lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 106
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Adan, Abdifatah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ibrahim Abdi, Mustafe
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Bonus-Malus system impact on the demand for eco-friendly vehicles2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming issues are a widespread problem around the world and the emissions of greenhouse gases is one of the main contributors. The transport sector emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions; thus, this contributes to global warming. To tackle this challenge the Swedish state introduced in July 2018 a system called bonus-malus system which aims to increase the proportion of eco-friendly cars and in the long run reducing greenhouse gases emissions from the transport sector. This paper examines the tax system within the Bonus-Malus system. Primarily investigating if Malus, tax system, impacted the demand for electric vehicles since it introduced. The study conducted based on a short panel data from Sweden´s 21 counties for the period 2016-2020 and the analysis method applied is a regression analysis. The results of this thesis confirm a strong positive relationship between the share of newly registered battery electric vehicles (BEV) and the Malus, but much weaker influence of the other studied variables. Suggesting that tax system induce on emission seem to be efficient at boost the demand for BEV 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå university, Sweden.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Eilola, Kari
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 3.
    Bais, A. F.
    et al.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Lucas, R. M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Bornman, J. F.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Williamson, C. E.
    Miami Univ, USA.
    Sulzberger, B.
    Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Austin, A. T.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina;IFEVA CONICET, Argentina.
    Wilson, S. R.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, A. L.
    North Carolina State Univ, USA.
    Bernhard, G.
    Biospher Inc, USA.
    McKenzie, R. L.
    NIWA, New Zealand.
    Aucamp, P. J.
    Ptersa Environm Consultants, South Africa.
    Madronich, S.
    Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, USA.
    Neale, R. E.
    Royal Brisbane Hosp, Australia.
    Yazar, S.
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Young, A. R.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    de Gruijl, F. R.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Norval, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, UK.
    Takizawa, Y.
    Akita Univ, Japan.
    Barnes, P. W.
    Loyola Univ, USA.
    Robson, T. M.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Robinson, S. A.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Ballare, C. L.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina;IFEVA CONICET, Argentina.
    Flint, S. D.
    Univ Idaho, USA.
    Neale, P. J.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, USA.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rose, K. C.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Wängber, S. -A
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Häder, D. -P
    Friedrich-Alexander Univ, Germany.
    Worrest, R. C.
    Columbia Univ, USA.
    Zepp, R. G.
    US EPA, USA.
    Paul, N. D.
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Cory, R. M.
    Univ Michigan, USA.
    Solomon, K. R.
    Univ Guelph, Canada.
    Longstreth, J.
    Inst Global Risk Res, USA.
    Pandey, K. K.
    Inst Wood Sci & Technol, India.
    Redhwi, H. H.
    King Fahd Univ Petr & Minerals, Saudi Arabia.
    Torikaiaj, A.
    Mat Life Soc Japan, Japan.
    Heikkila, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst R&D Climate Res, Finland.
    Environmental effects of ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 20172018In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 127-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels of experts that inform the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The EEAP focuses on the effects of UV radiation on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, air quality, and materials, as well as on the interactive effects of UV radiation and global climate change. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously held. Because of the Montreal Protocol, there are now indications of the beginnings of a recovery of stratospheric ozone, although the time required to reach levels like those before the 1960s is still uncertain, particularly as the effects of stratospheric ozone on climate change and vice versa, are not yet fully understood. Some regions will likely receive enhanced levels of UV radiation, while other areas will likely experience a reduction in UV radiation as ozone- and climate-driven changes affect the amounts of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces detailed Quadrennial Reports every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Update Reports of recent and relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2016 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, 16, 107-145). The present 2017 Update Report assesses some of the highlights and new insights about the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. A full 2018 Quadrennial Assessment, will be made available in 2018/2019.

  • 4.
    Barnes, P. W.
    et al.
    Loyola University New Orleans, USA.
    Robson, T. M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Neale, P. J.
    Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, USA.
    Williamson, C. E.
    Miami University, USA.
    Zepp, R. G.
    US Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
    Madronich, S.
    National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA.
    Wilson, S. R.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, A. L.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Heikkilä, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Bernhard, G. H.
    Biospherical Instruments Inc, USA.
    Bais, A. F.
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Neale, R. E.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Bornman, J. F.
    Murdoch University, Australia.
    Jansen, M. A. K.
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Klekociuk, A. R.
    Australian Antarctic Division, Australia.
    Martinez-Abaigar, J.
    University of La Rioja, Spain.
    Robinson, S. A.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Wang, Q. -W
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Banaszak, A. T.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México, Mexico.
    Häder, D. -P
    Friedrich-Alexander University, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Rose, K. C.
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Wängberg, S. -Å
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Foereid, B.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Hou, W. -C
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
    Ossola, R.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Paul, N. D.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Ukpebor, J. E.
    University of Benin, Nigeria.
    Andersen, M. P. S.
    California State University, USA.
    Longstreth, J.
    The Institute for Global Risk Research, USA.
    Schikowski, T.
    Leibniz Institute of Environmental Medicine, Germany.
    Solomon, K. R.
    University of Guelph, Canada.
    Sulzberger, B.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Bruckman, L. S.
    Case Western Reserve University, USA.
    Pandey, K. K.
    Institute of Wood Science and Technology, India.
    White, C. C.
    Polymer Science and Materials Chemistry (PSMC), USA.
    Zhu, L.
    Donghua University, China.
    Zhu, M.
    Donghua University, China.
    Aucamp, P. J.
    Ptersa Environmental Consultants, South Africa.
    Liley, J. B.
    National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    McKenzie, R. L.
    National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    Berwick, M.
    University of New Mexico, USA.
    Byrne, S. N.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Hollestein, L. M.
    Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Netherlands.
    Lucas, R. M.
    Australian National University, Australia.
    Olsen, C. M.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Rhodes, L. E.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Yazar, S.
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Australia.
    Young, A. R.
    King’s College London (KCL), UK.
    Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 20212022In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 21, p. 275-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change are assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Barnes, Paul W.
    et al.
    Loyola Univ, USA.
    Williamson, Craig E.
    Miami Univ, USA.
    Lucas, Robyn M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Robinson, Sharon A.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Madronich, Sasha
    Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, USA.
    Paul, Nigel D.
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Bornman, Janet F.
    Murdoch Univ, Australia.
    Bais, Alkiviadis F.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Sulzberger, Barbara
    Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol Eawag, Switzerland.
    Wilson, Stephen R.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, Anthony L.
    North Carolina State Univ, USA.
    McKenzie, Richard L.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, New Zealand.
    Neale, Patrick J.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, USA.
    Austin, Amy T.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Bernhard, Germar H.
    Biospher Inc, USA.
    Solomon, Keith R.
    Univ Guelph, Canada.
    Neale, Rachel E.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Australia.
    Young, Paul J.
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Norval, Mary
    Univ Edinburgh, UK.
    Rhodes, Lesley E.
    Univ Manchester, UK.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Salford Royal NHS Fdn Trust, UK.
    Rose, Kevin C.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Longstreth, Janice
    Inst Global Risk Res, USA.
    Aucamp, Pieter J.
    Ptersa Environm Consultants, South Africa.
    Ballare, Carlos L.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Cory, Rose M.
    Univ Michigan, USA.
    Flint, Stephan D.
    Univ Idaho, USA.
    de Gruijl, Frank R.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Haeder, Donat-P
    Friedrich Alexander Univ, Germany.
    Heikkila, Anu M.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst R&D Climate Res, Finland.
    Jansen, Marcel A. K.
    Univ Coll Cork, Ireland.
    Pandey, Krishna K.
    Inst Wood Sci & Technol, India.
    Robson, T. Matthew
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Sinclair, Craig A.
    Canc Council Victoria, Australia.
    Wangberg, Sten-Ake
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Worrest, Robert C.
    Columbia Univ, USA.
    Yazar, Seyhan
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Young, Antony R.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    Zepp, Richard G.
    US EPA, USA.
    Ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation, climate change and prospects for a sustainable future2019In: Nature Sustainability, E-ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 569-579Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in stratospheric ozone and climate over the past 40-plus years have altered the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions at the Earth's surface. Ozone depletion has also contributed to climate change across the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are interacting in complex ways to affect human health, food and water security, and ecosystem services. Many adverse effects of high UV exposure have been avoided thanks to the Montreal Protocol with its Amendments and Adjustments, which have effectively controlled the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. This international treaty has also played an important role in mitigating climate change. Climate change is modifying UV exposure and affecting how people and ecosystems respond to UV; these effects will become more pronounced in the future. The interactions between stratospheric ozone, climate and UV radiation will therefore shift over time; however, the Montreal Protocol will continue to have far-reaching benefits for human well-being and environmental sustainability.

