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  • 1. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Dahl, J.
    Johansson, A.
    Karås, P.
    Nilsson, J.
    Sandström, O.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Utslagen fiskrekrytering och sviktande fiskbestånd i Kalmar läns kustvatten. (English title: Recruitment failure and decreasing fish stocks in the coastal areas of Kalmarsund.)2000Report (Refereed)
  • 2. Barber, I.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. A.
    Effects of experimental Schistocephalus solidus infections on growth, morphology and sexual development of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus2003In: Parasitology, ISSN 0031-1820, E-ISSN 1469-8161, Vol. 126, p. 359-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of naturally infected hosts in studies attempting to identify parasite-induced changes in host biology is problematical because it does not eliminate the possibility that infection may be a consequence, rather than a cause, of host trait variation. In addition, uncontrolled concomitant infections may confound results. In this study we experimentally infected individual laboratory-bred female three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus L. with the pseudophyllidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus [Muller], and compared the morphology and growth patterns of infected females with sham-exposed controls over a 16-week period. Fish were fed a ration of 8% body weight per day. Non-invasive image analysis techniques allowed the growth of individual plerocercoids to be tracked in vivo throughout the course of infection, and patterns of host and parasite growth were determined. Females that developed infections diverged morphometrically from unexposed control females and exposed-uninfected females at 6 weeks post-infection, with the width of the body at the pectoral fins giving the earliest indication of infection success. When including the plerocercoid, infected females gained weight more quickly than controls, but when plerocercoid weight was removed this trend was reversed. There was no effect of infection on the increase in fish length. Plerocercoids grew at different rates in individual hosts, and exhibited measurable sustained weight increases of up to 10% per day. Final estimates of plerocercoid weight from morphometric analysis prior to autopsy were accurate to within +/-17% of actual plerocercoid weight. At autopsy, infected female sticklebacks had significantly lower perivisceral fat reserves but had developed significantly larger ovaries than controls. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies examining natural infections, and the value of utilizing experimental infections to examine ecological aspects of host-parasite interactions is discussed.

  • 3. Barber, I.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Synchrony between parasite development and host behaviour change2003In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 63 Supp A, p. 246-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Barber, I.
    et al.
    Walker, P.
    Svensson, P. A.
    Behavioural responses to simulated avian predation in female three spined sticklebacks the effect of experimental Schistocephalus solidus infections2004In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 141, p. 1425-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plerocercoid larvae of Schistocephalus solidus are common parasites of three-spined sticklebacks that require the ingestion of stickleback hosts by birds to complete their life cycle. Amongst wild-caught sticklebacks, infection is associated with a reduction in antipredator behaviour; however, to date no study has examined the escape responses of experimentally infected sticklebacks, and thus assigning causality remains difficult. Here, we compare aspects of the antipredator behaviour of five experimentally infected female sticklebacks with shamexposed controls over a 16 post-exposure week period. During weeks 1-7 post-exposure, the escape responses of infected fish did not differ significantly from those of sham-exposed fish. However, over weeks 9-15, when infected fish had developed plerocercoids of >50 mg—the size at which they become infective to birds —a lower proportion of infected fish performed directional responses and reached cover within 2 s of the strike. Infected fish also performed a lower frequency of ‘staggered dashes’, and a higher frequency of ‘slow swims’, than shamexposed fish over weeks 9-15. Amongst sham-exposed fish, re-emergence from cover was uncommon throughout the study, but infected fish regularly left cover during weeks 9-15. Our results support those of previous studies examining behavioural change in naturally infected fish and, although other explanations remain possible, our finding that behaviour change in experimentally-infected fish is limited to hosts harbouring single infective parasites provides further evidence that the behaviour changes may be parasite adaptations.

