional experience during the interaction with an entire system, but on representing the emotional perceptions and reactions generated by the interaction with a particular UI component. Our research is motivated by enabling emotional self-awareness and subjectivity analysis through the proposed emotionenhanced UI components for desktop interfaces. These assumptions are further supported by an evaluation of emotion scents.

  • 33.
    Cernea, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Weber, Christopher
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Ebert, Achim
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Emotion-Prints: Interaction-Driven Emotion Visualization on Multi-Touch Interfaces2015In: Proceedings of SPIE 9397: Visualization and Data Analysis 2015, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 8-12, 2015 / [ed] David L. Kao, Ming C. Hao, Mark A. Livingston, and Thomas Wischgoll, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, p. 9397-0A-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are one of the unique aspects of human nature, and sadly at the same time one of the elements that our technological world is failing to capture and consider due to their subtlety and inherent complexity. But with the current dawn of new technologies that enable the interpretation of emotional states based on techniques involving facial expressions, speech and intonation, electrodermal response (EDS) and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), we are finally able to access real-time user emotions in various system interfaces. In this paper we introduce emotion-prints, an approach for visualizing user emotional valence and arousal in the context of multi-touch systems. Our goal is to offer a standardized technique for representing user affective states in the moment when and at the location where the interaction occurs in order to increase affective self-awareness, support awareness in collaborative and competitive scenarios, and offer a framework for aiding the evaluation of touch applications through emotion visualization. We show that emotion-prints are not only independent of the shape of the graphical objects on the touch display, but also that they can be applied regardless of the acquisition technique used for detecting and interpreting user emotions. Moreover, our representation can encode any affective information that can be decomposed or reduced to Russell’s two-dimensional space of valence and arousal. Our approach is enforced by a BCI-based user study and a follow-up discussion of advantages and limitations. 

  • 34.
    Cernea, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. University of Kaiserslautern.
    Weber, Christopher
    UC Davis, Department of Computer Science.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Ebert, Achim
    University of Kaiserslautern.
    Group Affective Tone Awareness and Regulation through Virtual Agents2014In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Affective Agents: Fourteenth International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA 2014), 2014, p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It happens increasingly often that experts need to collaboratein order to exchange ideas, views and opinions on their path towardsunderstanding. However, every collaboration process is inherently fragileand involves a large set of human subjective aspects, including socialinteraction, personality, and emotions. In this paper we present Pogat,an affective virtual agent designed to support the collaboration processaround displays by increasing user awareness of the group affective tone.A positive group affective tone, where all the participants of a groupexperience emotions of a positive valence, has been linked to fosteringcreativity in groups and supporting the entire collaboration process. Atthe same time, a negative or inexistent group affective tone can suggestnegative emotions in some of the group members, emotions that canlead to an inefficient or even obstructed collaboration. A study of ourapproach suggests that Pogat can increase the awareness of the overallaffective state of the group as well as positively affect the efficiency ofgroups in collaborative scenarios.

  • 35.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Otero, Nuno
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Spikol, Daniel
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Purposeful Learning Across Collaborative Educational Spaces2014In: Learning and becoming in practice: The International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) 2014 : Proceedings, Volume 3, International Society of the Learning Sciences, 2014, Vol. 3, p. 1597-1598Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the overall goals and preliminary results of an on-going research project that aims at: understanding the intricacies and complexities of introducing mobile technologies into schools’ curriculum and accepted teaching practices; analyzing actual transformations that the use of mobile technologies in schools brings to contemporary forms of learning. The results of the project will contribute to a better understanding of new media literacies and their implications for curriculum design and everyday educational practices.