  • 6.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Kjartansson, Bjarki
    Karlsson, Matts
    Impact of climate change on the productivity of Silver birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine stands in Sweden with economic implications for timber production2010In: Ecological Bulletins, ISSN 0346-6868, Vol. 53, no 16, p. 185-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bernhard, G. H.
    et al.
    Biospherical Instruments Inc., USA.
    Neale, R. E.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Barnes, P. W.
    Loyola University, USA.
    Neale, P. J.
    Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, USA.
    Zepp, R. G.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
    Wilson, S. R.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, A. L.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Bais, A. F.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    McKenzie, R. L.
    National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    Aucamp, P. J.
    Ptersa Environmental Consultants, South Africa.
    Young, P. J.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Liley, J. B.
    National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand.
    Lucas, R. M.
    Australian National University, Australia.
    Yazar, S.
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Australia.
    Rhodes, L. E.
    University of Manchester, UK;Salford Royal Hospital, UK.
    Byrne, S. N.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Hollestein, L. M.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Olsen, C. M.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Young, A. R.
    King’s College London, UK.
    Robson, T. M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Bornman, J. F.
    Murdoch University, Australia.
    Jansen, M. A. K.
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Robinson, S. A.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Ballaré, C. L.
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Williamson, C. E.
    Miami University, USA.
    Rose, K. C.
    Rensselaer Polytech Institute, USA.
    Banaszak, A. T.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Häder, D. -P
    Friedrich-Alexander University, Germany.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Wängberg, S. -Å
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Austin, A. T.
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Hou, W. -C
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
    Paul, N. D.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Madronich, S.
    National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA.
    Sulzberger, B.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Solomon, K. R.
    University of Guelph, Canada.
    Li, H.
    Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, China.
    Schikowski, T.
    Leibniz Institute of Environmental Medicine, Germany.
    Longstreth, J.
    Institute for Global Risk Research, USA.
    Pandey, K. K.
    Institute of Wood Science and Technology, India.
    Heikkilä, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    White, C. C.
    Independent researcher, USA.
    Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 20192020In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 542-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This assessment, by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), one of three Panels informing the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, provides an update, since our previous extensive assessment (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2019, 18, 595–828), of recent findings of current and projected interactive environmental effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, stratospheric ozone, and climate change. These effects include those on human health, air quality, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, and materials used in construction and other services. The present update evaluates further evidence of the consequences of human activity on climate change that are altering the exposure of organisms and ecosystems to UV radiation. This in turn reveals the interactive effects of many climate change factors with UV radiation that have implications for the atmosphere, feedbacks, contaminant fate and transport, organismal responses, and many outdoor materials including plastics, wood, and fabrics. The universal ratification of the Montreal Protocol, signed by 197 countries, has led to the regulation and phase-out of chemicals that deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Although this treaty has had unprecedented success in protecting the ozone layer, and hence all life on Earth from damaging UV radiation, it is also making a substantial contribution to reducing climate warming because many of the chemicals under this treaty are greenhouse gases.

  • 8.
    Bey, Ergün
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Türkeş, Murat
    Boğaziçi University, Türkiye.
    Hamed, Mohammed Magdy
    Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Egypt.
    Long-term air temperature trends in North Cyprus2024In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 155, p. 1113-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is a major climate change hotspot. The island of Cyprus is likely to face increases in the frequency and intensity of hotter weather conditions and heatwaves in the near future. Studies conducted on the long-term temperature changes in Cyprus are very limited. Here, we present an updated and most detailed assessment of the maximum, minimum, mean and diurnal temperature series in North Cyprus for the period 1975–2021. Data obtained from the meterological stations of North Cyprus have been analysed using Mann–Kendal (MK) test and Theil–Sen slope estimator. Overall the mean minimum temperature trend (Tmin) showed the highest warming rate 0.61 (0.24 ≤ Tmin ≤ 0.99)°C decade−1 followed by the mean temperature trend (Tmean) 0.38 (0.29 ≤ Tmean ≤ 0.50) °C decade−1 and the mean maximum temperature trend (Tmax) 0.28 (0 ≤ Tmax ≤ 0.50) °C decade−1. The magnitude of the warming trend observed in the overall mean minimum temperature of North Cyprus 0.61 °C decade−1, is one of the fastest warming trends reported in the literature. A negative association was detected between the direction of prevailing winds of North Cyprus and the magnitude of increase in the mean temperature trends of the locations with coastal Mediterranean climate, which has pointed out the importance of prevailing winds regarding their cooling effect in coastal areas. The diurnal temperature range trend of North Cyprus indicates an apparent decrease (− 0.33 °C decade−1). The warming impact of urban heat island effect was detected in temperature trends of Nicosia in the Mesaoria plain. The information provided here is invaluable to consider in any climate assessment and adaptation plan in Cyprus. If the current warming trend persists into the future, it will devastatingly impact all sectors and natural systems in the region.

  • 9.
    Blennow, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Olofsson, Erika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Potential climate change impacts on the probability of wind damage in a south Swedish forest2010In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 99, no 1-2, p. 261-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimated how the possible changes in wind climate and state of the forest due to climate change may affect the probability of exceeding critical wind speeds expected to cause wind damage within a forest management unit located in Southern Sweden. The topography of the management unit was relatively gentle and the forests were dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We incorporated a model relating the site index (SI) to the site productivity into the forest projection model FTM. Using estimated changes in the net primary production (NPP) due to climate change and assuming a relative change in NPP equal to a relative change in the site productivity, we simulated possible future states of the forest under gradual adjustment of SI in response to climate change. We estimated changes in NPP by combining the boreal-adapted BIOMASS model with four regional climate change scenarios calculated using the RCAO model for the period 2071–2100 and two control period scenarios for the period 1961–1990. The modified WINDA model was used to calculate the probability of wind damage for individual forest stands in simulated future states of the forest. The climate change scenarios used represent non-extreme projections on a 100-year time scale in terms of global mean warming. A 15–40% increase in NPP was estimated to result from climate change until the period 2071–2100. Increasing sensitivity of the forest to wind was indicated when the management rules of today were applied. A greater proportion of the calculated change in probability of wind damage was due to changes in wind climate than to changes in the sensitivity of the forest to wind. While regional climate scenarios based on the HadAM3H general circulation model (GCM) indicated no change (SRES A2 emission scenario) or a slightly reduced (SRES B2 emission scenario) probability of wind damage, scenarios based on the ECHAM4/OPYC3 GCM indicated increased probability of wind damage. The assessment should, however, be reviewed as the simulation of forest growth under climate change as well as climate change scenarios are refined.