  • 5. Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Bilton, David T.
    Fujisawa, Tomochika
    Elliott, Miranda
    Monaghan, Michael T.
    Balke, Michael
    Hendrich, Lars
    Geijer, Joja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Foster, Garth N.
    Ribera, Ignacio
    Nilsson, Anders N.
    Barraclough, Timothy G.
    Vogler, Alfried P.
    The Effect of Geographical Scale of Sampling on DNA Barcoding2012In: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 851-869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight years after DNA barcoding was formally proposed on a large scale, CO1 sequences are rapidly accumulating from around the world. While studies to date have mostly targeted local or regional species assemblages, the recent launch of the global iBOL project (International Barcode of Life), highlights the need to understand the effects of geographical scale on Barcoding's goals. Sampling has been central in the debate on DNA Barcoding, but the effect of the geographical scale of sampling has not yet been thoroughly and explicitly tested with empirical data. Here, we present a CO1 data set of aquatic predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Agabini, sampled throughout Europe, and use it to investigate how the geographic scale of sampling affects 1) the estimated intraspecific variation of species, 2) the genetic distance to the most closely related heterospecific, 3) the ratio of intraspecific and interspecific variation, 4) the frequency of taxonomically recognized species found to be monophyletic, and 5) query identification performance based on 6 different species assignment methods. Intraspecific variation was significantly correlated with the geographical scale of sampling (R-square = 0.7), and more than half of the species with 10 or more sampled individuals (N = 29) showed higher intraspecific variation than 1%, sequence divergence. In contrast, the distance to the closest heterospecific showed a significant decrease with increasing geographical scale of sampling. The average genetic distance dropped from >7% for samples within 1 km, to <3.5% for samples up to >6000 km apart. Over a third of the species were not monophyletic, and the proportion increased through locally, nationally, regionally, and continentally restricted subsets of the data. The success of identifying queries decreased with increasing spatial scale of sampling; liberal methods declined from 100% to around 90%, whereas strict methods dropped to below 50% at continental scales. The proportion of query, identifications considered uncertain (more than one species <1% distance from query) escalated from zero at local, to 50% at continental scale. Finally, by resampling the most widely sampled species we show that even if samples are collected to maximize the geographical coverage, up to 70 individuals are required to sample 95%, of intraspecific variation. The results show that the geographical scale of sampling has a critical impact on the global application of DNA barcoding. Scale-effects result from the relative importance of different processes determining the composition of regional species assemblages (dispersal and ecological assembly) and global clades (demography, speciation, and extinction). The incorporation of geographical information, where available, will be required to obtain identification rates at global scales equivalent to those in regional barcoding studies. Our result hence provides an impetus for both smarter barcoding tools and sprouting national barcoding initiatives smaller geographical scales deliver higher accuracy.

  • 6. Eklund, B.
    et al.
    Svensson, A. P.
    Jonsson, C.
    Malm, T.
    Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms2005In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 621-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l(-1) dw red algae. The lethal concentration for L baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7. Engkvist, R.
    et al.
    Malm, T.
    Svensson, A.
    Asplund, L.
    Isaeus, M.
    Kautsky, L.
    Greger, M.
    Lanberg, T.
    Makroalgsblomningar längs Ölands kuster, effekter på det lokala näringslivet och det marina ekosystemet. (English title: Macro algal blooms in the central Baltic proper, effects on the economy and the marine ecosystem.)2001Report (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Fernando, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. The Manta Trust, UK ; Blue Resources, Sri Lanka.
    Perera, Nishan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Blue Resources, Sri Lanka.
    Ebert, David A.
    Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, USA.
    First record of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, (Chondrichthyes : Lamniformes : Megachasmidae) from Sri Lanka, northern Indian Ocean2015In: Marine Biodiversity Records, ISSN 1755-2672, E-ISSN 1755-2672, Vol. 8, p. 1-3, article id e75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is a rare and poorly studied shark. In this paper, the first record of the megamouth shark is reported for Sri Lanka. The shark, a juvenile estimated at 180 cm in total length, was caught in a gillnet in close proximity (<92 km) to the Negombo fisheries harbour (7°12′11.67″N 79°49′44.35″E).

  • 9.
    Franzén, Markus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Schrader, Julian
    Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Sjöberg, Göran
    Avellaneda Museum, Gävle.
    Butterfly diversity and seasonality of Ta Phin mountain area (N. Vietnam, Lao Cai province)2017In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 465-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet's biodiversity. Butterflies are important indicators for environmental change and are a suitable group to detect areas of high conservation concern and prioritize conservation efforts. To obtain data to support urgently-needed conservation measures, we surveyed the butterfly fauna in a mountainous region of northern Vietnam, using transect counts over 8 months (121 survey days) from June 2014 to April 2015. In total, we recorded > 26,000 butterflies belonging to 231 species, including at least two species new to Vietnam, three red-listed and protected species listed by CITES. Most species were rare: we recorded members of 100 species ae<currency>5 times and 52 species just once. Males dominated the sample, accounting for 81% of all observed butterflies and all members of 84 observed species. Species richness and abundance were highest in July, and there were surprisingly large changes in species composition between months. Species richness curves reached saturation, indicating that we detected most species present in the area, except for members of two families (Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae). Our results highlight the importance of thorough studies using standardized methods, capable of detecting most species in an area, over a whole season. There are urgent needs to integrate butterflies into conservation programs and use their potential as indicator species of habitat degradation and land use intensity.