  • 36.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visual Analytics for Explainable and Trustworthy Machine Learning2023Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of artificial intelligence solutions and machine learning research has exploded in popularity in recent years, with numerous types of models proposed to interpret and predict patterns and trends in data from diverse disciplines. However, as the complexity of these models grows, it becomes increasingly difficult for users to evaluate and rely on the model results, since their inner workings are mostly hidden in black boxes, which are difficult to trust in critical decision-making scenarios. While automated methods can partly handle these problems, recent research findings suggest that their combination with innovative methods developed within information visualization and visual analytics can lead to further insights gained from models and, consequently, improve their predictive ability and enhance trustworthiness in the entire process. Visual analytics is the area of research that studies the analysis of vast and intricate information spaces by combining statistical and machine learning models with interactive visual interfaces. By following this methodology, human experts can better understand such spaces and apply their domain expertise in the process of building and improving the underlying models.

    The primary goals of this dissertation are twofold, focusing on (1) methodological aspects, by conducting qualitative and quantitative meta-analyses to support the visualization research community in making sense of its literature and to highlight unsolved challenges, as well as (2) technical solutions, by developing visual analytics approaches for various machine learning models, such as dimensionality reduction and ensemble learning methods. Regarding the first goal, we define, categorize, and examine in depth the means for visual coverage of the different trust levels at each stage of a typical machine learning pipeline and establish a design space for novel visualizations in the area. Regarding the second goal, we discuss multiple visual analytics tools and systems implemented by us to facilitate the underlying research on the various stages of the machine learning pipeline, i.e., data processing, feature engineering, hyperparameter tuning, understanding, debugging, refining, and comparing models. Our approaches are data-agnostic, but mainly target tabular data with meaningful attributes in diverse domains, such as health care and finance. The applicability and effectiveness of this work were validated with case studies, usage scenarios, expert interviews, user studies, and critical discussions of limitations and alternative designs. The results of this dissertation provide new avenues for visual analytics research in explainable and trustworthy machine learning.

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  • 37.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    t-viSNE: A Visual Inspector for the Exploration of t-SNE2018In: Presented at IEEE Information Visualization  (VIS '18), Berlin, Germany, 21-26 October, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of t-Distributed Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding (t-SNE) for the visualization of multidimensional data has proven to be a popular approach, with applications published in a wide range of domains. Despite their usefulness, t-SNE plots can sometimes be hard to interpret or even misleading, which hurts the trustworthiness of the results. By opening the black box of the algorithm and showing insights into its behavior through visualization, we may learn how to use it in a more effective way. In this work, we present t-viSNE, a visual inspection tool that enables users to explore anomalies and assess the quality of t-SNE results by bringing forward aspects of the algorithm that would normally be lost after the dimensionality reduction process is finished.

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  • 38.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    t-viSNE: Interactive Assessment and Interpretation of t-SNE Projections2020In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 2696-2714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) for the visualization of multidimensional data has proven to be a popular approach, with successful applications in a wide range of domains. Despite their usefulness, t-SNE projections can be hard to interpret or even misleading, which hurts the trustworthiness of the results. Understanding the details of t-SNE itself and the reasons behind specific patterns in its output may be a daunting task, especially for non-experts in dimensionality reduction. In this work, we present t-viSNE, an interactive tool for the visual exploration of t-SNE projections that enables analysts to inspect different aspects of their accuracy and meaning, such as the effects of hyper-parameters, distance and neighborhood preservation, densities and costs of specific neighborhoods, and the correlations between dimensions and visual patterns. We propose a coherent, accessible, and well-integrated collection of different views for the visualization of t-SNE projections. The applicability and usability of t-viSNE are demonstrated through hypothetical usage scenarios with real data sets. Finally, we present the results of a user study where the tool’s effectiveness was evaluated. By bringing to light information that would normally be lost after running t-SNE, we hope to support analysts in using t-SNE and making its results better understandable.