  • 10.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Andersson, AgnetaUmeå University, Sweden.Elmgren, RagnarStockholm University, Sweden.Bidleman, TerryUmeå University, Sweden.Blenckner, ThorstenStockholm University, Sweden.Gorokhova, ElenaStockholm University, Sweden.Legrand, CatherineLinnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.Wikner, JohanUmeå University, Sweden.
    Special Issue: Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 11. Borzenkova, Irena
    et al.
    Zorita, Eduardo
    Borisova, Olga
    Kalnina, Laimdota
    Kisieliene, Dalia
    Koff, Tiiu
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Kuznetsov, Denis
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University.
    Sapelko, Tatyana
    Stancikaite, Migle
    Vilnius Univ, Lithuania.
    Subetto, Dimitry
    Climate Change During the Holocene (Past 12,000 Years)2015In: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin / [ed] The BACC II Author team, Springer, 2015, p. 25-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarises the climatic and environmental information that can be inferred from proxy archives over the past 12,000 years. The proxy archives from continental and lake sediments include pollen, insect remnants and isotopic data. Over the Holocene, the Baltic Sea area underwent major changes due to two interrelated factors—melting of the Fennoscandian ice sheet (causing interplay between global sea-level rise due to the meltwater and regional isostatic rebound of the earth’s crust causing a drop in relative sea level ) and changes in the orbital configuration of the Earth (triggering the glacial to interglacial transition and affecting incoming solar radiation and so controlling the regional energy balance). The Holocene climate history showed three stages of natural climate oscillations in the Baltic Sea region: short-term cold episodes related to deglaciation during a stable positive temperature trend (11,000–8000 cal year BP); a warm and stable climate with air temperature 1.0–3.5 °C above modern levels (8000–4500 cal year BP), a decreasing temperature trend; and increased climatic instability (last 5000–4500 years). The climatic variation during the Lateglacial and Holocene is reflected in the changing lake levels and vegetation , and in the formation of a complex hydrographical network that set the stage for the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age of the past millennium.

  • 12.
    Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Christofer M. G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Akram, Neelam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes-CSIC, Spain.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    González, José M.
    University of La Laguna, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Marrasé, Cèlia
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gasol, Josep
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Response of marine bacterioplankton pH homeostasis gene expression to elevated CO22016In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 483-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced ocean acidification impacts marine life. Marine bacteria are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient cycles and energy fluxes1; hence, understanding their performance under projected climate change scenarios is crucial for assessing ecosystem functioning. Whereas genetic and physiological responses of phytoplankton to ocean acidification are being disentangled2, 3, 4, corresponding functional responses of bacterioplankton to pH reduction from elevated CO2 are essentially unknown. Here we show, from metatranscriptome analyses of a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment, that marine bacteria responded to lowered pH by enhancing the expression of genes encoding proton pumps, such as respiration complexes, proteorhodopsin and membrane transporters. Moreover, taxonomic transcript analysis showed that distinct bacterial groups expressed different pH homeostasis genes in response to elevated CO2. These responses were substantial for numerous pH homeostasis genes under low-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a <2.5 μg l−1); however, the changes in gene expression under high-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a >20 μg l−1) were low. Given that proton expulsion through pH homeostasis mechanisms is energetically costly, these findings suggest that bacterioplankton adaptation to ocean acidification could have long-term effects on the economy of ocean ecosystems.

  • 13. Bäckstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Planting Trees to Mitigate Climate Change: Contested Discourses of Ecological Modernization, Green Governmentality and Civic Environmentalism2006In: Global Environmental Politics, ISSN 1536-0091, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 50-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Cao, Xianyong
    et al.
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany;Chinese Acad Sci, China.
    Tian, Fang
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany.
    Li, Furong
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rudaya, Natalia
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany;Russian Acad Sci, Russia;Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Xu, Qinghai
    Hebei Normal Univ, China.
    Herzschuh, Ulrike
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany;Univ Potsdam, Germany.
    Pollen-based quantitative land-cover reconstruction for northern Asia covering the last 40 ka cal BP2019In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 1503-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We collected the available relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) for 27 major pollen taxa from Eurasia and applied them to estimate plant abundances during the last 40 ka cal BP (calibrated thousand years before present) using pollen counts from 203 fossil pollen records in northern Asia (north of 40 degrees N). These pollen records were organized into 42 site groups and regional mean plant abundances calculated using the REVEALS (Regional Estimates of Vegetation Abundance from Large Sites) model. Time-series clustering, constrained hierarchical clustering, and detrended canonical correspondence analysis were performed to investigate the regional pattern, time, and strength of vegetation changes, respectively. Reconstructed regional plant functional type (PFT) components for each site group are generally consistent with modern vegetation in that vegetation changes within the regions are characterized by minor changes in the abundance of PFTs rather than by an increase in new PFTs, particularly during the Holocene. We argue that pollen-based REVEALS estimates of plant abundances should be a more reliable reflection of the vegetation as pollen may overestimate the turnover, particularly when a high pollen producer invades areas dominated by low pollen producers. Comparisons with vegetation-independent climate records show that climate change is the primary factor driving land-cover changes at broad spatial and temporal scales. Vegetation changes in certain regions or periods, however, could not be explained by direct climate change, e.g. inland Siberia, where a sharp increase in evergreen conifer tree abundance occurred at ca. 7-8 ka cal BP despite an unchanging climate, potentially reflecting their response to complex climate-permafrost-fire-vegetation interactions and thus a possible long-term lagged climate response.

  • 15.
    Chen, Deliang
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Henning
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden;Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden.
    Emanuel, Kerry
    MIT, USA.
    Seneviratne, Sonia, I
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Zhai, Panmao
    Chinese Acad Meteorol Sci, China.
    Allard, Bert
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berg, Peter
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Bjorck, Svante
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Brown, Ian A.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barring, Lars
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Chafik, Leon
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Deng, Kaiqiang
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Kjellstrom, Erik
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Linderholm, Hans W.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    May, Wilhelm
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Naslund, Jens-Ove
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Ou, Tinghai
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sahlee, Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schenk, Frederik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sjolte, Jesper
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sporre, Moa K.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stigebrandt, Anders
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Peng
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Summary of a workshop on extreme weather events in a warming world organized by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences2020In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 1794236Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is not only about changes in means of climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind, but also their extreme values which are of critical importance to human society and ecosystems. To inspire the Swedish climate research community and to promote assessments of international research on past and future changes in extreme weather events against the global climate change background, the Earth Science Class of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences organized a workshop entitled 'Extreme weather events in a warming world' in 2019. This article summarizes and synthesizes the key points from the presentations and discussions of the workshop on changes in floods, droughts, heat waves, as well as on tropical cyclones and extratropical storms. In addition to reviewing past achievements in these research fields and identifying research gaps with a focus on Sweden, future challenges and opportunities for the Swedish climate research community are highlighted.