  • 10.
    Jonason, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Franzén, Markus
    UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Surveying moths using light traps: effects of weather and time of year2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, article id e92453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light trapping is an ideal method for surveying nocturnal moths, but in the absence of standardised survey methods effects of confounding factors may impede interpretation of the acquired data. We explored the influence of weather, time of year, and light source on nightly catches of macro moths in light traps, and compared four strategies for sampling by estimating observed species richness using rarefaction. We operated two traps with different light sources for 225 consecutive nights from mid-March to the end of October in eastern Germany in 2011. In total, 49 472 individuals of 372 species were recorded. Species richness and abundance per night were mainly influenced by night temperature, humidity and lamp type. With a limited sample size (<10 nights) it was slightly better to concentrate sampling on the warmest summer nights, but with more sampling nights it was slightly better to sample during the warmest nights in each month (March to October). By exploiting the higher moth activity during warm nights and an understanding of the species' phenology, it is possible to increase the number of species caught and reduce effects of confounding abiotic factors.

  • 11.
    Kiørboe, Thomas
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Plankton beskytter sig med solcreme2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Plante- og dyreplankton, der lever nær havoverfladen, udsættes for kraftigt sollys. De bliver solbrændte og akkumulerer solcreme for at beskytte sig mod skadelig UV-stråling. Beskyttelsesmekanismerne har betydning for livet højere i fødekæden.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The Baltic Sea is an important wintering area for waterbirds2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T. (Eds.), Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 438-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Lawson, Becki
    et al.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Robinson, Robert A.
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos
    IDEXX Labs Ltd, UK.
    John, Shinto K.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Benitez, Laura
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Risely, Kate
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Toms, Mike P.
    British Trust Ornithol, UK.
    Cunningham, Andrew A.
    Zool Soc London, UK.
    Williams, Richard A. J.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Spatio-temporal dynamics and aetiology of proliferative leg skin lesions in wild British finches2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 14670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proliferative leg skin lesions have been described in wild finches in Europe although there have been no large-scale studies of their aetiology or epizootiology to date. Firstly, disease surveillance, utilising public reporting of observations of live wild finches was conducted in Great Britain (GB) and showed proliferative leg skin lesions in chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) to be widespread. Seasonal variation was observed, with a peak during the winter months. Secondly, pathological investigations were performed on a sample of 39 chaffinches, four bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), one greenfinch (Chloris chloris) and one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) with proliferative leg skin lesions and detected Cnemidocoptes sp. mites in 91% (41/45) of affected finches and from all species examined. Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FcPV1) PCR was positive in 74% (23/31) of birds tested: a 394 base pair sequence was derived from 20 of these birds, from all examined species, with 100% identity to reference genomes. Both mites and FcPV1 DNA were detected in 71% (20/28) of birds tested for both pathogens. Histopathological examination of lesions did not discriminate the relative importance of mite or FcPV1 infection as their cause. Development of techniques to localise FcPV1 within lesions is required to elucidate the pathological significance of FcPV1 DNA detection.

  • 14.
    Lehtonen, Topi K.
    et al.
    University of Konstanz, Germany ; Monash University, Australia; University of Turku, Finland.
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Monash University, Australia.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Monash University, Australia.
    Meyer, Axel
    University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Adjustment of brood care behaviour in the absence of a mate in two species of Nicaraguan crater lake cichlids2011In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 613-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many taxa, parental strategies can vary among individuals. This is especially true in species with biparental care, with males, more often than females, deserting their mates. While there is an abundance of theoretical predictions and empirical data on factors inducing mate abandonment by males, much less is known about what consequences this may have on female behaviour, particularly in the field and in non-avian systems. Here, we compared brood defence rate, behavioural defence types, and brood success of solitary and paired females in two species of Neotropical cichlid fish in their natural habitat. In terms of the rate of territorial aggression towards potential brood predators, solitary females were able to fully compensate in the absence of a male but, in so doing, ended up maintaining smaller territories, which appeared to compromise offspring fitness in at least one of the two species. Hence, our results suggest that even extensive quantitative compensation in parental effort by solitary females may not be enough to ensure adequate qualitative compensation for the lack of male participation, highlighting the importance of distinguishing between these two aspects of compensatory parental care.