  • 39.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Linköping University, Sweden.
    VisRuler: Visual Analytics for Extracting Decision Rules from Bagged and Boosted Decision Trees2023In: Information Visualization, ISSN 1473-8716, E-ISSN 1473-8724, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 115-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bagging and boosting are two popular ensemble methods in machine learning (ML) that produce many individual decision trees. Due to the inherent ensemble characteristic of these methods, they typically outperform single decision trees or other ML models in predictive performance. However, numerous decision paths are generated for each decision tree, increasing the overall complexity of the model and hindering its use in domains that require trustworthy and explainable decisions, such as finance, social care, and health care. Thus, the interpretability of bagging and boosting algorithms—such as random forest and adaptive boosting—reduces as the number of decisions rises. In this paper, we propose a visual analytics tool that aims to assist users in extracting decisions from such ML models via a thorough visual inspection workflow that includes selecting a set of robust and diverse models (originating from different ensemble learning algorithms), choosing important features according to their global contribution, and deciding which decisions are essential for global explanation (or locally, for specific cases). The outcome is a final decision based on the class agreement of several models and the explored manual decisions exported by users. We evaluated the applicability and effectiveness of VisRuler via a use case, a usage scenario, and a user study. The evaluation revealed that most users managed to successfully use our system to explore decision rules visually, performing the proposed tasks and answering the given questions in a satisfying way.

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  • 40.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kucher, Kostiantyn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Linköping University, Sweden.
    FeatureEnVi: Visual Analytics for Feature Engineering Using Stepwise Selection and Semi-Automatic Extraction Approaches2022In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1773-1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The machine learning (ML) life cycle involves a series of iterative steps, from the effective gathering and preparation of the data—including complex feature engineering processes—to the presentation and improvement of results, with various algorithms to choose from in every step. Feature engineering in particular can be very beneficial for ML, leading to numerous improvements such as boosting the predictive results, decreasing computational times, reducing excessive noise, and increasing the transparency behind the decisions taken during the training. Despite that, while several visual analytics tools exist to monitor and control the different stages of the ML life cycle (especially those related to data and algorithms), feature engineering support remains inadequate. In this paper, we present FeatureEnVi, a visual analytics system specifically designed to assist with the feature engineering process. Our proposed system helps users to choose the most important feature, to transform the original features into powerful alternatives, and to experiment with different feature generation combinations. Additionally, data space slicing allows users to explore the impact of features on both local and global scales. FeatureEnVi utilizes multiple automatic feature selection techniques; furthermore, it visually guides users with statistical evidence about the influence of each feature (or subsets of features). The final outcome is the extraction of heavily engineered features, evaluated by multiple validation metrics. The usefulness and applicability of FeatureEnVi are demonstrated with two use cases and a case study. We also report feedback from interviews with two ML experts and a visualization researcher who assessed the effectiveness of our system.

  • 41.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kucher, Kostiantyn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    StackGenVis: Alignment of Data, Algorithms, and Models for Stacking Ensemble Learning Using Performance Metrics2021In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 1547-1557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In machine learning (ML), ensemble methods—such as bagging, boosting, and stacking—are widely-established approaches that regularly achieve top-notch predictive performance. Stacking (also called "stacked generalization") is an ensemble method that combines heterogeneous base models, arranged in at least one layer, and then employs another metamodel to summarize the predictions of those models. Although it may be a highly-effective approach for increasing the predictive performance of ML, generating a stack of models from scratch can be a cumbersome trial-and-error process. This challenge stems from the enormous space of available solutions, with different sets of data instances and features that could be used for training, several algorithms to choose from, and instantiations of these algorithms using diverse parameters (i.e., models) that perform differently according to various metrics. In this work, we present a knowledge generation model, which supports ensemble learning with the use of visualization, and a visual analytics system for stacked generalization. Our system, StackGenVis, assists users in dynamically adapting performance metrics, managing data instances, selecting the most important features for a given data set, choosing a set of top-performant and diverse algorithms, and measuring the predictive performance. In consequence, our proposed tool helps users to decide between distinct models and to reduce the complexity of the resulting stack by removing overpromising and underperforming models. The applicability and effectiveness of StackGenVis are demonstrated with two use cases: a real-world healthcare data set and a collection of data related to sentiment/stance detection in texts. Finally, the tool has been evaluated through interviews with three ML experts.