  • 16.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand;Univ Oulu, Finland;Lund University, Sweden.
    Geobibliography and Bibliometric Networks of Polar Tourism and Climate Change Research2020In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1-21, article id 498Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In late 2019, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released their much-awaited Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC). High mountain areas, polar regions, low-lying islands and coastal areas, and ocean and marine ecosystems, were separately dealt by experts to reveal the impacts of climate change on these regions, as well as the responses of the natural and human systems inhabiting or related to these regions. The tourism sector was found, among the main systems, influenced by climate change in the oceanic and cryospheric environments. In this study, we deepen the understanding of tourism and climate interrelationships in the polar regions. In doing so, we step outside the climate resilience of polar tourism paradigm and systematically assess the literature in terms of its gaps relating to an extended framework where the impacts of tourism on climate through a combined and rebound effects lens are in question as well. Following a systematic identification and screening on two major bibliometric databases, a final selection of 93 studies, spanning the 2004-2019 period, are visualized in terms of their thematic and co-authorship networks and a study area based geobibliography, coupled with an emerging hot spots analysis, to help identify gaps for future research.

  • 17.
    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.
    et al.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Ganji, Suresh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Gross, Jurgen
    Julius Kuhn Inst, Germany.
    Giesen, Natalie
    Julius Kuhn Inst, Germany.
    Rid, Margit
    Julius Kuhn Inst, Germany.
    Lo, Peter L.
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Kokeny, Anna
    New Zealand Inst Plant & Food Res Ltd, New Zealand.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Climate change risk to pheromone application in pest management2021In: The Science of Nature: Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 108, no 6, article id 47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since of the first sex pheromone and the adoption of pheromone in pest management, the global pheromone market size has grown to reach USD 2.4 billion per year in 2019. This has enabled the development of environmentally friendly approaches that significantly reduce the application of pesticides. Recently, there have been reports of the failure of various commercial codlemone: (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol formulations used for monitoring the apple pest codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). This work was initiated to investigate factors behind the lack of efficacy of codlemone lure in the Northern Hemisphere (Germany) and Southern Hemisphere (New Zealand). We hypothesised that the observed failure could be due to two main factors: (a) a shift in the response of male codling moth to codlemone and (b) degradation of codlemone under field conditions that renders the lure less attractive. Field trial tests of various doses and blends containing minor pheromone compounds suggested no change in response of male codling moth. The addition of an antioxidant and a UV stabiliser to codlemone resulted in a significant increase in the number of males caught in Germany, but not in New Zealand. Mean maximum temperatures during the growing season since 2004 indicate a 3 degrees C increase to 35 degrees C in Germany, but just a 1.5 degrees C rise to 30 degrees C in New Zealand. Chemical analysis of the lures used in the field trials in Germany and New Zealand indicated more degradation products and reduced half-life of the lures in Germany compared with those in New Zealand. Heating codlemone lures to 32 degrees C significantly reduced the number of males caught in traps and increased the isomeric and chemical impurities of codlemone compared with unheated lures. Our data provide the first evidence that climate change affects pheromone molecule stability, thus reducing its biological efficacy. Our finding suggests that climate change could be a general problem for chemical communication and, therefore, could affect the integrity of natural ecosystems.

  • 18.
    Enroth, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Declarations of Dependence: On the Constitution of the Anthropocene2021In: Theory, Culture and Society. Explorations in Critical Social Science, ISSN 0263-2764, E-ISSN 1460-3616, Vol. 38, no 7-8, p. 189-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the gravity of anthropogenic climate change is dawning on humanity, essential political aspects of the climatic situation remain unexplored. This article argues that our entering the Anthropocene amounts to a constitutive moment: a moment in which new principles of coexistence are being declared. Drawing on, as well as critically engaging with, the work of Bruno Latour and Hannah Arendt, I introduce and explicate the metaphor declarations of dependence to make sense of what scientists, activists, academics and journalists are doing, in political terms, when they announce the Anthropocene. Theoretically as well as practically, this metaphor opens for a more helpful understanding of the fraught relationship between science and the public on the issue of anthropogenic climate change. I end by considering the possibility that this metaphor, literally construed, can help us make today the first day in the rest of our lives in the Anthropocene.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Hänninen, Riitta
    METLA .
    Kallio, Maarit
    METLA .
    Lyhykäinen, Henna
    University of Helsinki.
    Pingoud, Kim
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pohjola, Johanna
    METLA .
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Solberg, Birger
    UMB .
    Svanaes, Jarle
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Valsta, Lauri
    University of Helsinki.
    Climate change mitigation through increased wood use in the European construction sector - towards an integrated modelling framework2012In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 131-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using wood as a building material affects the carbon balance through several mechanisms. This paper describes a modelling approach that integrates a wood product substitution model, a global partial equilibrium model, a regional forest model and a stand-level model. Three different scenarios were compared with a business-as-usual scenario over a 23-year period (2008-2030). Two scenarios assumed an additional one million apartment flats per year will be built of wood instead of non-wood materials by 2030. These scenarios had little effect on markets and forest management and reduced annual carbon emissions by 0.2-0.5% of the total 1990 European GHG emissions. However, the scenarios are associated with high specific CO2 emission reductions per unit of wood used. The third scenario, an extreme assumption that all European countries will consume 1-m3 sawn wood per capita by 2030, had large effects on carbon emission, volumes and trade flows. The price changes of this scenario, however, also affected forest management in ways that greatly deviated from the partial equilibrium model projections. Our results suggest that increased wood construction will have a minor impact on forest management and forest carbon stocks. To analyse larger perturbations on the demand side, a market equilibrium model seems crucial. However, for that analytical system to work properly, the market and forest regional models must be better synchronized than here, in particular regarding assumptions on timber supply behaviour. Also, bioenergy as a commodity in market and forest models needs to be considered to study new market developments; those modules are currently missing

  • 20.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller Univ, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Does risk communication really decrease cooperation in climate change mitigation?2018In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 149, no 2, p. 147-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective communication of risks involved in the climate change discussion is crucial and despite ambitious protection policies, the possibility of irreversible consequences actually occurring can only be diminished but never ruled out completely. We present a laboratory experiment that studies how residual risk of failure of climate change policies affects willingness to contribute to such policies. Despite prevailing views on people's risk aversion, we found that contributions were higher at least in the final part of treatments including a residual risk. We interpret this as the product of a psychological process where residual risk puts participants into an "alarm mode," keeping their contributions high. We discuss the broad practical implications this might have on the real-world communication of climate change.

  • 21.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 166, p. 1-12, article id 106434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    So far, there has been mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between environmental attitudes and actual `green' actions, something known as the attitude-behavior gap. This raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives, such as climate change mitigation, and, conversely, when other factors would be more effective. This paper presents an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world consequences designed to test the effect of environmental attitudes on behavior under various conditions. We found that environmental attitudes affected behavior only in low-cost situations. This finding is consistent with the low-cost hypothesis of environmental behavior postulating that concerned individuals will undertake low-cost actions in order to reduce the cognitive dissonance  between their attitudes and rational realization of the environmental impact of their behavior but avoid higher-cost actions despite their greater potential as far as environmental protection. This finding has important consequences for the design of more effective climate policies in a democratic context as it puts limits on what can be achieved by raising environmental concern alone.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Investing into climate change mitigation despite the risk of failure2019In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 154, no 3-4, p. 453-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to convince both policy makers and the general public to engage in climate change mitigation activities, it is crucial to communicate the inherent risks in an effective way. Due to the complexity of the system, mitigation activities cannot completely rule out the possibility of the climate reaching a dangerous tipping point but can only reduce it to some unavoidable residual risk level. We present an online experiment based on a sample of US citizens and designed to improve our understanding of how the presence of such residual risk affects the willingness to invest into climate change mitigation. We found that, far from reducing them, the presence of residual risk actually increases investments into mitigation activities. This result suggests that scientists and policy makers should consider being more transparent about communicating the residual risks entailed by such initiatives.