  • 15.
    Medina-Silva, Renata
    et al.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Oliviera, Rafael R.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Trindade, Fernanda J.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Borges, Luiz G. A.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Simao, Taiz L. Lopes
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Augustin, Adolpho H.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Valdez, Fernanda P.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Constant, Marcelo J.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Simundi, Carolina L.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Eizirik, Eduardo
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Groposo, Claudia
    CENPES/PETROBRAS, Brazil.
    Miller, Dennis J.
    CENPES/PETROBRAS, Brazil.
    Reis da Silva, Priscila
    CENPES/PETROBRAS, Brazil.
    Viana, Adriano R.
    PETROBRAS/E&P-EXP/GEOF/MNS, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Giongo, Adriana
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Microbiota associated with tubes of Escarpia sp. from cold seeps in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean constitutes a community distinct from that of surrounding marine sediment and water2017In: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0003-6072, E-ISSN 1572-9699, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 533-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the depth increases and the light fades in oceanic cold seeps, a variety of chemosynthetic-based benthic communities arise. Previous assessments reported polychaete annelids belonging to the family Siboglinidae as part of the fauna at cold seeps, with the ‘Vestimentifera’ clade containing specialists that depend on microbial chemosynthetic endosymbionts for nutrition. Little information exists concerning the microbiota of the external portion of the vestimentiferan trunk wall. We employed 16S rDNA-based metabarcoding to describe the external microbiota of the chitin tubes from the vestimentiferan Escarpia collected from a chemosynthetic community in a cold seep area at the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit (OTU) belonged to the family Pirellulaceae (phylum Planctomycetes), and the second most abundant OTU belonged to the order Methylococcales (phylum Proteobacteria), composing an average of 21.1 and 15.4% of the total reads on tubes, respectively. These frequencies contrasted with those from the surrounding environment (sediment and water), where they represent no more than 0.1% of the total reads each. Moreover, some taxa with lower abundances were detected only in Escarpia tube walls. These data constitute on the first report of an epibiont microbial community found in close association with external surface of a cold-seep metazoan, Escarpia sp., from a chemosynthetic community in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tånglake2014In: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 1p. 24-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tånglake, Zoarces viviparus, är allmänt förekommande längs med hela den svenska kusten, ända från Skagerack till Bottniska viken. Arten är bottenlevande och påträffas oftast på relativt grunt vatten. På sommaren lever tånglaken på lite djupare vatten, men då temperaturen sjunker på senhösten kommer den in på de grundare områdena. Under vintern är det inte ovanligt att man hittar den i hålrum under stenar. Tånglaken trivs i kallt vatten, och är en av de arter som missgynnas av klimatförändringar.

  • 17. Nilsson Sköld, H.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.
    Zejlon, C.
    The capacity for internal colour change is related to body transparency in fishes2010In: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, ISSN 1755-1471, E-ISSN 1755-148X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 292-295Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Polic, Daniela
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Fiedler, Konrad
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Nell, Christopher
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Grill, Andrea
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Mobility of ringlet butterflies in high-elevation alpine grassland: effects of habitat barriers, resources and age2014In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1153-1161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is a crucial feature for the long-term survival of metapopulations. Each individual that leaves the habitat and enters the matrix takes a risk. Consequently, even winged organisms, like butterflies, are often extremely sedentary and spend much of their lifetime in very restricted areas. For such species, large roads may be a serious obstacle for movement. Here, we aim to study if a large and highly frequented road in an alpine environment hinders the movement of relatively sedentary butterflies of the genus Erebia. We conducted a mark-release-recapture study on six alpine Erebia species (E. eriphyleE. epiphronE. gorgeE. pharteE. pandrose and E. nivalis) in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria. We measured the following variables which we hypothesize to affect movement probability: (a) species identity, (b) nectar resource availability, (c) butterfly age or (d) patch isolation through the road. Population density estimates ranged from 230 ± 35 individuals for E. pharte to 1,316 ± 205 individuals for E. epiphron per hectare. More than 50 percent of recaptured butterflies were tracked within distances of <25 m. The maximum flight distance recorded was 332 m (E. epiphron). Our data indicate that species identity generally did not have a significant effect on mobility patterns in the studied Erebia butterflies. Only one species, E. pharte, was more likely to change the plot than the others. High resource availability decreased butterfly movement. Age influenced mobility, with mid-aged butterflies being most likely to move between patches. The road hindered dispersal. Butterflies which had to cross the road to get to another suitable habitat patch were less likely to move than butterflies that did not have to cross the road.

  • 19.
    Rasmont, Pierre
    et al.
    Université de Mons, Belgium.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany.
    Lecocq, Thomas
    Université de Mons, Belgium.
    Harpke, Alexander
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Germany.
    Roberts, Stuart
    University of Reading, UK.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands.
    Castro, Leopoldo
    I.E.S. Vega del Turia, Spain.
    Cederberg, Björn
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Dvorak, Libor
    Municipal Museum Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic.
    Fitzpatrick, Úna
    Municipal Museum Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic.
    Gonseth, Yves
    Haubruge, Eric
    Mahé, Gilles
    Manino, Aulo
    Michez, Denis
    Neumayer, Johann
    Ødegaard, Frode
    Paukkunen, Juho
    Pawlikowski, Tadeusz
    Potts, Simon
    Reemer, Menno
    Settele, Josef
    Straka, Jakub
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Climatic Risk and Distribution Atlas of European Bumblebees2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bumble bees represent one of the most important groups of pollinators. In addition to their ecological and economic relevance, they are also a highly charismatic group which can help to increase the interest of people in realizing, enjoying and conserving natural systems. However, like most animals, bumble bees are sensitive to climate. In this atlas, maps depicting potential risks of climate change for bumble bees are shown together with informative summary statistics, ecological background information and a picture of each European species.