  • 42.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Park, Vilhelm
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Linköping University, Sweden.
    Evaluating StackGenVis with a Comparative User Study2022In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis '22), IEEE, 2022, p. 161-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stacked generalization (also called stacking) is an ensemble method in machine learning that deploys a metamodel to summarize the predictive results of heterogeneous base models organized into one or more layers. Despite being capable of producing high-performance results, building a stack of models can be a trial-and-error procedure. Thus, our previously developed visual analytics system, entitled StackGenVis, was designed to monitor and control the entire stacking process visually. In this work, we present the results of a comparative user study we performed for evaluating the StackGenVis system. We divided the study participants into two groups to test the usability and effectiveness of StackGenVis compared to Orange Visual Stacking (OVS) in an exploratory usage scenario using healthcare data. The results indicate that StackGenVis is significantly more powerful than OVS based on the qualitative feedback provided by the participants. However, the average completion time for all tasks was comparable between both tools.

  • 43.
    Chatzimparmpas, Angelos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Paulovich, Fernando V.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Linköping University, Sweden.
    HardVis: Visual Analytics to Handle Instance Hardness Using Undersampling and Oversampling Techniques2023In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 135-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the tremendous advances in machine learning (ML), training with imbalanced data still poses challenges in many real-world applications. Among a series of diverse techniques to solve this problem, sampling algorithms are regarded as an efficient solution. However, the problem is more fundamental, with many works emphasizing the importance of instance hardness. This issue refers to the significance of managing unsafe or potentially noisy instances that are more likely to be misclassified and serve as the root cause of poor classification performance. This paper introduces HardVis, a visual analytics system designed to handle instance hardness mainly in imbalanced classification scenarios. Our proposed system assists users in visually comparing different distributions of data types, selecting types of instances based on local characteristics that will later be affected by the active sampling method, and validating which suggestions from undersampling or oversampling techniques are beneficial for the ML model. Additionally, rather than uniformly undersampling/oversampling a specific class, we allow users to find and sample easy and difficult to classify training instances from all classes. Users can explore subsets of data from different perspectives to decide all those parameters, while HardVis keeps track of their steps and evaluates the model’s predictive performance in a test set separately. The end result is a well-balanced data set that boosts the predictive power of the ML model. The efficacy and effectiveness of HardVis are demonstrated with a hypothetical usage scenario and a use case. Finally, we also look at how useful our system is based on feedback we received from ML experts.

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  • 44.
    Chow, Joyce
    et al.
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT AB.
    Kusoffsky, Madeleine
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT AB.
    Kurti, Arianit
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    From Abstract to Concrete: Telling Math Stories with Cards2016In: Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference: Short Papers, Interactive Exhibitions, Workshops - Volume 2, ACM Press, 2016, p. 90-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research project, funded by Vinnova, has the aim to produce a catalog of future visions of mathematics learning at the middle school level in Sweden. Our research team and reference group involves members from different backgrounds and ages including designers, programmers, teachers, pedagogues, and middle school students.

  • 45.
    Collin, Alicia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Informationskvalité: En studie om vilka informationskvalitativa faktorer som påverkar användarupplevelsen i en e-handelskontext2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has looked into which information quality factors that affect the users’ experience in the context of e-commerce. The study is based on scientific articles and literature within the areas of information quality and e-commerce. There were also a separate data collection where six informants participated. These were asked to answer interview questions and carry out a user test on an existing e-commerce website. The tasks in the user test were presented in the form of scenarios were the informant had to carry out various actions that are common within e-commerce.

    The answers from the own data collection was then mapped to be able to identify which factors that affect the user's experience of information quality. These were then compared to the factors identified in previous studies.

    The result of the data collection in question shows that Trust, Informations architecture, Information and Usability are important information quality factors. A result that is in line with previous research.

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    Informationskvalité
  • 46.
    Connysson, Ellen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Jarlevid, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Genus, estetik & gränssnitt: En empirisk studie om hur användarupplevelse påverkas genom genuskodning av gränssnitt.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HCI and interaction design are strongly linked to user experience (UX), which contains a built-in focus on user experiences and an emphasis on human values, ​​which indicates that these values ​​as well as ethical and political ideals are often present in HCI.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if gender stereotypical design affects how people of the male or female gender experience it, and to investigate normative gender stereotypes that affect how interfaces are designed depending on if the target group are men or women. Gender is a social construct created by things in society, which forms a picture of how men and women "should" be. Design is part of this gender construction, because it contributes to the stereotypes of what is "male" and "female", for example through normative colour choices. Gender-coded design is a contributing factor in standardizing and maintaining stereotypes of gender in society.