  • 23.
    Foghagen, Christer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mitigation of water shortage impacts among tourism and farming companies on the islands of Öland and Gotland, Sweden2024In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 26, p. 7509-7527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development requires clean water. In Sweden, water supply has historically been good, but a changed climate may alter that situation. Islands such as oland and Gotland, which already have a strained water situation due to their location and bedrock, can be useful case studies for understanding how industries adapt and overcome obstacles in changing behaviour to be more sustainable. Focus groups and a postal questionnaire were conducted to study the water shortage mitigations of the tourism and agriculture industries. The results indicated four salient steps for these industries: awareness/knowledge, responsibility, behaviour and mitigation measures. While awareness was high among all respondents, the level of knowledge varied. Both the tourism and agriculture industries acknowledged their own responsibility but primarily placed the responsibility on each other and on other actors. All respondents had ideas about what behaviours needed to be changed in others, but not as much about their own behaviours, which is a natural consequence of the transfer of responsibility. Finally, there were many ideas for mitigation measures with the agricultural industry focusing on traditional approaches such as irrigation ponds and collecting rainwater, and the tourism industry having more innovative ideas such as re-circulating water and behaviour changes but had not progressed as far in their implementation. This study has shown that industries have different prerequisites and that providing them with tools to help them use preventive measures could speed up the transition to a more sustainable future.

  • 24.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    To what extent can existing research help project climate change impacts on biodiversity in aquatic environments?: A review of methodological approaches2016In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 75Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is broadly accepted that continued global warming will pose a major threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. But how reliable are current projections regarding consequences of future climate change for biodiversity? To address this issue, we review the methodological approaches in published studies of how life in marine and freshwater environments responds to temperature shifts. We analyze and compare observational field surveys and experiments performed either in the laboratory or under natural conditions in the wild, the type of response variables considered, the number of species investigated, study duration, and the nature and magnitude of experimental temperature manipulations. The observed patterns indicate that, due to limitations of study design, ecological and evolutionary responses of individuals, populations, species, and ecosystems to temperature change were in many cases difficult to establish, and causal mechanism(s) often remained ambiguous. We also discovered that the thermal challenge in experimental studies was 10,000 times more severe than reconstructed estimates of past and projections of future warming of the oceans, and that temperature manipulations also tended to increase in magnitude in more recent studies. These findings raise some concerns regarding the extent to which existing research can increase our understanding of how higher temperatures associated with climate change will affect life in aquatic environments. In view of our review findings, we discuss the trade-off between realism and methodological tractability. We also propose a series of suggestions and directions towards developing a scientific agenda for improving the validity and inference space of future research efforts.

  • 25.
    Frieberg, Cassandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Biokolets effekt på tillväxt och kolinlagring i Varvsparken, Malmö2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I rådande klimatförändringar ses ett stort behov av långsiktiga och stabila lösningar för att både minska och för att binda kol. En kolsänkeprodukt är biokol som utöver sin förmåga att agera kolsänka även bidrar som jordförbättrare när den tillsätts i planteringar och till skogar. Biokol har även setts ha en tillväxthöjdande effekt på träd och växtlighet. I studien ses att biokol kan anses vara en kolsänka. Studiens resultat indikerar även att biokol har en effekt på trädens diametertillväxtoch jordens organiska halt. Studien indikerar på att en påverkan av biokol finns i Varvsparken i Malmö. Som en framtida klimatnyttig produkt ses biokol ha stor potential men där tillsättning av biokol behöver anpassas efter jordtyp, önskade effekter och långsiktig påverkan.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fire as part of the climate system2013In: Public Service Review: Europe, no 25, p. 368-369Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene vegetation cover in Europe: contribution to the study of land cover – climate interactions and other examples of applications2015In: PAGES Climate2k meeting, Gdansk June 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Understanding climate forcing2012In: Public Service Review: Europe, no 24, p. 194-195Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kleinen, Thomas
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kaplan, Jed
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wramneby, Anna
    Lund University.
    Causes of Regional Change: Land Cover2015In: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin / [ed] The BACC II Author team, Springer, 2015, p. 453-477Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response over the last two centuries is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects and to the biogeochemical versus biogeophysical effects. Palaeoecological studies show that the major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the Baltic Sea basin occurred between 6000 and 3000/2500 cal year BP. The only modelling study of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in north-western Europe suggests that deforestation between 6000 and 200 cal year BP may have caused significant change in winter and summer temperature. There is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback. Several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes.

  • 30.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Poska, Anneli
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    Land cover-climate interactions in the past for the understanding of current and future climate change: the LANDCLIM project2014In: Proceedings of the Global Land Project 2nd Open Science Meeting, Berlin, March 19th – 21st, 2014: Land transformations : between global challenges and local realities, Amsterdam/Berlin/Sao Paulo: Global Land Project , 2014, p. 229-230Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The LANDCLIM (LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene) project has the overall aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in northwestern and western Europe North of the Alps during the Holocene (the last 11 500 years) with the purpose to evaluate and further refine the dynamic vegetation model LPJGUESS and the regional climate model RCA3, and to assess the possible effects on the climate development of two historical processes, i.e. climate-driven changes in vegetation and human-induced changes in land cover, via the influence of forested versus non-forested land cover on shortwave albedo, energy and water fluxes. Accounting for land surface changes may be particularly important for regional climate modeling, as the biophysical feedbacks operate at this scale. The aims of the LANDCLIM project are achieved by applying a model-data comparison scheme. The REVEALS model is used to estimate land cover from pollen data for 10 plant functional types (PFTs) and 5 time windows of the Holocene - modern time, 200 BP, 500 BP, 3000 BP and 6000 BP. The REVEALS estimates are then compared to the LPJGUESS simulations of potential vegetation and with the ALCC scenarios of Kaplan et al. (KK10) and Klein-Goldewijk et al. (HYDE). The alternative descriptions of past land-cover are then used in the regional climate model RCA3 to study the effect of anthropogenic land-cover on climate. The model-simulated climate is finally compared to palaeoclimate proxies other than pollen. The REVEALS estimates demonstrate that the study region was characterized by larger areas of human-induced openland than pollen percentages suggest, and that these areas were already very large by 3000 BP. The KK10 scenarios were found to be closer to the REVEALS estimates than the HYDE scenarios. LPJGUESS simulates potential climate-induced vegetation. The results from the RCA3 runs at 200 BP and 6000 BP using the LPJGUESS and KK10 land-cover descriptions indicate that past human-induced deforestation did produce a decrease in summer temperatures of >0 - 1.5°C due to biogeophysical processes, and that the degree of decrease differed between regions; the effect of human-induced deforestation on winter temperatures was shown to be more complex. The positive property of forests as CO2 sinks is well known. But afforestation (i.e. planting forest) may also have the opposite effect of warming the climate through biogeophysical processes. Careful studies on land cover-climate interactions are essential to understand the net result of all possible processes related to anthropogenic land-cover change so that relevant landscape management can be implemented for mitigation of climate warming.