    Thanks to the EU FP7 project STEP, the authors gathered over one million bumblebee records from all over Europe. Based on these data, they modelled the current climatic niche for almost all European species (56 species) and projected future climatically suitable conditions using three climate change scenarios for the years 2050 and 2100. While under a moderate change scenario only 3 species are projected to be at the verge of extinction by 2100, 14 species are at high risk under an intermediate change scenario. Under a most severe change scenario as many as 25 species are projected to lose almost all of their climatically suitable area, while a total of 53 species (77% of the 69 European species) would lose the main part of their suitable area.

    Climatic risks for bumblebees can be extremely high, depending on the future development of human society, and the corresponding effects on the climate. Strong mitigation strategies are needed to preserve this important species group and to ensure the sustainable provision of pollination services, to which they considerably contribute.

  • 20.
    Schrödl, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Do the tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) use their animal exploration trail?: A space use study on a 360 zoo exhibit at a Swedish zoo2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Zoos have important roles in society such as conservation, but also a responsibility concerning their captive animals’ welfare. One way of improving animal welfare is by providing enrichment and one such enrichment is the innovative animal exploration trails in 360 Zoo exhibits. These are supposed to enable the animals to travel larger, continuous distances and provide enriching visual, scent, and noise stimuli in hopes that the animals will have an activity budget closer to in their wild counterparts and having a larger behaviour repertoire. These are both ways to determine if animals’ welfare is good. However, these animal trails have yet to be evaluated for their effect on animal welfare, and this study aimed to evaluate how much a group of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) at Öland Zoo and Amusement Park in Sweden used their animal trail and to investigate if their use was affected by the weather, temperature, or by visitors being present. The results show that the capuchins used the trail to a great extent, and that their use varied significantly depending on the weather, temperature and visitors. The data sample was, however questionable for these environmental factors and no strong associations were found for their effect, which was attributed to the capuchins possibly having a preference for being outside despite aversive conditions, but also to the design of the trail. Its design was maybe not optimal as it only had one entrance, which could impede its usefulness as a result of social factors for example. The trail does, however grant the capuchins a more complex environment, which is known to be related to better animal welfare, and the trail also gives the animals choice and control of their environment, which has been found to enable animals to better cope with stress and the presence of visitors. In conclusion, the animal trail was found to be a great extent by the capuchins and the trail could potentially provide better animal welfare, but the effect would depend on its design. Further research on animal trails’ effect of animal welfare is needed before expanding the its use.

  • 21. Sköld, H. N.
    et al.
    Amundsen, T.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Mayer, I.
    Bjelvenmark, J.
    Forsgren, E.
    Hormonal regulation of female nuptial coloration in a fish2008In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 549-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological color change in camouflage and mating is widespread among fishes, but little is known about the regulation of such temporal changes in nuptial coloration and particularly concerning female coloration. To better understand regulation of nuptial coloration we investigated physiological color change in female two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). Females of this species develop an orange belly that acts as an ornament. The orange color is caused by the color of the gonads combined with the chromathophore based pigmentation and transparency of the skin. Often during courtship and female-female competition, a rapid increase in orange coloration, in combination with lighter sides and back that increases skin and body transparency, gives the belly an intense 'glowing' appearance. To understand how this increased orange coloration can be regulated we analysed chromatic and transparency effects of neurohumoral agents on abdominal skin biopsies in vitro. We found prolactin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) to increase orange coloration of the skin. By contrast, melatonin and noradrenaline increased skin transparency, but had a negative effect on orange coloration. However, mixtures of melatonin and MSH, or melatonin and prolactin, increased both orange coloration and transparency. This effect mimics the chromatic 'glow' effect that commonly takes place during courtship and intra sexual aggression. Notably, not only epidermal chromatophores but also internal chromatophores lining the peritoneum responded to hormone treatments. There were no chromatic effects of the sex steroids 17 beta-estradiol, testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone. We hypothesize that similar modulation of nuptial coloration by multiple hormones may be widespread in nature. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Sopelsa Hall, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ex situ lion conservation: Behavioural responses to playbacks of competitors with focus on sex and age differences2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing habitat loss, human-lion conflict, poaching and other reasons, African lion (Panthera leo) populations have suffered a drastic decline. The African Lion and Environmental Research Trust (ALERT) is working to stop this pattern and is the first organization with an ex-situ conservation project for lions. Before releasing lions raised by captive-bred adults, they must first be ensured to behave properly to make sure they have the highest chance of survival. One challenge in the wild is encountering and competition with unknown conspecifics. By conducting playback of unfamiliar lion roars, the behaviours of lions under this ex-situ reintroduction program were tested and compared with observations from earlier studies of wild lions. Social interactions were also collected and a social network analysis was done to give information about the social structure in the pride. This in turn was compared with boldness scores, calculated from behavioural responses in the playback experiments. Lastly, I searched for associations between age and sex with both boldness and social interactions.