    The study has been done with an introductory literature study based on the concepts user experience, aesthetics, gender coding in human computer interaction, gender, and gender as a social construct. A survey was used for descriptive quantitative data collection with the methods Structured Word Choice and numerical ranking, where the experience of a calendar interface has been tested, with a masculine and a feminine colour scheme based on existing literature on genus-typical colours. Complimentary data was collected using interviews.

    Certain trends emerged that indicate the coloration of an interface to be more important to women and that both male and female informants to some extent prefer the interface that was coloured according to their gender, but only marginally. Most had a neutral experience of both the masculine and feminine coloration of the interface. The conclusion drawn based on the methods above is that gender-typical colouration does not affect the users experience in any major ways. Both genders believe that function is more important than form, which is what should be the focused on when creating a good user experience in a product.

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  • 47.
    Conroy, Melanie
    et al.
    University of Memphis, USA.
    Gillmann, Christina
    Leipzig University, Germany.
    Harvey, Francis
    Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography, Germany; University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Mchedlidze, Tamara
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Fabrikant, Sara Irina
    University of Zürich, Switzerland.
    Windhager, Florian
    Danube University Krems, Austria.
    Scheuermann, Gerik
    Leipzig University, Germany.
    Tangherlini, Timothy R.
    University of California, USA.
    Warren, Christopher N.
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Weingart, Scott B.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rehbein, Malte
    Passau University, Germany.
    Börner, Katy
    Indiana University, USA.
    Elo, Kimmo
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Jänicke, Stefan
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nöllenburg, Martin
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Dwyer, Tim
    Monash University, Australia.
    Eide, Øyvind
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Kobourov, Stephen
    University of Arizona, USA.
    Betz, Gregor
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Uncertainty in humanities network visualization2024In: Frontiers in Communication, E-ISSN 2297-900X, Vol. 8, article id 1305137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network visualization is one of the most widely used tools in digital humanities research. The idea of uncertain or “fuzzy” data is also a core notion in digital humanities research. Yet network visualizations in digital humanities do not always prominently represent uncertainty. In this article, we present a mathematical and logical model of uncertainty as a range of values which can be used in network visualizations. We review some of the principles for visualizing uncertainty of different kinds, visual variables that can be used for representing uncertainty, and how these variables have been used to represent different data types in visualizations drawn from a range of non-humanities fields like climate science and bioinformatics. We then provide examples of two diagrams: one in which the variables displaying degrees of uncertainty are integrated into the graph and one in which glyphs are added to represent data certainty and uncertainty. Finally, we discuss how probabilistic data and what-if scenarios could be used to expand the representation of uncertainty in humanities network visualizations.

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  • 48.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Adv Telecommun Res Inst Int IRC HIL, Keihanna Sci City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Kanda, Takayuki
    Adv Telecommun Res Inst Int IRC HIL, Keihanna Sci City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Adv Telecommun Res Inst Int IRC HIL, Keihanna Sci City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Designing Enjoyable Motion-Based Play Interactions with a Small Humanoid Robot2014In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 173-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots designed to co-exist with humans in domestic and public environments should be capable of interacting with people in an enjoyable fashion in order to be socially accepted. In this research, we seek to set up a small humanoid robot with the capability to provide enjoyment to people who pick up the robot and play with it by hugging, shaking and moving the robot in various ways. Inertial sensors inside a robot can capture how its body is moved when people perform such "full-body gestures". Unclear is how a robot can recognize what people do during play, and how such knowledge can be used to provide enjoyment. People's behavior is complex, and naive designs for a robot's behavior based only on intuitive knowledge from previous designs may lead to failed interactions. To solve these problems, we model people's behavior using typical full-body gestures observed in free interaction trials, and devise an interaction design based on avoiding typical failures observed in play sessions with a naive version of our robot. The interaction design is completed by investigating how a robot can provide "reward" and itself suggest ways to play during an interaction. We then verify experimentally that our design can be used to provide enjoyment during a playful interaction. By describing the process of how a small humanoid robot can be designed to provide enjoyment, we seek to move one step closer to realizing companion robots which can be successfully integrated into human society.