  • 31.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, GiangiacomoLinnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.Saba, SiddikiSyracuse University, USA.
    Institutional Adaptation and Transformation in Climate Change2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Siddiki, Saba
    Syracuse University, USA.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Editorial: Institutional adaptation and transformation for climate resilience2023In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 11, article id 1159923Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Gimmi, Urs
    et al.
    Wolf, Annett
    Forest Ecology, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland.
    Buergi, Matthias
    Scherstjanoi, Marc
    Bugmann, Harald
    Quantifying disturbance effects on vegetation carbon pools in mountain forests based on historical data2009In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the terrestrial carbon budget is of key importance for atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, little is known on the effects of management and natural disturbances on historical carbon stocks at the regional scale. We reconstruct the dynamics of vegetation carbon stocks and flows in forests across the past 100 years for a valley in the eastern Swiss Prealps using quantitative and qualitative information from forest management plans. The excellent quality of the historical information makes it possible to link dynamics in growing stocks with high-resolution time series for natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The results of the historical reconstruction are compared with modelled potential natural vegetation. Forest carbon stock at the beginning of the twentieth century was substantially reduced compared to natural conditions as a result of large scale clearcutting lasting until the late nineteenth century. Recovery of the forests from this unsustainable exploitation and systematic forest management were the main drivers of a strong carbon accumulation during almost the entire twentieth century. In the 1990s two major storm events and subsequent bark beetle infestations significantly reduced stocks back to the levels of the mid-twentieth century. The future potential for further carbon accumulation was found to be strongly limited, as the potential for further forest expansion in this valley is low and forest properties seem to approach equilibrium with the natural disturbance regime. We conclude that consistent long-term observations of carbon stocks and their changes provide rich information on the historical range of variability of forest ecosystems. Such historical information improves our ability to assess future changes in carbon stocks. Further, the information is vital for better parameterization and initialization of dynamic regional scale vegetation models and it provides important background for appropriate management decisions.

  • 34.
    Grelle, Achim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hedwall, Per-Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Monika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Charlotta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Green Sustainable Development.
    From source to sink: recovery of the carbon balance in young forests2023In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 330, article id 109290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed ecosystem carbon fluxes from eddy-covariance measurements in five young forests in southernSweden where the previous stand had been harvested by clear-cutting or wind-felled: three stands with Norwayspruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), one with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and one with Larch (Larix x eurolepis A.Henry). One of the spruce stands had the stumps harvested, one was fertilized and one without any specialtreatments. These stands returned from positive (sources) to negative (sinks) annual carbon fluxes 8–13 yearsafter disturbance, depending on site productivity and management. This corresponds to approximately 15% ofthe rotation periods at these sites. Extrapolation in combination with chronosequence data suggests thatconventionally regenerated stands reach a neutral carbon balance after approximately 30% of the rotationperiod. The lowest carbon emissions and shortest recovery time was observed in a stand where the stumps of thetrees, in addition to the stems and logging residues, were removed after harvest. This stand not only returned to acarbon sink within this time period but the total carbon gains since disturbance also equaled the total losses afteronly 11 years. These results stress that production stands in southern Sweden are carbon sources during arelatively small part of the rotation period, and that this part can be considerably shortened by measures thatincrease productivity or reduce the amount of woody debris left after disturbance.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Griffiths, Natalie A.
    et al.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Hanson, Paul J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Ricciuto, Daniel M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Iversen, Colleen M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Jensen, Anna M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Malhotra, Avni
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    McFarlane, Karis J.
    Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab, USA.
    Norby, Richard J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Sargsyan, Khachik
    Sandia Natl Labs, USA.
    Sebestyen, Stephen D.
    USDA Forest Serv, USA.
    Shi, Xiaoying
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Walker, Anthony P.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Ward, Eric J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Warren, Jeffrey M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Weston, David J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Temporal and Spatial Variation in Peatland Carbon Cycling and Implications for Interpreting Responses of an Ecosystem-Scale Warming Experiment2017In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, ISSN 0361-5995, E-ISSN 1435-0661, Vol. 81, no 6, p. 1668-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are conducting a large-scale, long-term climate change response experiment in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Minnesota to evaluate the effects of warming and elevated CO2 on ecosystem processes using empirical and modeling approaches. To better frame future assessments of peatland responses to climate change, we characterized and compared spatial vs. temporal variation in measured C cycle processes and their environmental drivers. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis of a peatland C model to identify how variation in ecosystem parameters contributes to model prediction uncertainty. High spatial variability in C cycle processes resulted in the inability to determine if the bog was a C source or sink, as the 95% confidence interval ranged from a source of 50 g C m(-2) yr(-1) to a sink of 67 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Model sensitivity analysis also identified that spatial variation in tree and shrub photosynthesis, allocation characteristics, and maintenance respiration all contributed to large variations in the pretreatment estimates of net C balance. Variation in ecosystem processes can be more thoroughly characterized if more measurements are collected for parameters that are highly variable over space and time, and especially if those measurements encompass environmental gradients that may be driving the spatial and temporal variation (e.g., hummock vs. hollow microtopographies, and wet vs. dry years). Together, the coupled modeling and empirical approaches indicate that variability in C cycle processes and their drivers must be taken into account when interpreting the significance of experimental warming and elevated CO2 treatments.

  • 36.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Balas, Martin
    Univ Sustainable Dev Eberswalde, Germany.
    Mayer, Marius
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany;Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Sun, Ya-Yen
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    A review of tourism and climate change mitigation: The scales, scopes, stakeholders and strategies of carbon management2023In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 95, article id 104681Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism needs to reduce emissions in line with other economic sectors, if the international community's objective of staying global warming at 1.5 degrees-2.0 degrees C is to be achieved. This will require the industry to half emissions to 2030, and to reach net-zero by mid-century. Mitigation requires consideration of four dimensions, the Scales, Scopes, Stakeholders and Strategies of carbon management. The paper provides a systematic review of these dimensions and their interrelationships, with a focus on emission inventory comprehensiveness; allocation principles at different scales; clearly defined responsibilities for decarbonization; and the identification of significant mitigation strategies. The paper concludes that without mitigation efforts, tourism will deplete 40% of the world's remaining carbon budget to 1.5 degrees C. Yet, the most powerful decarbonization measures face major corporate, political and technical barriers. Without worldwide policy efforts at the national scale to manage the sector's emissions, tourism will turn into one of the major drivers of climate change.

  • 37.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Western Norway Research Institute, Norway;.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Millionaire spending incompatible with 1.5 °C ambitions2023In: Cleaner Production Letters, E-ISSN 2666-7916, Vol. 4, article id 100027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much evidence suggests that the wealthiest individuals contribute disproportionally to climate change. Here we study the implications of a continued growth in the number of millionaires for emissions, and its impact on the depletion of the remaining carbon budget to limit global warming to 1.5 °C (about 400 Gt CO2). To this end, we present a model that extrapolates observed growth in millionaire numbers (1990–2020) and associated changes in emissions to 2050. Our findings suggest that the share of US$2020-millionaires in the world population will grow from 0.7% today to 3.3% in 2050, and cause accumulated emissions of 286 Gt CO2. This is equivalent to 72% of the remaining carbon budget, and significantly reduces the chance of stabilizing climate change at 1.5 °C. Continued growth in emissions at the top makes a low-carbon transition less likely, as the acceleration of energy consumption by the wealthiest is likely beyond the system's capacity to decarbonize. To this end, we question whether policy designs such as progressive taxes targeting the high emitters will be sufficient.