     

    The studied pride consisted of 12 lions. The lions were more vigilant when a playback consisted of numerous lions vocalizing, but playing more than three lions seemed to make them loose interest, suggesting either habituation or false information. One adult female and the alpha-male were most bold, followed by five sub-adults. Boldness did not vary according to sex or age differences, but the social network analysis showed that some social interactions were more dominated by one sex or age group. These behaviours were in agreement with comparisons of wild prides.

     

    This study showed that captive-bred lions have developed natural social behaviours. Based on the behavioural responses observed by the captive-origin lions to the playbacks of unfamiliar lions, it is unclear whether these lions would appropriately respond when encountered with unfamiliar conspecifics in the wild post-release.

  • 23.
    Stewart, Joshua D.
    et al.
    University of California, USA ; The Manta Trust, UK.
    Beale, Calvin S.
    Misool Manta Project, Indonesia.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. The Manta Trust, UK ; Blue Resources, Sri Lanka.
    Sianipar, Abraham B.
    Conservation International, Indonesia.
    Burton, Ronald S.
    University of California, USA.
    Semmens, Brice X.
    University of California, USA.
    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio
    University of California, USA.
    Spatial ecology and conservation of Manta birostris in the Indo-Pacific2016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 200, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on the movements and population connectivity of the oceanic manta ray (Manta birostris) is scarce. The species has been anecdotally classified as a highly migratory species based on the pelagic habitats it often occupies, and migratory behavior exhibited by similar species. As a result, in the absence of ecological data, population declines in oceanic manta have been addressed primarily with international-scale management and conservation efforts. Using a combination of satellite telemetry, stable isotope and genetic analyses we demonstrate that, contrary to previous assumptions, the species appears to exhibit restricted movements and fine-scale population structure. M. birostris tagged at four sites in the Indo-Pacific exhibited no long-range migratory movements and had non-overlapping geographic ranges. Using genetic and isotopic analysis, we demonstrate that the observed movements and population structure persist on multi-year and generational time scales. These data provide the first insights into the long-term movements and population structure of oceanic manta rays, and suggest that bottom-up, local or regional approaches to managing oceanic mantas could prove more effective than existing, international-scale management strategies. This case study highlights the importance of matching the scales at which management and relevant ecological processes occur to facilitate the effective conservation of threatened species.

  • 24.
    Strand, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Norenburg, Jon
    Smithsonian Natl Museum Nat Hist, USA.
    Alfaya, Jose E.
    Univ Nacl Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Argentina.
    Angel Fernandez-Alvarez, Fernando
    CSIC, Spain.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andrade, Sonia C. S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Bartolomaeus, Thomas
    Univ Bonn, Germany.
    Beckers, Patrick
    Univ Bonn, Germany.
    Bigatti, Gregorio
    Univ Nacl Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Argentina.
    Cherneva, Irina
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Russia.
    Chernyshev, Alexey
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia;Far Eastern Fed Univ, Russia.
    Chung, Brian M.
    Weber State Univ, USA.
    von Doehren, Joern
    Univ Bonn, Germany.
    Giribet, Gonzalo
    Harvard Univ, USA.
    Gonzalez-Cueto, Jaime
    Univ Magdalena, Colombia.
    Herrera-Bachiller, Alfonso
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Spain.
    Hiebert, Terra
    Univ Oregon, USA.
    Hookabe, Natsumi
    Hokkaido Univ, Japan.
    Junoy, Juan
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Spain.
    Kajihara, Hiroshi
    Hokkaido Univ, Japan.
    Kraemer, Daria
    Univ Bonn, Germany.
    Kvist, Sebastian
    Royal Ontario Museum, Canada;Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Magarlamov, Timur Yu
    Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Maslakova, Svetlana
    Univ Oregon, USA.
    Mendes, Cecili B.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Okazaki, Robert
    Weber State Univ, USA.
    Sagorny, Christina
    Univ Bonn, Germany.
    Schwartz, Megan
    Univ Puget Sound, USA.
    Sun, Shi-Chun
    Ocean Univ China, Peoples Republic of China.
    Sundberg, Per
    University of Gothenburg.
    Turbeville, James M.
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ, USA.
    Xu, Cong-Mei
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences;Russian Acad Sci, Russia.
    Nemertean taxonomy-Implementing changes in the higher ranks, dismissing Anopla and Enopla2019In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 118-119Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Sundberg, P
    et al.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Homoplasy, character function and nemertean systematics1994In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 234, no 2, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We question recent claims that cladistic analysis is inapplicable in nemerteans (phylum Nemertea) due to a supposedly high degree of convergence. We further argue that terms like convergence and parallelism are historical sayings and only make sense in a phylogenetic context. Therefore, an approach aiming to produce phylogenetic hypotheses cannot be rejected on the grounds of a high degree of convergence before the actual hypothesis. Convergence is not an empirical observation, but a conclusion made after an analysis. We also discuss the view that knowledge of a character's function is a prerequisite for phylogenetic analysis and conclude that this is an invalid approach. Function, like any other way of sharpening our observations, helps in formulating non-phylogenetic hypotheses of homology, but the crucial test is congruence with other characters on a phylogeny.

