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  • 1.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Dept. of Comput. Intell. & Syst. Sci., Tokyo Inst. of Technol., Tokyo, Japan.
    Otero, Nuno
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Saunders, Joe
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Helping Robots Imitate: Metrics And Computational Solutions Inspired By Human-Robot Interaction Studies2010In: Advances in Cognitive Systems / [ed] Samia Nefti-Meziani and John Gray, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2010, p. 127-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we describe three lines of research related to the issue of helping robots imitate people. These studies are based on observed human be- haviour, technical metrics and implemented technical solutions. The three lines of research are: (a) a number of user studies that show how humans naturally tend to demonstrate a task for a robot to learn, (b) a formal approach to tackle the problem of what a robot should imitate, and (c) a technology-driven conceptual framework and technique, inspired by social learning theories, that addresses how a robot can be taught. In this merging exercise we will try to propose a way through this prob- lem space, towards the design of a Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) system able to be taught by humans via demonstration.

  • 2.
    Altergren, Andreé
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Förberedelse till modernisering av styrsystem för produktion av processvatten2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The heat and power station Allöverket in Kristianstad produced the process water in a plant called the total desalination. In this plant which consists out of two identical lines, they let the incoming water passing through ion exchangers to replace the undesired ions in the water to more desired ions. The reason for doing this is that the undesired ions in the water give coatings on the turbine. When the ion exchangers have been saturated, they must be restored to the original condition. This is done by starting a regeneration program, which consists of a number of steps such as back flushing, intake of chemicals and four different flushes. There are limits on the conductivity and the content of silicon in the water that will be delivered. But there is only measurement of the conductivity connected to the control system, and because of this they control the plant with different timers. To the control system there is connected a number of centrifugal pumps, solenoid valves and instrumentation for measurement of conductivity. In the total desalination sits a Siemens S5 control system that controls the plant after amount of water, conductivity and different times of the sequences. The control functions are now located on a control cabinet out of the factory. The Siemens S5 control system is old and outdated and will be changed to an ABB 800xA control system. This control system they already use to control other parts of the factory from the control room. With this study I have developed a new functional description of the plant and it consists of function diagrams which describes how the software controls the plant today. To the function description, I have also made a new technical description and revised the process scheme so that all documentation of the plant says the same thing.

  • 3.
    Augustsson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden.
    Gustavsson Christiernin, Linn
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Sweden.
    Human and robot interaction based on safety zones in a shared work environment2014In: HRI '14: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction, New York: ACM Publications, 2014, p. 118-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, early work on how to implement flexible safety zones is presented. In the case study an industrial robot cell emulates the environment at a wall construction site, with a robot performing nailing routines. Tests are performed with humans entering the safety zones of a SafetyEye system. The zone violation is detected, and new warning zones initiated. The robot retracts but continues its work tasks with reduced speed and within a safe distance of the human operator. Interaction is achieved through simultaneous work on the same work piece and the warning zones can be initiated and adjusted in a flexible way.

  • 4.
    Augustsson, Svante
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jonas
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden.
    Gustavsson Christiernin, Linn
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Sweden.
    How to Transfer Information Between Collaborating Human Operators and Industrial Robots in an Assembly2014In: Proceedings the NordiCHI 2014: The 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Fun, Fast, Foundational, ACM Publications, 2014, p. 286-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible human-robot industrial coproduction will be important in many small and middle-sized companies in the future. One of the major challenges in a flexible robot cell is how to transfer information between the human and the robot with help of existing and safety approved equipment. In this paper a case study will be presented where the first half focus on data transfer to the robot communicating the human's position and movements forcing the robot to respond to the triggers. The second half focuses on how to visualize information about the settings and assembly order to the human. The outcome was successful and flexible, efficient coproduction could be achieved but also a number of new challenges were found.