  • 38.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany;Liverpool John Moores Univ, UK.
    Net-zero aviation: Transition barriers and radical climate policy design implications2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 912, article id 169107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While air transport decarbonization is theoretically feasible, less attention has been paid to the complexity incurred in various 'transition barriers' that act as roadblocks to net-zero goals. A total of 40 barriers related to mitigation, management, technology and fuel transition, finance, and governance are identified. As these make decarbonization uncertain, the paper analyzes air transport system's growth, revenue, and profitability. Over the period 1978-2022, global aviation has generated marginal profits of US$20200.94 per passenger, or US$202082 billion in total. Low profitability makes it unlikely that the sector can finance the fuel transition cost, at US $0.5-2.1 trillion (Dray et al. 2022). Four radical policy scenarios for air transport futures are developed. All are characterized by "limitations", such as CO2 taxes, a carbon budget, alternative fuel obligations, or available capacity. Scenario runs suggest that all policy scenarios will more reliably lead to net-zero than the continued volume growth model pursued by airlines.

  • 39.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden;Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    The global scale, distribution and growth of aviation: Implications for climate change2020In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 65, p. 1-12, article id 102194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior to the COVID-19 crisis, global air transport demand was expected to triple between 2020 and 2050. The pandemic, which reduced global air travel significantly, provides an opportunity to discuss the scale, distribution and growth of aviation until 2018, also with a view to consider the climate change implications of a return to volume growth. Industry statistics, data provided by supranational organizations, and national surveys are evaluated to develop a pre-pandemic understanding of air transport demand at global, regional, national and individual scales. Results suggest that the share of the world's population travelling by air in 2018 was 11%, with at most 4% taking international flights. Data also supports that a minor share of air travelers is responsible for a large share of warming: The percentile of the most frequent fliers - at most 1% of the world population likely accounts for more than half of the total emissions from passenger air travel. Individual users of private aircraft can contribute to emissions of up to 7,500 t CO2 per year. Findings are specifically relevant with regard to the insight that a large share of global aviation emissions is not covered by policy agreements.

  • 40.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden;Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Bausch, Thomas
    Free Univ Bozen Bolzano, Italy.
    Does 'flight shame' affect social norms?: Changing perspectives on the desirability of air travel in Germany2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 266, p. 1-10, article id 122015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Flight shame' describes an unease about the climate implications of air travel, and bears evidence of a change in social norms that have so far associated flying with social status. This paper discusses whether Fridays for Future demonstrations and ensuing flight shame have influenced social norms regarding the desirability of air travel, and whether this is measurable in a decline in air travel, or policy support for measures curbing emissions from aviation. These aspects are discussed on the basis of German flight statistics and an online panel survey (n = 1002) conducted in August 2019 in Germany. Results show that, against a background of falling domestic air transport demand, respondents do not report a significant change in travel behaviour. However, a two-third majority of respondents indicate support for market-based measures increasing the cost of flying, as well as policies forcing airlines to reduce emissions and legislation abolishing subsidies. These findings point at an ongoing change in social norms, which could be reinforced if policymakers took advantage of public support for ambitious climate policies. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Fichert, Frank
    Worms Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    Creutzig, Felix
    Mercator Res Inst Global Commons & Climate Change, Germany.
    COVID-19 and pathways to low-carbon air transport until 20502021In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 034063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented decline in global air transport and associated reduction in CO2 emissions. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) reacted by weakening its own CO2-offsetting rules. Here we investigate whether the pandemic can be an opportunity to bring the sector on a reliable low-carbon trajectory, with a starting point in the observed reduction in air transport demand. We model a COVID-19 recovery based on a feed-in quota for non-biogenic synthetic fuels that will decarbonize fuels by 2050, as well as a carbon price to account for negative externalities and as an incentive to increase fuel efficiency. Results suggest that until 2050, air transport demand will continue to grow, albeit slower than in ICAO's recovery scenarios, exceeding 2018 demand by 3.7-10.3 trillion RPK. Results show that synthetic fuels, produced by 14-20 EJ of photovoltaic energy, would make it possible to completely phase out fossil fuels and to avoid emissions of up to 26.5 Gt CO2 over the period 2022-2050.

  • 42.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Western Norway Research Institute, Sweden.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Sun, Ya-Yen
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    On track to net-zero? Large tourism enterprises and climate change2024In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 100, p. 104842-104842, article id 104842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much recent research on climate change mitigation has focused on carbon intensities, i.e. emissions per unit of economic value, to better understand interrelationships of decarbonization with value. This paper studies large tourism enterprises, which account for a large share of tourism's emissions. Based on annual reports, the paper evaluates greenhouse gas emission and revenue interrelationships for a total of n = 29 large tourism companies including airlines, cruise lines and accommodation businesses. Together, these companies represent about 13% (365 Mt CO2) of global tourism emissions, generating revenues of US$477 billion (in 2019). The paper tracks their total emissions and emission intensities over the period 2015–2019, revealing that large tourism firms are not on track to net-zero. Results show considerable differences in emission intensities between the three tourism subsectors and between individual firms within the subsectors. These findings are discussed against emission reduction needs to mid-century. There is strong evidence that continued growth at industry's expected rates represents an insurmountable barrier to net-zero, contradicting industry narratives of progressively and successfully engaging with climate change mitigation. 

  • 43.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Kees, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Litman, Todd
    Victoria Transport Policy Inst, Canada.
    Humpe, Andreas
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany.
    The economic cost of a 130 kph speed limit in Germany2023In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 209, article id 107850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Germany remains the only large country in the world without a general speed limit on highways. One of the main arguments for this policy is that lower speeds represent a travel time cost that is not outweighed by benefits, such as a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As transport decision making in the European Union is based on cost -benefit analysis (CBA), this paper compares the value of travel time, fuel consumption, infrastructure, crashes, carbon dioxide (CO2), and air pollution. Results suggests that, at the low end of the estimate, a 130 kph speed limit will generate welfare gains in the order of 950 million Euro per year. The 'no speed limit' policy conse-quently represents a subsidy forwarded to fast drivers. The paper also discusses the views of the public vis-`a-vis automobile lobbies, and the relevance of Germany's climate change mitigation law, mandating that transport systems be decarbonized. The CBA suggests that a 130 kph speed limit is a policy field where environmental concerns, positive economic effects, and public opinion can be aligned.

  • 44.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Lund-Durlacher, Dagmar
    Modul University Vienna, Austria.
    Tourist accommodation, climate change and mitigation: An assessment for Austria2021In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 34, no June, article id 100367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accommodation is an important part of the tourism value chain, and accounts for a substantial share of the sector's greenhouse gas emissions. This paper provides a short global overview of the energy-intensity of various forms of accommodation establishments, with a more focused discussion of energy-use in Austria, including different types of end-uses. The paper concludes that the accommodation sector is, in comparison to transportation, already a low-carbon sector, and has a good potential to fully decarbonize until 2040. The paper analyses carbon management needs in businesses, as well as the role and importance of policies and legislation to accelerate decarbonization. This paper has an applied nature and is part of the Austrian Special Report on Climate Change.