  • 26. Svensson, P. Andreas
    Beror minskningen av abborre och gädda i Kalmarsund på nedsatt fertilitet? (English title: Poor recruitment of perch and pike in the Kalmarsund, Sweden - is it due to a decreased fertility?)2000Report (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Female coloration, egg carotenoids and reproductive success gobies as a model system, PhD Thesis2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Monash University.
    Gobies and carotenoids2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the thirty years since John Endler's seminal work on guppies, carotenoid based signals have become a large and growing topic in behavioural ecology, especially in birds and fishes. Carotenoids are common pigments in animal signals,but they are also important as antioxidants and provitamins. Their dual role in ornaments and physiology make carotenoids ideally suited for answering questions about honest signalling. However, testing the theoretical predictions is not always straightforward, and properly designed experiments are a rather recent phenomenon. In many birds and fishes, females incorporate large quantities of carotenoids into eggs, but the reasons for this are only partially understood. For example, many species seem to do fine without carotenoids. I will briefly introduce carotenoids in signalling before discussing their role in gobies, based on work in nordic gobies.

  • 29.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Gobies as biomarkers.2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Techniques for incubating and analyzing goby eggs.2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31. Svensson, P. Andreas
    et al.
    Barber, I.
    Forsgren, E.
    Shoaling behaviour of the two-spotted goby2000In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1477-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Naturally formed shoals of adult Gobiusculus flavescens in a Swedish fjord ranged in size from a few individuals to several hundred fish and were sorted by body size. Shoal composition was highly dynamic and any particular group was unlikely to remain together for more than a few hours. Shoaling tendency of juveniles in laboratory experiments was high, and consistent preferences were demonstrated for numerically larger shoals. Large test fish preferred to associate with shoals composed of large, over shoals composed of small fish, whereas small test fish associated with both size classes equally. The ecological importance of shoaling in small shallow water fish is discussed, and possible mechanisms for the observed patterns are proposed. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  • 32.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    et al.
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University 3800, Clayton,VIC, Australia.
    Blount, J. D.
    Forsgren, E.
    Amundsen, T.
    Female ornamentation and egg carotenoids of six sympatric gobies2009In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 75, p. 2777–2787-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Belly colouration, gonad carotenoid concentration and skin transparency were quantified in gravid Gobiusculus flavescens, as well as in females of five sympatric gobies where belly ornamentation has not been described. Although G. flavescens females did, indeed, have far more colourful bellies than the other species, this could only in part be explained by a high concentration of total gonad carotenoids. Comparable, or occasionally higher, carotenoid levels were found in the gonads of other species. Instead, the unusual ornamentation of G. flavescens arises from a unique combination of carotenoid-rich gonads and a highly transparent abdominal skin.

  • 33. Svensson, P. Andreas
    et al.
    Forsgren, E.
    Amundsen, T.
    Nilsson Sköld, H.
    Chromatic interaction between egg pigmentation and skin chromatophores the nuptial coloration of female two-spotted gobies2005In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 208, p. 4391-4397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens Fabricius 1779), females develop an orange belly as they approach sexual maturity. Bright belly coloration is preferred by males and has been suggested to act as a female ornament. This coloration is unusual in that it originates partly from pigmentation of the abdominal skin but also from strongly pigmented gonads directly visible through the skin. In addition, females have been observed to temporarily become more colourful during courtship and competition. To understand how gonad and skin pigmentation interact in this nuptial coloration, the potential for colour modification via regulation of skin chromatophores was investigated. Noradrenaline caused aggregation of chromatophore pigment and was used to experimentally reduce the contribution of skin chromatophores to the nuptial coloration. Chromatophore pigment aggregation caused bellies to become less colourful and abdominal skin biopsies to become less colourful and more transparent. There was a strong positive relationship between belly coloration and the coloration of the underlying gonads. This shows that belly coloration honestly reflects egg pigmentation, mainly because the transparency of the abdominal skin allows other fish to see the gonads directly. Interestingly, when noradrenaline caused pigment to aggregate and thereby increased the transparency of the skin, the relationship between belly and gonad coloration weakened. We conclude that female G. flavescens have a potential to use skin chromatophores to rapidly alter their nuptial coloration, thereby affecting the efficacy with which information about gonad coloration is conveyed.

  • 34. Svensson, P. Andreas
    et al.
    Malm, T.
    Engkvist, R.
    Distribution and host plant preference of Idotea baltica (Pallas) (Crustacea Isopoda) on shallow rocky shores in the central Baltic Sea2004In: Sarsia, ISSN 0036-4827, E-ISSN 1503-1128, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partially due to the mass occurrence of the isopod Idotea baltica, the perennial fucoid vegetation in the Baltic Sea has been destroyed over large areas and replaced by filamentous algae. With a combination of field investigations and laboratory experiments, we tested whether I. baltica preferred Fucus serratus to the dominant red alga Polysiphonia fucoides. In the field, the I. baltica density was higher inside F. serratus than P. fucoides patches when measured per unit area, but the situation was reversed if measured per biomass algae. Diet in the field was well correlated with the distribution of the isopods. A large proportion of the isopod faecal pellets collected in the field contained remnants of microalgae, planktonic animals, and bacteria, but the dominating material was always cells from the actual host plant. In a host plant preference experiment, I. baltica distributed evenly between the two host plant types, but the isopods grazed more heavily on F. serratus: We conclude that although F. serratus is the preferred food item in a choice situation, P. fucoides appears to have the potential to support the I. baltica population with food and shelter. A possible relationship between the weak host plant preference and the low stocks of predatory fish is discussed.

  • 35.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Pélabon, C.
    Blount, J. D.
    Forsgren, E.
    Bjerkeng, B.
    Amundsen, T.
    Temporal variability in a multicomponent trait: nuptial coloration of female two-spotted gobies2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 346-353Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Symons, N.
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia .
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia .
    Wong, B. B. M.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia .
    Do Male Desert Gobies Compromise Offspring Care to Attract Additional Mating Opportunities?2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 6, p. e20576-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males often play a critical role in offspring care but the time and energy invested in looking after young can potentially limit their ability to seek out additional mating opportunities. Recent studies, however, suggest that a conflict between male parental effort and mating effort may not always be inevitable, especially if breeding occurs near the nest, or if parental behaviours are under sexual selection. Accordingly, we set out to experimentally investigate male care and courtship in the desert goby Chlamydogobius eremius, a nest-guarding fish with exclusive paternal care. Despite courtship occurring near the nest, we found that when egg-tending males were given the opportunity to attract additional females, they fanned their eggs less often, engaged in shorter fanning bouts, and spent more of their time outside their nests courting. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the circumstances under which reproductive tradeoffs are expected to occur and how these, in turn, operate to influence male reproductive decisions.

  • 37. van Lieshout, E.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wong, B.B.M.
    Consequences of paternal care on pectoral fin allometry in a desert-dwelling fish2013In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 513-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive static allometry is a scaling relationship where the relative size of traits covaries with adult body size. Traditionally, positive allometry is thought to result from either altered physiological requirements at larger body size or from strongly condition-dependent allocation under sexual selection. Yet, there are no theoretical reasons why positive allometry cannot evolve in fitness-related traits that are solely under the influence of natural selection. We investigated scaling and sexual dimorphism of a naturally selected trait, pectoral fin size, in comparison to a trait important in male–male combat, head width in natural populations of a fish, the desert goby Chlamydogobius eremius. Male desert gobies provide uniparental care and use their pectoral fins to fan the brood (often under hypoxic conditions); hence, larger fins are expected to be more efficient. Male pectoral fins do not appear to fulfil a signalling function in this species. We found that, for both pectoral fin size and head width, males exhibited positive allometric slopes and greater relative trait size (allometric elevation) than females. However, for head width, females also showed positive allometry, albeit to a lesser degree than males. Because fin locomotory function typically does not result in positive allometry, our findings indicate that other naturally selected uses, such as paternal care, can exaggerate trait scaling relationships.

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