  • 49.
    Dadzie, Aba-Sah
    et al.
    KMi, The Open University, UK.
    Müller, Maximilian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Collaborative Learning through Creative Video Composition on Distributed User Interfaces2016In: State-of-the-Art and Future Directions of Smart Learning / [ed] Li, Y., Chang, M., Kravcik, M., Popescu, E., Huang, R., Kinshuk, Chen, N.-S., Springer, 2016, 1, p. 199-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report two studies that fed into user-centred design for pedagogical and technological scaffolds for social, constructive learning through creative, collaborative, reflective video composition. The studies validated this learning approach and verified the utility and usability of an initial prototype (scaffold) built to support it. However, challenges in interaction with the target technology, multi-touch tabletops, impacted ability to carry out prescribed learning activities. Our findings point to the need to investigate an alternative approach and informed redesign of our scaffolds. We propose coupling of distributed user interfaces, using mobile devices to access large, shared displays, to augment capability to follow our constructive learning process. We discuss also the need to manage recognised challenges to collaboration with a distributed approach.

  • 50.
    Dahl-Örn, Rasmus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Samarbete och kommunkation inom onlinebaserade prototypverktyg: En studie kring funktionalitet och behov2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Distansarbete blir allt vanligare vilket innebär att kommunikation och samarbete sker via samverkande system som förmedlas via datorn. Inom området cscw (computer-cooperative work) bedrivs forskning som berör kommunikation och samarbete samt forskning kring förståelse för hur människor arbetar i grupper och engagerar sig i gruppaktiviteter. Även samhällsvetenskap, psykologi, systemvetenskap och människa- datorinteraktion är en del av cscw. Studien i denna rapport ämnade därför undersöka hur kommunikation och samarbete i onlinebaserade prototypverktyg kan underlättas. Studien har genom ett kvantitativt angreppssätt använt och applicerat existerande teorier inom ämnet för cscw. Genom resultatet från en enkätundersökning skapades en anpassad kontextmatris och samarbetsmekanismer som låg till grund för kommande utvärderingar. Kontextmatrisen innehåller sammanhang för inom vilka samarbete sker. Den är uppdelad i två dimensioner som består av tid och rum. Dessa delas sedan upp i olika plats, samma plats, asynkron och synkron kommunikation. Samarbetsmekanismerna består av handlingar inom ett samarbetsprojekt som gruppmedlemmarna måste genomföra för att utföra och sammanställa en uppgift. Genom ett kvalitativt angreppssätt utifrån scenariospecifikationer och aktivitetsdiagram skapades och genomfördes fyra utvärderingar mot tre olika onlinebaserade prototypverktyg. Studien visar tydligt på funktionalitet och behov som underlättar samarbete och kommunikation inom onlinebaserade prototypverktyget. Från den empiriska undersökningen framställdes en kontextmatris, anpassade samarbetsmekanismer samt behov och funktionskrav. Dessa resultat är av betydelse vid utvecklande och analysering av onlinebaserade prototypverktyg i förhållande till samarbete och kommunikation. Funktionalitet som är av betydelse är att verktyget ska tillgodose användaren med rätt sorts kommunikation, tillgodose funktionalitet som gör det möjligt att se vilka inom gruppen som befinner sig i verktyget, dess arbetsyta och vad varje gruppmedlemmarna arbetar med. Vidare är det också av stor vikt att kunna dela med sig av material till andra som har producerats inom verktyget men också ha möjlighet att dela och lagra material i verktyget som producerats i andra programvaror. 

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    Samarbete och kommunikation inom onlinebaserade prototypverktyg
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