    Management Implications:

    • Most accommodation establishments still waste energy. Yet, interest in saving energy is often limited due to the (perceived) low cost of energy.
    • A switch to renewable electricity use (sun, wind, water) as well as other renewable energies (wood, biogas) is only marginally more expensive than using conventional (fossil) energy.
    • Energy consulting, incentive programs, as well as energy-related legislation can also increase the interest of owners and managers to engage in energy savings.
    • For new buildings, architecture and design can support energy savings. Passive energy standards, passive solar heating, passive cooling, as well as smaller guest rooms or public areas reduce heating and cooling cost. Compact designs also reduce staff and operational cost.
    • Additional reductions in CO2 emissions can result out of greater awareness of energy use, and concomitant changes in service designs (e.g., food, wellness, transport).
    • Information on climate-friendliness in marketing materials and reservation platforms involves guests, influences their choices, and serves as an incentive for further low-carbon investments.
    • Staff training in energy-management and low-carbon operations can make significant contributions to operational energy savings, and is often paramount for the implementation of measures.
  • 45.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden.
    Nicolosi, Jessica
    T3 Freiburg, Germany.
    Litman, Todd
    Victoria Transport Policy Inst, Canada.
    The Health Cost of Transport in Cities2021In: Current Environmental Health Reports, E-ISSN 2196-5412, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 196-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of Review The study aims to provide an understanding of health cost assessments of different transport modes in urban contexts, and their relevance for transport planning and political decision-making. Recent Findings There is strong evidence that motorized transportation imposes a high health cost on society, and specifically children. In contrast, active transport is a very significant health benefit. Economic analyses support urban change in favor of compact neighborhoods and public transit, as well as infrastructure exclusively devoted to active transport. Private cars need to be restricted because of the high cost they impose on society.

  • 46.
    Göttel, Holger
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Alexander, Jorn
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Keup-Thiel, Elke
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Rechid, Diana
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Hagemann, Stefan
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Blome, Tanja
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Wolf, Annett
    Abisko Scientific Research Station, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jacob, Daniela
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany.
    Influence of changed vegetations fields on regional climate simulations in the Barents Sea Region2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 35-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the EU-Project BALANCE (http://balance-eu.info) the regional climate model REMO was used for extensive calculations of the Barents Sea climate to investigate the vulnerability of this region to climate change. The regional climate model REMO simulated the climate change of the Barents Sea Region between 1961 and 2100 (Control and Climate Change run, CCC-Run). REMO on similar to 50 km horizontal resolution was driven by the transient ECHAM4/OPYC3 IPCC SRES B2 scenario. The output of the CCC-Run was applied to drive the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS. The results of the vegetation model were used to repeat the CCC-Run with dynamic vegetation fields. The feedback effect of the modified vegetation on the climate change signal is investigated and discussed with focus on precipitation, temperature and snow cover. The effect of the offline coupled vegetation feedback run is much lower than the greenhouse gas effect.

  • 47.
    Haesen, Stef
    et al.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Lembrechts, Jonas J.
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    Univ Picardie Jules Verne, France.
    Aalto, Juha
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Finland;Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Ashcroft, Michael B.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Kopecky, Martin
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic;Czech Univ Life Sci Prague, Czech Republic.
    Luoto, Miska
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Maclean, Ilya
    Univ Exeter, UK.
    Nijs, Ivan
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Niittynen, Pekka
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    van den Hoogen, Johan
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Arriga, Nicola
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Bruna, Josef
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Buchmann, Nina
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Ciliak, Marek
    Tech Univ Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Collalti, Alessio
    Natl Res Council Italy CNR ISAFOM, Italy.
    De Lombaerde, Emiel
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Descombes, Patrice
    Univ Lausanne, Switzerland;Musee & Jardins Bot Cantonaux, Switzerland.
    Gharun, Mana
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland;Univ Munster, Germany.
    Goded, Ignacio
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Govaert, Sanne
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Greiser, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Grelle, Achim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Gruening, Carsten
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Hederova, Lucia
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kreyling, Juergen
    Univ Greifswald, Germany.
    Kruijt, Bart
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Macek, Martin
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Malis, Frantisek
    Tech Univ Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Man, Matej
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Manca, Giovanni
    European Commiss, Italy.
    Matula, Radim
    Czech Univ Life Sci Prague, Czech Republic.
    Meeussen, Camille
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Merinero, Sonia
    Univ Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Minerbi, Stefano
    Forest Serv, Italy.
    Montagnani, Leonardo
    Forest Serv, Italy;Free Univ Bolzano, Italy.
    Muffler, Lena
    Georg August Univ Goettingen, Germany.
    Ogaya, Roma
    CREAF CSIC UAB, Spain.
    Penuelas, Josep
    CREAF CSIC UAB, Spain.
    Plichta, Roman
    Mendel Univ Brno, Czech Republic.
    Portillo-Estrada, Miguel
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Schmeddes, Jonas
    Univ Greifswald, Germany.
    Shekhar, Ankit
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Spicher, Fabien
    Univ Picardie Jules Verne, France.
    Ujhazyova, Mariana
    Tech Univ Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Weigel, Robert
    Georg August Univ Göttingen, Germany;CREAF CSIC UAB, Spain.
    Wild, Jan
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Zellweger, Florian
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Switzerland.
    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    ForestClim: Bioclimatic variables for microclimate temperatures of European forests2023In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 2886-2892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microclimate research gained renewed interest over the last decade and its importance for many ecological processes is increasingly being recognized. Consequently, the call for high-resolution microclimatic temperature grids across broad spatial extents is becoming more pressing to improve ecological models. Here, we provide a new set of open-access bioclimatic variables for microclimate temperatures of European forests at 25 x 25 m2 resolution.

  • 48.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand;University of Oulu, Finland;Lund University, Sweden.
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    University of Oulu, Finland;University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    20 Years of Nordic climate change crisis and tourism research: a review and future research agenda2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 102-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change poses an existential crisis for tourism and destinations. Nordic researchers have been at the forefront of research on climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation. The review provides a brief account of some of the main themes in Nordic climate change research from a regional and international perspective and potential future research directions. Key themes identified include the environmental, economic and social sensitivities of the Nordic region, the implications of climate change for winter-oriented tourism businesses, and the substantial international contribution of Nordic-based researchers to international research on the climate crisis and tourism.

  • 49.
    Huijbens, Edward H.
    et al.
    Durham University, UK.
    Gren, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    They say “our house is on fire” – on the climate emergency and (new) Earth politics2021In: Imagining Apocalyptic Politics in the Anthropocene / [ed] Earl T. Harper;Doug Specht, Routledge, 2021, p. 15-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the empirical scope and gravity of the ongoing planetary climate and ecological mutation we can safely say that “our house is on fire”. The chapter problematizes the conceptualization of the Earth and engages “the Critical Zone” as an earthly entity for composing our common planetary house in actionable terms. The chapter points towards a politics of earthly habitation, a (new) Earth politics that does not depart from Nature and Society, nor separates the social from the natural, and where the earthly territorialities of the local is folded with the territory of planetary climate conditions. The emerging (new) Earth politics highlight the “planetary vital signs” which need to be incorporated into climate politics in and of the Critical Zone.

  • 50.
    Humpe, Andreas
    et al.
    Munich Univ Appl Sci, Germany;Inst Applicat Machine Learning & Intelligent Syst, Germany.
    Sun, Ya-Yen
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS). Western Norway Res Inst, Norway.
    Cruise emissions and economic feasibility of biofuels2023In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 103, article id 103666Article in journal (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 106
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf