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  • 1.
    Abarca-Guerrero, Lilliana
    et al.
    Univ Tecnol Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Maas, Ger
    Univ Tecnol Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Desafíos en la gestión de residuos sólidos para las ciudades de países en desarrollo [Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries]2015In: Tecnología en Marcha, ISSN 0379-3982, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 141-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

  • 2.
    Aboubi, Fadoua
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    A cost effective and environmentally friendly stormwater treatment method: The use of wood fly ash and H2O22011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This current study is a lab-scale investigation focused on the treatment of stormwater runoff generated in wood-storage areas. The main target constituents of the proposed treatment were: metals (Cu, Cd, Co, V, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, As), COD, TOC, Phenols, and color. The method implemented for this project follows the main concept of using low-cost and environmentally friendly technologies and had as main steps the use of a by-product of wood-based industries - wood fly ashes as sorbents - followed by oxidation with H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide). The results obtained during this investigation were vey promising since satisfactory removal % was achieved. Removal rates of 98.5%, 86%, 89.6%, 79.6% were achieved for color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and phenols respectively. Furthermore a decrease in metals concentrations was also observed with the exception of chromium. The study showed that for 300 ml storm water, optimum conditions were with 7g wood fly ash, 5 hours time reaction, pH≈11.46 and 150 μl of a 30% H2O2 solution in a room temperature. To conclude it can be stated that the use of a by-product from wood industry to treat contaminated water from the same sector, following the concept of a closed-loop system, is promising and possible. However further studies need to be conducted in order to evaluate such system in scaled-up conditions.

  • 3.
    Addassi, Mouadh
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Schreyer, Lynn
    Washington State University, USA.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Lin, Hai
    University of Colorado Denver, USA.
    Pore-scale modeling of vapor transport in partially saturated capillary tube with variable area using chemical potential2016In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 7023-7035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we illustrate the usefulness of using the chemical potential as the primary unknown by modeling isothermal vapor transport through a partially saturated cylindrically symmetric capillary tube of variable cross-sectional area using a single equation. There are no fitting parameters and the numerical solutions to the equation are compared with experimental results with excellent agreement. We demonstrate that isothermal vapor transport can be accurately modeled without modeling the details of the contact angle, microscale temperature fluctuations, or pressure fluctuations using a modification of the Fick-Jacobs equation. We thus conclude that for a single, axisymmetric pore, the enhancement factor depends upon relative humidity boundary conditions at the liquid bridge interfaces, distance between liquid bridges, and bridge lengths.

  • 4.
    Alakangas, Linda J.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. SKB, Äspo Hard Rock Lab, Oskarshamn.
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Faarinen, Mikko
    ALS Scandinavia AB Luleå.
    Wallin, Bill
    Geokema AB, Lidingö.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sampling and Characterizing Rare Earth Elements in Groundwater in Deep-Lying Fractures in Granitoids Under In Situ High-Pressure and Low-Redox Conditions2014In: Aquatic geochemistry, ISSN 1380-6165, E-ISSN 1573-1421, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 405-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several countries are preparing to dispose of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock. This type of bedrock is commonly extensively fractured and consequently carries groundwater that serves as a medium for transporting metals and radionuclides. A group of metals of particular interest in this context is the rare earth elements (REEs), because they are analogues of actinides contained within radioactive waste and are tracers of hydrological pathways and geochemical processes. Concentrations of REEs are commonly low in these groundwaters, leading to values below detection limits of standard monitoring methods, particularly for the heavy REEs. We present a new technical set-up for monitoring REEs (and other trace metals) in groundwater in fractured crystalline rock. The technique consists of passing the fracture groundwater, commonly under high pressure and containing reduced chemical species, through a device that maintains the physicochemical character of the groundwater. Within the device, diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT) discs are installed in triplicate. With this set-up, we studied REEs in groundwater in fractures at depths of approximately -144, -280, and -450 m in granitoids in the A"spo Hard Rock Laboratory in southern Sweden. The entire REE suite was detected (concentrations down to 0.1 ng L-1) and was differently fractionated among the groundwaters. The shallowest groundwater, composed of dilute modern Baltic Sea water, was enriched in the heavy REEs, whereas the deeper groundwaters, dominated by old saline water, were depleted in the heavy REEs. Deployment periods varying from 1 to 4 weeks delivered similar REE concentrations, indicating stability and reproducibility of the experimental set-up. The study finds that 1 week of deployment may be enough. However, if the overall setting and construction allow for longer deployment times, 2-3 weeks will be optimal in terms of reaching reliable REE concentrations well above the detection limit while maintaining the performance of the DGT samplers.

  • 5.
    Alldén, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av näringsstatus inför återskapande av kalkkärr vid Hagebyhöga, Östergötland2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Calcareous fens constitute a specific habitat which is uncommon in Europe and protected by the EU habitat directive due to its importance to several threatened species. Hagebyhöga in Östergötland is a calcareous fen habitat included in the Natura 2000 Networking Programme. Adjacent to the existing fen, a degraded fen area is situated. The area has been used for agriculture for several years but is now going to be restored to its former state by the county administrative board of Östergötland.

    When working with restoration of degraded fen areas it is important to aquire knowledge about the chemical soil conditions. Plant growth limited by phosphorus and low fertility are characteristic conditions for calcareous fens, whilst arable land usually is highly fertile and limited by nitrogen.

    The purpose of this study is to bring forth useful knowledge for restoring the degraded calcareous fen of Hagebyhöga. Phytometric assessments have been conducted on samples from the ground that is going to be restored, to investigate which element limits growth, and whether the fertility is comparable to that in the fen allready present. The results will be used when deciding whether the top soil layer needs to be removed, and if that is the case, how much of the soil needs to be removed to recreate the fen environment.

