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  • 1. Amanda Collaboration, -
    et al.
    Pohl, Arvid
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Optical Properties of Deep Glacial Ice at the South Pole2006Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 111, nr D13, s. D13203-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in ice cores from other Antarctic sites and which track climatological changes. The scattering coefficient varies by a factor of seven, and absorptivity (for wavelengths less than ∼450 nm) varies by a factor of three in the depth range between 1300 and 2300 m, where four dust peaks due to stadials in the late Pleistocene have been identified. In our absorption data, we also identify a broad peak due to the Last Glacial Maximum around 1300 m. In the scattering data, this peak is partially masked by scattering on residual air bubbles, whose contribution dominates the scattering coefficient in shallower ice but vanishes at ∼1350 m where all bubbles have converted to nonscattering air hydrates. The wavelength dependence of scattering by dust is described by a power law with exponent −0.90 ± 0.03, independent of depth. The wavelength dependence of absorptivity in the studied wavelength range is described by the sum of two components: a power law due to absorption by dust, with exponent −1.08 ± 0.01 and a normalization proportional to dust concentration that varies with depth; and a rising exponential due to intrinsic ice absorption which dominates at wavelengths greater than ∼500 nm.

  • 2.
    Ferrón, Sara
    et al.
    University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, USA.
    Wilson, Samuel T.
    University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, USA.
    Martínez-García, Sandra
    University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, USA.
    Quay, Paul D.
    University of Washington, USA.
    Karl, David M.
    University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, USA.
    Metabolic balance in the mixed layer of the oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean from diel changes in O2/Ar saturation ratios2015Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 42, nr 9, s. 3421-3430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ measurements were made to determine oxygen (O<inf>2</inf>) metabolic balance in the upper oligotrophic ocean from diel changes in O<inf>2</inf> to argon (Ar) ratios. The study took place during 13-24 March 2014, at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment), in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Microbial community respiration and gross O<inf>2</inf> production, estimated from in situ diel changes in O<inf>2</inf>/Ar saturation, agreed well with those calculated using other independent methods. Net oxygen production (NOP), estimated from in situ diel changes in O<inf>2</inf>/Ar saturation, showed large day-to-day variability. However, when averaged over the entire observational period, mean diel NOP was in relatively good agreement with the estimated mean steady state NOP (9.2±9.3mmolO<inf>2</inf>m-2d-1 compared to 11.7±1.1mmolO<inf>2</inf>m-2d-1, respectively). Key Points Diel changes in O<inf>2</inf>/Ar were used to determine mixed layer ecosystem metabolism Estimated metabolic rates agreed well with other independent methods There was a net production of O<inf>2</inf> in the mixed layer during the sampling period.

  • 3.
    Oleschko, K.
    et al.
    National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Applications of p-adics to geophysics: Linear and quasilinear diffusion of water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions2017Inngår i: Theoretical and mathematical physics, ISSN 0040-5779, E-ISSN 1573-9333, Vol. 190, nr 1, s. 154-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a very general setting, we discuss possibilities of applying p-adics to geophysics using a p-adic diffusion representation of the master equations for the dynamics of a fluid in capillaries in porous media and formulate several mathematical problems motivated by such applications. We stress that p-adic wavelets are a powerful tool for obtaining analytic solutions of diffusion equations. Because p-adic diffusion is a special case of fractional diffusion, which is closely related to the fractal structure of the configuration space, p-adic geophysics can be regarded as a new approach to fractal modeling of geophysical processes.

  • 4.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Åström, Mats
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Urban geochemistry: a multimedia and multielement survey of a northern small-town urban area2003Inngår i: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 397-419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations and distributions of chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La,Mg,Mn,Mo, Na,Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Te, Th, Ti, Tl,U, V, Wand Zn) were studied in till, humus and urban soil in Jakobstad, a small town (20,000 inhabitants)in W. Finland. The analyses were performed with ICP-MS after aqua regia leaching of till (n = 37), urban topsoil (n = 32) and subsoil (n = 32), and HNO3 leaching of humus (n = 37). The till and humus samples, collected at the same sites, were divided into urban and rural samples. The urban till was not significantly enriched in metals. In contrast, a majority of the elements occurred in higher concentrations in the urban than the rural humus samples. Statistical and spatial interpretations of the humus data revealed that traffic (Pb, V and Ni), metal industry (Pb, Zn, Bi, Sb and Cr), an abandoned shooting range (Pb and Sb) and other sources contribute to higher metal levels in the urban humus. The urban soil samples were collected at parks, yards, abandoned industrial sites, roadsides, etc. The topsoil samples were enriched in most elements, also by elements not enriched in the urban humus (e.g. Cd). At several sites, the concentrations far exceeded the limit concentrations for contaminatedsoils in Finland. A large variety of sources were identified or indicated. 

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