    The samples were collected from two areas (A and B) with different moisture content in the arable ground and three depths from each area (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm and 30-40 cm). As reference, a sample from the top soil layer of the existing fen was used. The results from the phytometric assessment reveals all samples from area A and the sample from area B, 30-40 cm to have plant growth limited by phosphorus. The results also reveals the fertility in all samples except for area A, 30-40 cm to be significantly higher than the fertility of the existing fen. Both conditions, low fertility and plant growth limited by phosphorus, are present in the sample from area A, 30-40 cm.

  • 6.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Attitudes towards the transition from traditional product design to ecodesign2015In: Risk, Uncertainty and Transition, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many efforts have been made to increase the use of ecodesign in product design projects. Still, ecodesign methods are not applied as often as wanted from sustainability perspectives. New methods and procedures are often considered a risk by the individuals that are meant to use and implement the new methods.  Organisational complexity, lack of cooperation, lack of tools, lack of internal communication and lack of management commitment are documented barriers to the use of ecodesign and explain some of the reasons why ecodesign is not used as widely as expected. The perception of the employees and the behavioural barriers they perceive are less studied and there is a need to correlate the perception of the individual to the identified barriers.

    This study aimed to identify what factors that inhibited the ecodesign behaviour of the employees by applying the theory of planned behaviour.  Nine persons involved in the design process from two companies were included in the study. Q-methodology combined with semi-structured interviews was applied. The statements in the Q-sort were constructed from the theory of planned behaviour so that intention, personal norm, attitude, habits, subjective norm and perceived control each had a set of statements.

    The results showed that the participants were positive in their attitude towards ecodesign. They also had strong personal norms and showed intention to use ecodesign in their work. On the lower side, former habits were not a strong driving force; neither was subjective norm or perceived control. The results indicate that the employees were positive and intended to use ecodesign while they did not find the management commitment and current ecodesign tools and procedures sufficient.

    Four discourses were identified; those who were positive towards ecodesign but not inclined to change their current behaviour, those who felt pressure from others to perform ecodesign, those who wanted to take small steps by starting to change internal procedures before talking to the customer and finally those who did not believe there was any chance of success with ecodesign.

  • 7.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Environmental preferences among steel stakeholders2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, dioxins, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as well as use of non-renewable resources and energy are some important sustainability challenges for the Swedish steel industry. Much effort has been made, mainly by technical solutions, which to a high degree have decreased the emissions during the last 30 years.

    Technical solutions however will not be sufficient to reach sustainable development, stakeholder involvement is also necessary. Stakeholder theory states that stake­holder involvement must include a dialog between the stakeholders involved and the operation. The first step in this process is to identify which key issues the stakeholders find most important and then the organisation needs to start interact with its stakeholders. This thesis deals with such issues.

    Stakeholder preferences for environmental issues were assessed with conjoint analysis, Q-methodology and focus group discussions. The theory of planned behaviour was used to assess how attitudes were connected to background factors and a potential pro-environmental behaviour.

    Five studies have been carried out in the framework of this thesis. The studies include: a literature review, method evaluation, evaluation of environ­mental objectives in stakeholder groups, screening of relevant factors, evaluation of steel environmental characteristics, identification of barriers to the introduction of new materials and the im­pact of worry and risk perception on strategic environmental decisions.

    It can be concluded that the methods applied in the studies work well in eliciting preferences. It has been possible to show how different stakeholder groups as well as individuals prioritise environmental objectives and sustaina­bility issues. Since individuals within a stakeholder group vary considerably in preferences, the results from this thesis show the importance of illustrating results on an individual level instead of the traditional group level. Also, a method has been tested where the results were brought back to the respondents in order to stimulate discussions between different stakeholder groups.

  • 8.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Methods to measure stakeholder preferences2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Influence of Training on Preferences2010In: 7th International Conference on Natural Sciences andTechnologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment,Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] Kaczala F et.al., Kalmar: Linnéuniversitetet , 2010, p. 676-683Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Any organisation or company that want to bring about a change in the process, procedures or internal organisation encounters the issue of training the staff. Training is commonly used to increase dedication in specific issues for example environmental issues, energy saving or enhancing the overall competence of the staff.

    When working with environmental- or energy issues, the attitude of the employees is often considered one of the most important factors for the outcome.

    In this paper two different studies are compared. In both studies training has been included as a background factor in a conjoint analysis study.

    The first study concerns preferences for new materials, in this case advanced high strength steel. The respondents were asked to rank eight alternative steel containers and the results, (preferences) were compared to any previous training the individual respondent had.

    The same procedure was taken in study number two where employees at a paper & pulp industry was asked to rank eight alternative processes with different environmental impacts. Also here the respondents were asked to state any previous training and the preferences was compared to previous training. 

    It has not been possible to show any significant connection between preferences in a specific issue and training in the same area. However, it would be interesting to use the method to measure the effect of training on preferences before and after a specific training session.

  • 10.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Risk perception and worry in environmental decision-making - a case study within the Swedish steel industry2017In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1173-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is an important issue for the industry in order to fulfil legislation requirements and to be able to use green marketing as a competitive advantage. The Swedish steel industry has implemented a large number of environmental improvements, for example, within energy efficiency, raw materials and recyclability. Technical improvements can help the industry decrease its environmental impact; however, in order to reach sustainable development, more factors need to be considered: an effective environmental decision-making process, for example. This process may be influenced by personal factors such as risk perception and worry, which are factors that will not contribute to an effective decision-making process. The aim of this study was to investigate if personal worry and risk perception influenced environmental decision-making within the Swedish steel industry. Thirty-eight interviews were performed at 10 Swedish steelworks using the Q-methodology. The major perceived environmental risks with the facility and personal worry were assessed, compared to the day-to-day work. It was concluded that the major perceived risks were emissions of carbon dioxide, use of non-renewable energy and emissions of particulate matter. The decision-makers were mainly worried about emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of dioxin and use of non-renewable energy. The environmental issues that were prioritised in practice (day-to-day work) were emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of particulate matter and emissions of metals. Even though emissions of carbon dioxide were given the highest priority in the Q-sorts, there was in general no clear relationship between risk perception and personal worry with the prioritised environmental issues at the steelworks. The quantitative analysis of the Q-sorts and the qualitative interviews both showed that the day-to-day work was unaffected by personal worry and risk.

  • 11.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Steel industry environmental objectives:stakeholder preference assessment usingconjoint analysis2013In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 605-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish steel industry has combined traditional methods such as life cycle analysis with less traditional methods such as preference analysis in order to move towards a closed steel eco cycle. The paper describes the use of conjoint analysis to study preferences of six different stakeholder groups regarding four environmental objectives (reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, reduced use of non-renewable resources, reduced use of non-renewable energy and weight reduction in products) and to identify gaps in preferences between the stakeholder groups. Our results suggested that there was a difference in preference between the stakeholder groups: respondents that were closer to the steel industry favoured all four environmental objectives, while members of public and political decision makers preferred a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the conclusions of our study is that there is a need of improved information to clients and public on the environmental benefits of product weight reduction.

  • 12.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Studies of preferences as an extra dimension in system studies2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden, 8–13 May, 2011Linköping, Sweden: Volume 7, Industrial Energy Efficiency / [ed] Bahram Moshfegh, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, p. 1732-1739Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy systems are complicated networks where changes in one process influence itsneighboring processes. The network complexity increases if production/use of bio fuel is introduced in anexisting system. Process integration can be a useful tool to study such systems and thus avoid sub optimization.However, changes in an industrial complex do not only influence the technical values of energy and materialefficiency. The social impact is also important and sometimes is comparable to that of technical factors.A process integration project has recently been carried out for a paper mill in northern Sweden with a side viewon future expansion with a bio refinery. An activity to study the social impacts were included through a Conjointanalysis, a stated preference method that combines statistics and interviewing technique.The results indicate that the participants are divided in four groups, the largest group focusing on a change in theprocess towards a bio refinery, the second largest focusing on the local environment. The third and fourth groupboth look at the local forestry, one group wanting to increase local forest production, and one rejecting anincrease.

  • 13.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Miljöpreferenser och intressentanalyser ur ett miljöperspektiv2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handbok som beskriver olika metoder för att ta reda på och analysera vilken inställning människor har till miljön.

    En viktig knut att lösa för att kunna nå hållbar utveckling är varför människor beter sig på ett sätt trots att de egentligen vet att de borde bete sig på ett annat sätt. Människors beteende när det gäller miljöfrågor beror på många bakomliggande faktorer och för att nå den hållbara utvecklingen måste vi ge människor möjlighet att bli bekväma med beteenden som är bra för miljön. En viktig pusselbit för att nå dit är att veta hur individer och grupper ställer sig till olika strategiska miljöfrågor. Sådan kunskap kan användas för att anpassa informationskampanjer, skräddarsy utbildningspaket eller undanröja faktorer som riskerar att omintetgöra miljöarbetet.

    Metoderna som beskrivs i den här handboken kan användas inom många fler områden än miljö, t.ex. inom marknadsföring eller för att identifiera kunskaps- eller informationsluckor bland den egna personalen eller för att undersöka attityder och synsätt hos olika intressentgrupper.

    Handboken är framtagen inom forskningsprogrammet Stålkretsloppet och utgiven av Linnéuniversitetet i Kalmar med stöd från Jernkontoret och Mistra.

  • 14.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why Aren't Advanced High–Strength Steels More Widely Used?: Stakeholder Preferences and Perceived Barriers to New Materials2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 645-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced high-strength steels may reduce the use of nonrenewable resources and energy given that the amount of material needed is smaller, compared to traditional steel grades. Still, advanced steel grades are not utilized to the extent that could be expected. This study examines stakeholders’ preferences of steel characteristics and perceived barriers to the introduction of new materials. Focus group interviews were used to identify steel characteristics and perceived barriers. Stakeholder preferences of steel characteristics were evaluated through a conjoint analysis; the results showed that low weight was given the highest priority, followed by high impact strength and low price. Low chromium content was the steel characteristic of least interest. Perceived barriers to the introduction of high-strength steel were categorized as technical barriers, knowledge barriers, scrap management barriers, suitability barriers, and cost barriers.

  • 15.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Lunds Universitet.
    Illustrating individual preferences from conjiont analysis studies with multivariate methodsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis for environmental evaluation: a review of methods and applications.2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 244-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Conjoint analysis and the related choice-modelling methods have been used for many years in marketing research to evaluate consumer behaviour and preferences for different kinds of product attributes. Recently, the number of applications in environmental science and management has started to grow. Conjoint analysis is found in many different forms, and the environmental studies evaluated in this review display the same range of methods as in other fields. The key characteristic of all these methods is that trade-offs are evaluated by jointly considering a number of important attributes. MAIN FEATURES: This paper is a review of the literature on environmental applications of conjoint analysis and assesses in which environmental area conjoint analysis has been most successful. The method and the design of the studies are reviewed as well. RESULTS: A total of 84 studies were found, dealing with environmental issues that were evaluated by conjoint analysis. The studies concern agriculture, ecosystem management, energy, environmental evaluation, forestry, land management, pollution, products, recreation, environmental risk analysis and waste management. DISCUSSION: Choice experiments seem to have a comparatively stronger position in environmental studies than elsewhere. Most of the environmental applications are related to natural resource management. This is somewhat surprising, but a number of reports have appeared also on product evaluation, which could be a key application area in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to marketing and transportation, the number of environmental conjoint studies is rather small but increasing, and the method has proven to work effectively in eliciting preferences on environmental issues. In environmental issues, experimenters often use choice experiments, especially concerning ecosystem management and environmental evaluations. When it comes to evaluating preferences concerning agriculture, forestry, energy and products, a more traditional approach of conjoint analysis is favoured. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Two new areas of application are identified in this review--environmental communication and expert elicitation. Conjoint analysis can thus be developed into a useful instrument for environmental risk analysis and communication, both of which are necessary for an efficient approach to risk governance.

  • 17. Amanda Collaboration, -
    et al.
    Pohl, Arvid
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Optical Properties of Deep Glacial Ice at the South Pole2006In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 111, no D13, p. D13203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in ice cores from other Antarctic sites and which track climatological changes. The scattering coefficient varies by a factor of seven, and absorptivity (for wavelengths less than ∼450 nm) varies by a factor of three in the depth range between 1300 and 2300 m, where four dust peaks due to stadials in the late Pleistocene have been identified. In our absorption data, we also identify a broad peak due to the Last Glacial Maximum around 1300 m. In the scattering data, this peak is partially masked by scattering on residual air bubbles, whose contribution dominates the scattering coefficient in shallower ice but vanishes at ∼1350 m where all bubbles have converted to nonscattering air hydrates. The wavelength dependence of scattering by dust is described by a power law with exponent −0.90 ± 0.03, independent of depth. The wavelength dependence of absorptivity in the studied wavelength range is described by the sum of two components: a power law due to absorption by dust, with exponent −1.08 ± 0.01 and a normalization proportional to dust concentration that varies with depth; and a rising exponential due to intrinsic ice absorption which dominates at wavelengths greater than ∼500 nm.

  • 18.
    Ambashta, Ritu D.
    et al.
    Bhabha Atom Res Ctr, India.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sillanpää, Mika E. T.
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Finland.
    Supported iron-based catalysts under influence of static magnetic field for the removal of TBP and EDTA2015In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 2700-2709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zerovalent metals offer decontamination of organic toxins in aqueous medium. In the present study, alumina-based iron and iron-nickel in the presence and the absence of magnetic field for the decontamination of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been compared. TBP decontamination was improved in the presence of zerovalent metals. EDTA decontamination was not enhanced in the presence of zerovalent metals. The decontamination of TBP using iron-based alumina was higher than iron-nickel. The surface interaction on alumina surface, as characterized by attentuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the surface interaction on metallic elements, as characterized by evaluating the magnetic moment values helped to understand the reason for the difference in role of alumina-based iron and iron-nickel on decontamination of TBP and EDTA.

  • 19.
    Ammann, Birgitta
    et al.
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    van der Knaap, Willhelm O.
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    Lang, Gerhard
    Stresemannstr. 28, 88400, Biberach an der Riß, Germany.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaltenrieder, Petra
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    Rösch, Manfred
    Landesamt für Denkmalpflege, Fischersteig 9, 78343, Hemmenhofen, Germany.
    Finsinger, Walter
    Centre for Bioarchaeology and Ecology (CBAE – UMR 5059 CNRS/EPHE/UM2), Institut de Botanique, 34090, Montpellier, France.
    Wright, Herbert E.
    Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota, 310 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Tinner, Willy
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, 3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    The potential of stomata analysis inconifers to estimate presence of conifer trees: examples from the Alps2014In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 249-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate whether or not a plant taxon found in the fossil record was locally present may be difficult if only pollen is analyzed. Plant macrofossils, in contrast, provide a clear indication of a taxon’s local presence, although in some lake sediments or peats, macrofossils may be rare or degraded. For conifers, the stomata found on pollen slides are derived from needles and thus provide a valuable proxy for local presence and they can be identified to genus level. From previously published studies, a transect across the Alps based on 13 sites is presented. For basal samples in sandy silt above the till with high pollen values of Pinus, for example, we may distinguish pine pollen from distant sources (samples with no stomata), from reworked pollen (samples with stomata present). The first apparent local presence of most conifer genera based on stomata often but not always occurs together with the phase of rapid pollen increase (rational limit). An exception is Larix, with its annual deposition of needles and heavy poorly dispersed pollen, for it often shows the first stomata earlier, at the empirical pollen limit. The decline and potential local extinction of a conifer can sometimes be shown in the stomata record. The decline may have been caused by climatic change, competition, or human impact. In situations where conifers form the timberline, the stomata record may indicate timberline fluctuations. In the discussion of immigration or migration of taxa we advocate the use of the cautious term “apparent local presence” to include some uncertainties. Absence of a taxon is impossible to prove.

  • 20.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Diffuse emissions from goods - influences on some societal end products2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

    This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

    The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

    The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

  • 21.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Strategier att reducera silver och vismut i urbant avloppsvatten2015In: Nationella Konferensen Avlopp & Miljö, Örebro, 20-21 januari 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Upstream Silver Source Mapping2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden, Stockholm.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth and Silver in Cosmetic Products: A Source of Environmental and Resource Concern?2016In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) and silver (Ag) are used in increasing amounts and are consequently being emitted from various sources and showing high accumulation rates in soils when sewage sludge is applied on arable land. This study aimed to analyze the amounts of Bi and Ag in three cosmetic products (foundation, powder, and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. Analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (7,000 to 360,000 milligrams per kilogram) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, whereas Ag concentrations all were below the detection limit. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24% of the measured total Bi amounts per year reaching the WWTP (wastewater treatment plant), making cosmetics a major Bi source, whereas for Ag the corresponding contribution was <0.1% of the measured annual Ag amounts. The results were roughly adapted for Europe and the United States, estimating the Bi flows from cosmetics to WWTPs. On a global scale, these flows correspond to a non-negligible part of the world Bi production that, every year, ends up in sewage sludge, limiting the reuse of a valuable metal resource. From an environmental and resource perspective, foundations and powder products should be considered as significant sources of measured Bi amounts in sludge. This large Bi flow must be considered as unsustainable. For Ag, however, the three analyzed cosmetic products are not a significant source of the total Ag load to WWTPs.

  • 24.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Monitoring urban copper flows in Stockholm, Sweden: implications of changes over time2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for copper (Cu) was conducted, in which theinflow, stock, and outflow (in the form of diffuse emissions to soil and water) for Stockholmwere estimated for 2013 and compared with a previous study from 1995, hence allowing adiscussion on changes over time. A large number of applications containing Cu were analyzed(including power cables, copper alloys, heavy electrical equipment, tap water systems, roofs,cars, various consumer electronics, wood preservatives, and contact cables for the railroad).The results show that the inflow of Cu to Stockholm has increased between 1995 and 2013,both in total and per person, mainly as the result of an increase in heavy electrical equipment,power cables, and cars. The stock remains relatively unchanged, whereas the outflow hasincreased. For the outflow, the emission increase from brake linings is of greatest quantitativeimportance, with an estimated 5.8 tonnes annual emission of Cu to the environment ofStockholm in 2013 compared to 3.9 tonnes in 1995. Given that increasing inflows of limitedresources drive the global demand, continuous monitoring of flows through society andmanagement of outflow routes are crucial, including improvement of national legislationand regional environmental plans as well as efforts to increase resource-use efficiency andrecycling

  • 25.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Upstream silver source mapping2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Upstream silver source mapping - a case study in Stockholm, Sweden2014In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 392-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver (Ag) can be a problem for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and their capability to use sewage sludge as a soil fertilizer. Due to a high accumulation rate in soils, the levels of Ag in the incoming water at the WWTP must be reduced. This study aims to identify major diffuse emission sources in the technosphere through a comprehensive substance flow analysis of Ag in Stockholm, Sweden. Large inflows and stocks of Ag were present in electrical and electronic goods and appliances as well as in jewellery and silverware. The total inflow was 3.2 tonnes (4.2 g/person), the total stock was 100 tonnes (140 g/person) and the total outflow was 330 kg (430 mg/person). Major identified Ag sources with emissions ending up in the WWTP (total 26 kg, 34 mg/person) were food, amalgam and beauty products (via urine and faeces, 12 mg/person or 11% of incoming amount), and textiles (via washing, 17 mg/person or 16% of incoming amount). This study explains approximately 35% of the total 80 kg Ag in the incoming water at Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm. Plastic, photography and beauty products were identified as possible sources of Ag that need to be examined further.

  • 27.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Kotsch, Maria
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Strategier att reducera silver och vismut i urbant avloppsvatten2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Silver och vismut är två metaller som på sikt kan anrikas i mark i samband med slamspridning och som därför är prioriterade enligt REVAQ, ett certifieringssystem för svenska reningsverk.

    I Naturvårdsverkets förslag till ny författning (slamförordning) föreslås gränsvärden för bland annat silver. Silver är en toxisk tungmetall med antibakteriella egenskaper som ger skadliga effekter på båda människors hälsa och miljö redan vid låga koncentrationer. Vismut är en tungmetall som anses vara ”ogiftig” men som också kan ge skadliga effekter vid högre koncentrationer.

     

    En substansflödesanalys utfördes för båda metallerna för att kartlägga inflödet till, stocken (upplagrad mängd i teknosfären) och utflödet från Stockholm under 2012. Avgränsning har gjorts till utflöden som hamnar i avloppsvattnet och på det sättet påverkar Henriksdals reningsverk. Utflödet i substansflödesanalysen blir därmed lika med ett inflöde till reningsverket. Fokus ligger på diffusa utsläpp av silver och vismut, men identifierade punktkällor räknas in i det slutliga resultatet med målet att förklara så mycket som möjligt av de uppmätta halterna av silver och vismut i Henriksdals reningsverk. Källor som har ett utflöde till avfall eller återvinning har inte inkluderats i denna rapport.

     

    För år 2102 uppmättes en tillförsel av 61 kg silver och 116 kg vismut för Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm. Källor har identifierats för ca 56 % av uppmätt silver och 49 % av uppmätt vismut i denna studie. De källor med störst bidrag silver bedöms vara textilier (19 %), urin och fekalier (från bland annat amalgamfyllningar och föda) (15 %) samt städprodukter (7 %). För vismut är det kosmetika (23 %), plast (13 %) samt fordonstvättar (9 %) som bedöms vara källor med störst bidrag.

     

    Utifrån erhållna resultat föreslår vi några åtgärder/strategier för reduktion av silver respektive vismut i urbant avloppsvatten. Vi diskuterar även aktörer som har möjlighet/rådighet att genomföra åtgärderna (Svenskt Vatten, avloppsreningsverk, myndigheter, producenter, verksamhetsutövare samt individer/konsumenter). En strategi som föreslås är att myndigheter ska informera och påverka producenter och verksamhetsutövare när det gäller silver och vismut i olika produkter samt verka för ändrad lagstiftning. Producenter kan ta ett eget ansvar att minska silver- och vismutinnehåll i produkter. Två identifierade kunskapsluckor och potentiella källor är silver i städprodukter samt vismut i plast.

     

  • 28.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth in cosmetic products and its implications for sewage sludge management2015In: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, 3-7 May, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) is a heavy metal that over recent years has shown increasing concentrations in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), indicating an increasing Bi use in the society. The high accumulation rate of Bi in soil when sewage sludge is used as fertilizer on arable land is of environmental concern. Bismuth is used in various consumer products to replace lead, but which sources in the society that explain the increasing amount of Bi in sewage sludge in the municipal WWTPs is however unknown. This study aimed to analyze one product group suspected to contain Bi, cosmetics, and three different products were chosen (foundation, powder and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. The chemical analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (>100 000 mg/kg) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, while mainly low concentrations were found in eye shadow. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24 % of the measured total Bi amounts reaching the WWTP in 2012, making cosmetics a major Bi source. It is therefore recommended to monitor the Bi concentrations in sewage sludge regularly. Efforts should be made to further examine the sources of Bi to WWTPs and to decrease the emission from Bi in cosmetics to the WWTPs.

  • 29.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The Increase in Bismuth Consumption as Reflected in Sewage Sludge2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 4, p. 1-11, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of dangerous substances in consumer products increases, these substances may also be found in society’s end products, among them sewage sludge. Measuring concentrations in sewage sludge can be a way to reflect the consumption of a substance. By using substance flow analysis, the inflow, stock and outflow of the specific substance to, e.g. a city region, may be analysed. Bismuth is a heavy metal that is found in increasing levels in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a similar increase cannot be excluded for WWTPs around the world. This study aims to examine possible sources that could explain the amounts measured in one Swedish WWTP. Household products such as cosmetics (24 %) and plastics (14 %) are found to be major sources of Bi measured in sewage sludge. The remaining unidentified amounts in this study (approximately 50 %) are most likely found in effluent waters from industries or sources outside the household. There is, however, no information on measurements of Bi released by industry available and there is no legislation in place that may encourage industry to conduct such measurements.

  • 30. Anderberg, S
    et al.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Flow and distribution of chromium in the Swedish environment: A new approach to studying environmental pollution1989In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 216-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Point source emission from industrial production processes has been themajor focus of environmental concern in the past. In this article it isargued that the accumulating amount of goods/products in societyshould also be focused on in the future. From these goods substances willsooner or later be leached out to the environment. A case study usingchromium in Sweden is presented in this paper as one example of asubstance that may accumulate in the environment. Total flows ofchromium for the 20th century, based on trade statistics, production ofgoods and persistence of products in the environment are estimated. Itwas found that yearly consumption emissions are higher than the productionemissions, i.e. point source emissions from different industries. 

  • 31. Anderberg, S
    et al.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Pattern of lead emissions in Sweden 1880-19801990Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lundsbye, Mette
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wedel, Heidi. V.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Estrogenic personal care products in a greywater reuse system2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and fate of parabens in a greywater system was assessed. The potential for removal of residual paraben concentrations in effluent greywater with chlorine dioxide was also investigated. The influent to the greywater plant was characterised by considerable variation, with concentrations from below the detection limit to 40 μg/L and the five commonly used parabens in consumer products were frequently detected. After the biological treatment only two paraben were detected with concentration from 65–120 ng/L. Chlorine dioxide treatment of the biologically treated effluent with dosages down to 0.75 mg/L resulted in more than 97% reduction of all parabens. Formation of the by-product chloroform was insignificant from the chlorine dioxide treatment.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University.
    Eilola, Kari
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Department of Ecology.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Alexander
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Arvidsson, Teed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nordostpassagen – ett lokalt hot eller en global möjlighet?: En värdering av miljöpåverkan vid ett ökat användande av Nordostpassagen2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the ice coverage in the Arctic decreses the potential for the Northeast Passage as an alternative to the Suez Canal increases. An initial literature review identifies potential environmental effects of increased shipping along the Northeast Passage. The result of the review is discussed in three separate interviews with a philosopher, a biologist and a political scientists to study how global environmental improvements can be appraised when set against local damages. The literature review revealed air pollution, oil spillages and the stress vessels can cause wildlife to be the most important local factors. The study also found that an increased use of the Northeast Passage may lead to decreased levels of carbon dioxide emissions from shipping globally. The interviewees had different opinions on whether or not the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions outweighs the local environmental impact in the Arctic. Furthermore, the interviewees shared the opinion that shipping in the area needs to be regulated and that the profit made from using the passage should contribute to limiting the harmful environmental effects.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waste Management in the Mekong Delta: Characterisation and evaluation of organic waste2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project investigated landfills that takes care of municipal solid waste in an area around the Mekong delta, namely An Giang province, Vietnam. The main objective for this study was to provide basic work in order to create a discussion with the local food markets to separate the household’s food waste from the rest. Such a discussion is possible to create through collaboration with local authorities and inform or guide stakeholders on how waste management can be improved, out of existing knowledge from Sweden. Therefore, this study aims to illuminate and give knowledge for improvements in questions regarding efficiency, organisation, participation, recycling and opportunities associated with a more efficient waste management system.Since a significant percentage of the household waste generated in Long Xuyen City, An Giang province are organic, the opportunity to convert organic waste into soil amendments was examined. Leachate from one of the landfills in the area was also analysed in order to get further understanding for its composition, focusing on organic parameters.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    Barometern OT.
    Forskningsprojekt: Alger ska rena utsläpp: "Algerna är en resurs som vi knappt använder"2014In: Baromtern, no 9 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    University of Kalmar, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Havet som Transportväg: En undersökning om MARPOL-Konventionens roll för transportköparna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative study regarding what role the MARPOL-Convention plays for the costumers of transport service. What regard of environment they take in consideration for their choice of carrier and to what degree they are aware of the MARPOL-Convention and the work the crew put in on board vessels, in order to live up to the requirements of the MARPOL-Convention. The problem deals with the understanding of the environmental work, not only within their own labor sector, but also in other labor sectors, is an important understanding to achieve a great partnership for the environment. The survey is based on a semi-structured method of open interviews with five Swedish companies that are dealing in goods internationally and are costumers of transport services. This survey shows that; long term transport costs, environmental work within the transport company, the reliability regarding the assigned delivery times and the earlier working relationship between shippers and carriers, play the greatest role for the choice of carrier. And that one out of five respondents are aware of the MARPOL-Convention, and some of the work it requires of the crew on board the vessels.

  • 38. Andrady, Anthony
    et al.
    Aucamp, Pieter J.
    Austin, Amy T.
    Bais, Alkiviadis F.
    Ballare, Carlos L.
    Barnes, Paul W.
    Bernhard, Germar H.
    Bjoern, Lars Olof
    Bornman, Janet F.
    Congdon, Nathan
    Cory, Rose M.
    Flint, Stephan D.
    de Gruijl, Frank R.
    Haeder, Donat-P.
    Heikkilae, Anu
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Longstreth, Janice
    Lucas, Robyn M.
    Madronich, Sasha
    McKenzie, Richard L.
    Neale, Patrick
    Neale, Rachel
    Norval, Mary
    Pandey, Krishna K.
    Paul, Nigel
    Rautio, Milla
    Redhwi, Halim Hamid
    Robinson, Sharon A.
    Rose, Kevin C.
    Solomon, Keith R.
    Sulzberger, Barbara
    Waengberg, Sten-Ake
    Williamson, Craig E.
    Wilson, Stephen R.
    Worrest, Robert C.
    Young, Antony R.
    Zepp, Richard G.
    Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 20162017In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 107-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three Panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Progress Reports of the relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, 15, 141-147). The present Progress Report for 2016 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. The more detailed Quadrennial Assessment will bemade available in 2018.

  • 39.
    Andreas, Bendroth
    Östra Småland.
    Legrand, Catherine (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algblomningens positiva sidor lyftes fram2017In: Östra Småland, no 31 Aug, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Angeland, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Utvärdering av polymerers sedimenteringsegenskaper i aktivt avloppsslam2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den idag mest använda biologiska metoden för rening av avloppsvatten är processen som kallas för aktivt slam. Denna är normalt uppbyggd av luftningsbassäng och sedimenteringsbassäng. Kärnan i processen består av mikroorganismer vars sammansättning varierar. Detta beror på en rad olika yttre faktorer. Mikroorganismer bryter ned löst organiskt material i avloppsvattnet och bildar så kallade flockar, som sedan sjunker ner till bassängbottnen i sedimentationssteget. På detta sätt separerar man vattnet ifrån slammet. Det man vill uppnå är så snabb och kompakt sedimentation som möjligt.

    Polymerer används i samband med avloppsvattenrening för att förbättra flockbildningen och då speciellt när förutsättningarna för naturlig flockning är nedsatt.

    Syftet med den här studien var att laborativt utvärdera ett antal konventionella polymerprodukter och ett miljövänligare alternativ baserad på potatisstärkelse ur effektiv flockning- och sedimenteringssynvinkel. Där resultat för slamvolym, turbiditet och färgtal har vägts mot varandra, samt koncentrationen av polymer och den tid för sedimentering som krävts.

    Resultaten har visat att Magnafloc® 919 var den polymer med effektivast och mest optimala egenskaper. Fler polymerer så som t.ex. Magnafloc® 455 hade snarlika resultat, men krävde en högre koncentration av flockningsmedlet, vilket gör Magnafloc® 919 till det bättre alternativet. Resultaten kommer att ligga till grund för rekommendation av polymerprodukt att testa i fullskala.

  • 41. Anonym, .
    Alger sprids med vinden2016In: Barometern, no 11 Juli, p. 12-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Anselius, Lotta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kabinavfall - möjligheter att sortera och återvinna?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aviation industry is increasing by about 5% each year and the forecast is that it will continue until 2030. Our need to travel and move is huge and irrevocable, but at the same time when greenhouse gas emissions are constantly changing, new levels and climate change are becoming more palpable. The aviation industry around the world, in addition to greenhouse gas emissions and noise, generates a large amount of waste from onboard services and today, the dominating part of that goes to incineration or landfill. In this study, a survey of cabin waste has been made to see which different fractions of cabin waste can be found and the amount generated. Cabin waste from 30 aircraft arriving at Stockholm Arlanda Airport has been sorted and weighed. To Stockholm Arlanda Airport, on average, close to 10,000 aircraft a month are arriving and their cabin waste go to combustion at Brista CHP (Combined heat and power plant). The EU's laws on how food waste must either be burned or landfilled if it comes from a nonEU country makes it more difficult for airlines to introduce systems for sorting and collection on board. However, there are great environmental benefits to recycling different fractions of cabin waste. Fractions of waste from aircrafts arriving at Stockholm Arlanda Airport have in this study been sorted and weighed and the result shows that plastic constitutes the largest part of the cabin waste. Metal (aluminum) is the fraction that, in recycling, saves most energy (95%) and CO2 emissions (95%) and is, together with parts of the plastic fraction, the easiest to sort and recycle. Airlines and ii airport operations must work together to increase waste recycling, but in a competitive industry such as the aviation industry, the environmental benefits of recycling have to be lifted. Efforts to sort and recycle along with reduced waste generation must be intensified.

  • 43. Arnemo, R
    et al.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, D
    Persson, L-E
    Tobiasson, Stefan
    Kuststatus. Miljöfakta som underlag för planering1989Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Aronsson, Josefina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Den småskaliga vattenkraftens framtid: En övergripande studie för Sverige samt en fallstudie i Lyckebyån2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this bachelor's thesis was to get knowledge concerning the trend of small scale hydropower plants and the possibility according the present legislation to use small scale hydropower as energy source in Sweden. The result aims also to conclude if it is possible to get permission for small scale hydropower stations at the river Lyckebyån.

     

    To achieve this, ten legal cases where five of them have been permitted and five of them has been denied license have been examined. These cases were dated between 2010-2016. These have been analyzed from given questions. They may describe the trend of small scale hydropower in Sweden. To examine the cases at Lyckebyån different sources were used, such as literature studies, interviews and by using information from different databases.

     

    The results shows that it is possible to get permission for small scale hydropower production in Sweden today, but it is a complicated process and the result of the probation depends on many factors. The legislation sets high standards and there exist conflicting interests which are against small scale hydropower stations due to their effects on biodiversity. There are both positive and negative environmental consequences of hydropower production at Lyckebyån. However, there are no evident obstacles for permission in Lyckebyån.  

  • 45.
    Arvin, Erik
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bregnhøj, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Buendia Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Water Education ved DTU: en e-læringplatform i Moodle til individualiseret kompetenceopbygning i samfundets vandsektor2010In: Læring og Medier, ISSN 1903-248X, E-ISSN 1903-248X, no 6, p. 1-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Omstruktureringen af kommunerne i forbindelse med amternes nedlæggelse og privatiseringen af det danske samfunds vand- og spildevandsforsyning har givet store omvæltninger og nye udfordringer for mange personalegrupper. I vandbranchen er der derfor i dag et stort behov for individualiseret kompetenceopbygning inden for hele vandets kredsløb, afstrømmet regnvand, overfladevand, grundvand, vandforsyning, spildevandstransport og -rensning samt vandkvalitet og vandhygiejne.

    At behovet for efter- og videreuddannelse er stort beror på et skøn baseret på samtaler med fagpersoner i branchen. Desværre foreligger der ikke konkrete behovsopgørelser, og det er også uklart, hvor stor betalingsviljen til kompetenceudvikling er hos virksomhederne og kommunerne.

    Der er i dag det samme behov for et kompetenceløft på universitetsområdet, fordi der er sket en markant internationalisering, hvorved mange udenlandske studerende følger engelsksprogede masterprogrammer. På Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU) foregår alle masterkurser på engelsk, og ca. halvdelen af de studerende på DTU Miljø's (Institut for Vand og Miljøteknologi) masterkurser er udenlandske gæstestuderende. Det er i dag en væsentlig opgave/problem at sikre, at disse studerende har de nødvendige faglige forudsætninger, når de starter på de planlagte kurser. Ellers sænkes undervisningsniveauet markant, og ressourceforbruget af hjælpelærere øges. Så også her er der brug for tilbud om individualiseret kompetenceopbygning.

    Men også over for de danske studerende er der behov for markante ændringer i undervisningsmetoderne. Der er en klar tendens til, at mange studerende bruger lærebøgerne som referenceværker. En voksende andel af de studerende sidder ikke mere og læser lærebøgerne igennem som i "gamle dage". E-læring kan være et middel til at give effektiv læring til disse mange studerende, der fra barnsben er tilvænnet IT-verdenen.

    I fremtiden vil der blive mere utraditionelle undervisningsbehov. Nogle større virksomheder vil i fremtiden skulle satse mere på salg af integrerede løsninger, f.eks. vand- og spildevandsløsninger for hele byområder. Dette kræver, at der er kompetente personer hos bygherrerne til at drive de fremtidige komplekse systemer. Her kan tilbud om uddannelse af bygherrens personale indgå som en konkurrenceparameter i virksomhedernes tilbud. Og netop her vil et fleksibelt e-læringssystem kunne få stor betydning.

    Målsætningen for udvikling af e-læringssystemet Water Education ved DTU er at opfylde ovennævnte undervisningsbehov. Projektet er i en udviklingsfase, hvorfor de praktiske erfaringer om udvikling af e-læringsmodulerne og brugernes vurderinger af fordele og ulemper er begrænsede. IT- og Telestyrelsen har medfinansieret projektet og deltaget aktivt i følgegruppemøder.

  • 46.
    Ask, Paulin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Regnvatten från hustak som resurs: Användning av takavrinningsvatten som resurs och kvalitetskriterier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding from rainwater in megacities around the world is a major problem which is growing even bigger with the scenarios that has been predicted by IPCC. The problem has to be taken care of somehow and one possible solution could be to use the water once it just hit the ground area. This study will show some of the opportunities we have to use runoff water from roofs with local solutions in Gothenburg and analyse quality differences of run off-water with raw water from the river Göta Älv, which today is used as drinking water in Gothenburg. Among some of the existing solutions for rainwater today, for example stone filter and trees, the result will show specifically one solution which is used at Stadsbyggnadskontoret in Gothenburg city center. The results of the run off-water show higher values of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus than Göta Älv and comparison between run off from green roof and run off from other roof materials shows lower values of the same chemical parameters. Since the values are taken from a report which contains schablon values, the results are just symbolic. A hypothetical calculation which shows that one year of estimated volume rainwater on a building example could provide for either 31 people/year total consumption or 100 people/year only for laundry and flushing toilets.

  • 47.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metal speciation in soil at a contaminated glassworks site in southeastern Sweden2014In: Linnaeus Eco-tech 2014, Kalmar, 26th November 2014 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A probabilistic view of risks associated with consumption of drinking water in an area with natural fluoride enrichments2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells: Expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 68, p. 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways.

  • 50.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Probabilistic exposure assessment challenges the safety margin in drinking water criteria – the example of fluoride2013Conference paper (Other academic)
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