  • 5.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Sweden.
    Reconfigurable and Flexible Industrial Robot Systems2014In: Advances in robotics & automation, ISSN 2168-9695, Vol. 3, article id 117Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a concept for reconfigurable and flexible robot systems. To reach a technology readiness level where solutions and results can be implemented in industry, the focus in this work is on systems with limited number of robots, and work scenarios which are reasonable complex but hard to automate using standard solutions.Four distinct areas have been identified as important within the concept and further studies: (i) human machine interaction, (ii) safety including collaboration, (iii) programming and deployment, and (iv) planning and scheduling. Feasibility studies have been made which addressed issues (ii) and (iii), in scenarios with collaboration between robot and human, or between two robots. For the chosen work scenario, manufacturing of structures in wood for family houses, challenges related to programming and safety was identified and possible solutions outlined.The concept and the studies indicate that feasible solutions can be found and designed given a reasonable consistent work processes and products. In this study, the processes are similar, nailing and screwing but different sizes may apply, the material is similar but variations may apply, and the construction is different of each product, but include the same type of operations at different locations. Our study confirm that human collaboration improves the ability to implement and use robots as it make it possible to move some operations to the human which otherwise would add to the complexity of the system. Furthermore, programming can also I general be simplified although methods for automatic programming has been tried out. But in some cases, the solution space is limited and the ability to move certain operations to a human simplifies the programming task. However, further work needs to be done in this area specifically related to safety issues for safe collaboration.

  • 6.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Smart Industri och Akademien2019In: Presenterades på Regiondagarna 2019: Kosta Boda Art Hotell, 17-18 januari 2019, 2019, , p. 23Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Sweden.
    Supporting Tools for Operator in Robot Collaborative Mode2015In: 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015 / [ed] Tareq Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski and Dylan Schmorrow, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 3, p. 409-416Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making use of robot automation for customized products put high demand not only on the robot but on the efficiency, simplicity and flexibility to actually deploy and use robots in manufacturing stations and production lines in short batches and low volume production. Hence, market oriented product development and production requires more products to be developed and offered in less time than before, and produced for the market with more customizable options. The role of the operator is in this context an important factor and tools are needed to support the operator for highly efficient and flexible production. In this paper, the development and study of supporting tools for operators is presented. A demonstrator has been built for robotic nailing, screwing and manipulation operation in producing scaled down gable wall elements in wood for a family house. Issues raised to support the operator included automatic programming and generating relevant information for the operator for the deployment procedure to prepare for production. During production, different concepts of safety system to support collaboration mode between the operator and the robot was developed and studied. Wearable devices was used for the operator to access the information generated and different safety configurations were developed and evaluated. The baseline for this work has been to identify industrial use cases which has a clear need for automation as well as collaboration between operator(s) and robot(s). Work scenarios were discussed and analyzed with industrial partners and it was concluded that, in addition to the deployment tools, a smart safety system which is able to detect and react on humans entering the robot system work area is needed. This should support for efficient production and less downtime for both automatic mode and collaboration mode. The benefit of operator – robot collaboration is clearly shown as well as the need for supporting tools.

  • 8.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    et al.
    University West, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    University West, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    University West, Sweden.
    Collaborative Robots to Support Flexible Operation in a Manufacturing System2012In: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2012 / [ed] Hasse Nylund, Satu Kantti, Ville Toivonen, Seppo Torvinen, Tampere, Finland: Tampere University , 2012, p. 531-538Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robotic systems where human(s) and robot(s) cooperate in performing a common task is an attractive solution to introduce automation combined with high flexibility for tasks that have a high complexity and characterized by low volume or down to one-off. By introducing collaboration in robotics systems, the operator can complement with cognitive capacity and skill in order to gain in flexibility and agility in the task operation. This paper describes on-going work related to work on collaboration between operator and robot. User scenarios are outlined together with methods, software components and hardware to support collaboration, where some of these are under development. As the standards related to collaborative robotic systems are soon to be completed, it is expected that this type of semi-automatic systems will be important for flexible and agile automation of production which otherwise cannot be automated.

  • 9.
    Boman, Felicia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Eriksson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Vesterberg Lindgren, Fanny
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Artificell intelligens inflytande på tillitsfulla kundrelationer inom digital marknadsföring.: En kvalitativ studie om hur företag kan bygga tillitsfulla kundrelationer i samband med artificiell intelligens som marknadsföringsverktyg.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The digital society during the past few years has gone through a drastic developement due to the artificial intelligence. Multiple companies is starting to see great potential with implementing the technique within digital marketing purposes with customers. Despite the benefits artificial intelligence can offer, many people still worry about the reduction of the human interaction. A decrease of the human interaction can lead to difficulties in the process of creating trustworthy customer relations if artificial intelligence gets the ascendancy.

    Aim: The purpose of the study has been to investigate how companies in the consumer sector can work to create trustworthy relationships with their customers in connection with the use of artificial intelligence in digital marketing. An intention has also been to find out what role artificial intelligence can have in digital marketing.

    Method: This thesis obtains a qualitative research method and the empirical material was gathered through semi-structured interviews. Eight respondents participated, two researchers within artificial intelligence and six marketing specialists. The result has been analyzed by using previous research where artificial intelligence, digital marketing, digital communication, customer relations, trust and customer participation has been central theories.

    Conclusion: The result indicated that there are several working methods that companies can use to facilitate the construction of trusting customer relationships in connection with the implementation of AI tools. Important aspects are communication, honesty and control. Furthermore, the result has emerged that artificial intelligence will have a major role in digital marketing, based on if the customers continues to follow the development of digitalization and that companies work to maintain the customer’s trust in using this technology.

  • 10.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, Japan.
    Becker-Asano, Christian
    ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, Japan.
    Kanda, Takayuki
    ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, Japan.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, Japan.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, Japan.
    Full-body gesture recognition using inertial sensors for playful interaction with small humanoid robot2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2010), IEEE Press, 2010, p. 2276-2282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People like to play, and robotic technology offersthe opportunity to interact with artifacts in new ways. Robots co-existing with humans in domestic and public environments are expected to behave as companions, also engaging in playful interaction. If a robot is small, we foresee that people will want to be able to pick it up and express their intentions playfully by hugging, shaking and moving it around in various ways. Such robots will need to recognize these gestures -- which we call "full-body gestures" because they affect the robot’s full body. Inertial sensors inside the robot could be used to detect these gestures, in order to avoid having to rely on external sensors in the environment. However, it is not obvious which gestures typically occur during play, and which of these can be reliably detected. We therefore investigate full-body gesture recognition using Sponge Robot, a small humanoid robot equipped with inertial sensors and designed for playful human-robot interaction.

  • 11.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    ATR Laboratories, Japan.
    Kanda, Takayuki
    ATR Laboratories, Japan.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    ATR Laboratories, Japan.
    Interaction Design for an Enjoyable Play Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 11th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2011), IEEE Press, 2011, p. 112-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots designed to act as companions are expected to be able to interact with people in an enjoyable fashion. In particular, our aim is to enable small companion robots to respond in a pleasant way when people pick them up and play with them. To this end, we developed a gesture recognition system capable of recognizing play gestures which involve a person moving a small humanoid robot's full body (“full-body gestures”). However, such recognition by itself is not enough to provide a nice interaction. We find that interactions with an initial, naïve version of our system frequently fail. The question then becomes: what more is required? I.e., what sort of design is required in order to create successful interactions? To answer this question, we analyze typical failures which occur and compile a list of guidelines. Then, we implement this model in our robot, proposing strategies for how a robot can provide “reward” and suggest goals for the interaction. As a consequence, we conduct a validation experiment. We find that our interaction design with “persisting intentions” can be used to establish an enjoyable play interaction.

  • 12.
    D'Angelo, Mirko
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Napolitano, Annalisa
    University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Italy.
    Model-driven Engineering of Decentralized Control in Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on  Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W), IEEE, 2017, p. 7-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-Adaptation is nowadays recognized as an effective approach to manage the complexity and dynamics inherent to cyber-physical systems, which are composed of deeply intertwined physical and software components interacting with each other. A self-Adaptive system typically consists of a managed subsystem and a managing subsystem that implements the adaptation logic by means of the well established MAPE-K control loop. Since in large distributed settings centralized control is hardly adequate to manage the whole system, self-Adaptation should be achieved through collective decentralized control, that is multiple cyber-physical entities must adapt in order to address critical runtime conditions. Developing such systems is challenging, as several dimensions concerning both the cyber-physical system and the decentralized control loop should be considered. To this end, we promote MAPE-K components as first-class modeling abstractions and provide a framework supporting the design, development, and validation of decentralized self-Adaptive cyber-physical systems.

  • 13.
    De Backer, Jeroen
    et al.
    University West, Sweden.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Sweden.
    Deflection model for robotic friction stir welding2014In: Industrial robot, ISSN 0143-991X, E-ISSN 1758-5791, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to present a deflection model to improve positional accuracy of industrial robots. Earlier studies have demonstrated the lack of accuracy of heavy-duty robots when exposed to high external forces. One application where the robot is pushed to its limits in terms of forces is friction stir welding (FSW). This process requires the robot to deliver forces of several kilonewtons causing deflections in the robot joints. Especially for robots with serial kinematics, these deflections will result in significant tool deviations, leading to inferior weld quality.

    This paper presents a kinematic deflection model, assuming a rigid link and flexible joint serial kinematics robot. As robotic FSW is a process which involves high external loads and a constant welding speed of usually below 50 mm/s, many of the dynamic effects are negligible. The model uses force feedback from a force sensor, embedded on the robot, and predicts the tool deviation, based on the measured external forces. The deviation is fed back to the robot controller and used for online path compensation.

    The model is verified by subjecting an FSW tool to an external load and moving it along a path, with and without deviation compensation. The measured tool deviation with compensation was within the allowable tolerance for FSW.

    The model can be applied to other robots with a force sensor.

    The presented deflection model is based on force feedback and can predict and compensate tool deviations online.

  • 14.
    De Backer, Jeroen
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Sweden.
    Thermoelectric method for temperature measurement in friction stir welding2013In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 541-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research within friction stir welding (FSW) has demonstrated that online control of welding parameters can improve the mechanical properties and is necessary for certain applications to guarantee a consistent weld quality. One approach to control the process is by adapting the heat input to maintain a stable welding temperature, within the specified operating boundaries. This requires accurate in-process temperature measurements. This paper presents a novel method to measure the temperature at the interface of the FSW tool and workpiece. The method is based on the thermoelectric effect between dissimilar materials. The measurements are compared to thermocouple measurements and to a physical model and show good correspondence to each other. Experiments demonstrate that the method can quickly detect temperature variations, due to geometrical variations of the workpiece or due to parameter changes. This allows use of the method for online control of robotic FSW.

  • 15.
    De Backer, Jeroen
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden.
    Temperature control of robotic friction stir welding using the thermoelectric effect2014In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 70, no 1-4, p. 375-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction stir welding (FSW) of non-linear joints receives an increasing interest from several industrial sectors like automotive, urban transport and aerospace. A force-controlled robot is particularly suitable for welding complex geometries in lightweight alloys. However, complex geometries including three-dimensional joints, non-constant thicknesses and heat sinks such as clamps cause varying heat dissipation in the welded product. This will lead to changes in the process temperature and hence an unstable FSW process with varying mechanical properties. Furthermore, overheating can lead to a meltdown, causing the tool to sink down into the workpiece. This paper describes a temperature controller that modifies the spindle speed to maintain a constant welding temperature. A newly developed temperature measurement method is used which is able to measure the average tool temperature without the need for thermocouples inside the tool. The method is used to control both the plunging and welding operation. The developments presented here are applied to a robotic FSW system and can be directly implemented in a production setting.

  • 16.
    De Backer, Jeroen
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Avd för elektro- och automationsteknik.
    Christiansson, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan Väst, Avd för process- och produktutveckling.
    Oqueka, Jens
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Investigation of path compensation methods for robotic friction stir welding2012In: Industrial robot, ISSN 0143-991X, E-ISSN 1758-5791, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 601-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Friction stir welding (FSW) is a novel method for joining materials without using consumables and without melting the materials. The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art in robotic FSW and outline important steps for its implementation in industry and specifically the automotive industry.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study focuses on the robot deflections during FSW, by relating process forces to the deviations from the programmed robot path and to the strength of the obtained joint. A robot adapted for the FSW process has been used in the experimental study. Two sensor-based methods are implemented to determine path deviations during test runs and the resulting welds were examined with respect to tensile strength and path deviation.

    Findings – It can be concluded that deflections must be compensated for in high strengths alloys. Several strategies can be applied including online sensing or compensation of the deflection in the robot program. The welding process was proven to be insensitive for small deviations and the presented path compensation methods are sufficient to obtain a strong and defect-free welding joint.

    Originality/value – This paper demonstrates the effect of FSW process forces on the robot, which is not found in literature. This is expected to contribute to the use of robots for FSW. The experiments were performed in a demonstrator facility which clearly showed the possibility of applying robotic FSW as a flexible industrial manufacturing process.

  • 17.
    Frössling, Jacob
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Eiman, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Granskning av en Internet of Things-implementering mot industri 4.0: Från konsultbyråns, beställarens och användarens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The first industrial revolution moved from farming to factory through the development ofthe steam engine. The Second arose through the innovation of electricity and the thirdindustrial revolution moved from analogue technology to digital technology. The latestindustry trend is called industry 4.0, whose vision is to create automated factories. Industry4.0 refers to create smart factories, where physical objects may communicate with eachother to solve different kind of problems. This new technology entails different changes forcompanies, there among other things; the role of human beings will be affected in one oranother way.This thesis has examined an industrial company, which strives to develop their businesstowards industry 4.0. The purpose of the study was to review an ongoing implementationof IoT, focusing on understanding different actors' perspectives on the emerging technology.On this basis several of possibilities and difficulties were identified, which companies needto consider in the future when developing towards industry 4.0.The result of the study describes the difference between different actors' perspectives, whichin the future will have to be discussed in order to find a balance in the IoT-environment. Byexamining an ongoing implementation of IoT, a checklist consisting of key componentswere identified. This checklist may be useful for companies with

  • 18.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Influencing factors to enable automation of wood furniture production2016In: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Networkfor Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood science andengineering – a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy / [ed] Bruno Andersons and Arnis Kokorevics, Riga, Latvia: Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, p. 208-213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood furniture industry in Sweden has an identified need of technological development in order to stay competitive. Especially the necessity to focus on automation has been identified. In the industry there are often needs to handle large levels of customization at the same time as keeping the production effective. This requires flexible automation solutions, often described as automated equipment that can rapidly be reconfigured for new products.Before automated applications are implemented in an industry there are issues to solve related to organisational, human and technological aspects. Based on this, the project - Flexible automation in manufacturing of laminated veneer products was initiated. The project is running since January 1, 2016 and is a two year national Swedish project. The aim of the project is to investigate challenges concerning automation in the wood furniture industry and especially focusing on bended laminated veneer products.In the project a case-study with the aim of identifying factors important for successful automation implementation in an involved wood manufacturing industry was performed. Key persons and staff of the company were asked to tell their life stories and a process mapping of the production was conducted.The results indicate a problematic relation between the management and the production staff, which partly can be referred to the shift from a family business to a private owned firm. Based on the process mapping, internal transport and handling are identified improvement areas. Productivity is disturbed by stops caused by processing residues and poorly defined materials. There is potential for improvement by adapting a process-oriented approach and defining the materials used.The case–study confirms the need to consider organizational and human aspects in production before initiating production. The study concludes the need to consider the special aspects of the wood material in production development.

  • 19.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Sweden;Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;Innovatum, Sweden.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Bolmsjö, Gunnar
    University West, Sweden.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using methods-time measurement to connect digital humans and motion databases2013In: Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management. Human Body Modeling and Ergonomics. DHM 2013 / [ed] Duffy V.G., Berlin: Springer, 2013, Vol. 8026, no Part 2, p. 343-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To simulate human motions in DHM tools, using techniques which are based on real human data is one promising solution. We have presented a solution in this study to connect motion databases with DHM tools. We have showed that using a motion database with MTM-based annotations is a promising way in order to synthesize natural looking motions. A platform consists of a Motion Database, a Motion Generator, and a DHM tool was introduced and tested. The results showed successful application of the presented platform in the designed test case. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  • 20.
    Koay, K L
    et al.
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Zivkovic, Z
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kröse, B
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Dautenhahn, K
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Walters, M L
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Otero, Nuno
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Alissandrakis, A
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Methodological Issues of Annotating Vision Sensor Data using Subjects' Own Judgement of Comfort in a Robot Human Following Experiment2006In: The 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2006. ROMAN 2006., IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, p. 66-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When determining subject preferences for human-robot interaction, an important issue is the interpretation of the subjects' responses during the trials. Employing a non-intrusive approach, this paper discusses the methodological issues for annotating vision data by allowing the subjects to indicate their comfort using a handheld comfort level device during the trials. In previous research, the analysis of collected comfort and vision data was made difficult due to problems concerning the manual synchronization of different modalities. In the current paper, we overcome this issue by real-time integration of the subject's feedback on subjective comfort into the video stream. The implications for more efficient analysis of human-robot interaction data, as well as possible future developments of this approach are discussed

  • 21.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Robotic Automation in Swedish Wood Product Industries2016In: Presented at Young Researchers Challenge - Marcus Wallenberg Prize, 10-13 October, 2016, Stockholm, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kans, Mirka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Automation Practices in Wood Product Industries: Lessons learned, current Practices and Future Perspectives2016In: The 7th Swedish Production Symposium SPS, 25-27 October, 2016, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund University , 2016, , p. 9article id E1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood product industries are a cornerstone of the Swedish industry and contribute vastly to the total Swedish export value. Wood as material itself has a promising perspective of becoming one of the most valuable resources. Sweden in particular has a long tradition and the knowledge of how to cultivate forests. In comparison to the highly automated forest industries, production systems of Swedish wood products industries are mostly characterized by a low degree of automation, tough manual labour and a relative low competency of the workforce. Facing fiercer competition on a global market, Swedish wood product industries are starting to lose touch with wood working industries in other industrialized European countries. Based upon established literature, this paper systematizes the status of automation practices in wood processing industries. The outcome of this study also outlines the expected effects and the future perspectives of digitalization and robotic automation for wood processing industries in high-1are not ready to implement the necessary standards to enter Industry 4.0. Not only are the technical prerequisites not fulfilled, but also a lack of appropriate production organization, logistics and economic basis is affecting negatively.

  • 23.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kans, Mirka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Method for Assessing the Total Cost of Ownership of Industrial Robots2016In: 49th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, CIRP-CMS 2016, Commundo Tagungs Hotel Stuttgar,; Germany, 25 May 2016 through 27 May 2016 / [ed] Bauernhansl T.,Westkamper E., Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 57, p. 746-751Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the launch of Industry 4.0, automation has increasingly been put into focus as one of the key factors for future production. The introduction of industrial robots is widely seen as an effective strategy against rising competition and outsourcing to low-cost countries. The investment into industrial robot cells is often based on the initial offering and its pay-off time. However, procurement decisions based only on the initial price are often poor decisions since they do not consider hidden cost factors such as maintenance or energy consumption. Evaluating the total cost of ownership (TCO) of industrial robots is a far better alternative to calculate all costs involved during their company ownership. Thus far, only a few models concerning TCO or similar cost analysis techniques for industrial robots have been published and empirical studies of the economic aspects of robotic implementation are scarce. The key contribution of this paper is the development of a conceptual model for TCO calculation of industrial robots, which can be used during the decision making process. The developed model was tested in two case studies, one for material handling robots and one for arc welding. The goal was to identify the most crucial factors allowing an easily estimated calculation of the TCO based on the net present value. As most contributing factors, operators’ wages, spare parts and energy consumption are identified. However, this paper also shows that retrieving necessary data from companies turned out to be complicated, because of the low awareness of these companies’ expenditures for the costs generated by their automation equipment. In accordance with the results, both, a simple template was created in order to support the people involved in the decision making process with additional investment information and crucial factors are pointed out for measuring and evaluation in of future digitalized robot systems.

  • 24.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kans, Mirka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Opportunities for robotic automation in wood product industries: The supplier and system integrators' perspective2017In: 27th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM2017 / [ed] Pellicciari, M; Peruzzini, M, Elsevier, 2017, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunities for automation in the poorly automated wood product industry are highlighted. This isaccomplished by conducting a qualitative interview study of suppliers and system integrators for industrial robots active in thisparticular industry sector. Five case companies are chosen in order to explore the unique dimensions responsible for successfulautomation implantation in wood product companies. Results show that a low understanding of automation opportunities, unclearrequirements specifications, and small production volumes are the main problems for suitable automation solutions. Althoughwood is a fragile and changeable material, existing technology allows its manipulation with industrial robots.

  • 25.
    Otero, Nuno
    et al.
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Syrdal, Dag Sverre
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Koay, Kheng Lee
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Human to Robot Demonstrations of Routine Home Tasks: Exploring the Role of the Robot’s Feedback2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore some conceptual issues, relevant for the design of robotic systems aimed at interacting with humans in domestic environments. More specifically, we study the role of the robot's feedback (positive or negative acknowledgment of understanding) on a human teacher's demonstration of a routine home task (laying a table). Both the human and the system's perspectives are considered in the analysis and discussion of results from a human-robot user study, highlighting some important conceptual and practical issues. These include the lack of explicitness and consistency on people's demonstration strategies. Furthermore, we discuss the need to investigate design strategies to elicit people's knowledge about the task and also successfully advertize the robot's abilities in order to promote people's ability to provide appropriate demonstrations.

  • 26.
    Otero, Nuno
    et al.
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Knoop, Steffen
    University of Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher L
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Syrdal, Dag
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Dillmann, Rüdiger
    University of Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Distribution and Recognition of Gestures in Human-Robot Interaction2006In: The 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2006. ROMAN 2006., IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, p. 103-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for human activity recognition focusing on gestures in a teaching scenario, together with the setup and results of user studies on human gestures exhibited in unconstrained human-robot interaction (HRI). The user studies analyze several aspects: the distribution of gestures, relations, and characteristics of these gestures, and the acceptability of different gesture types in a human-robot teaching scenario. The results are then evaluated with regard to the activity recognition approach. The main effort is to bridge the gap between human activity recognition methods on the one hand and naturally occuring or at least acceptable gestures for HRI on the other. The goal is two-fold: to provide recognition methods with information and requirements on the characteristics and features of human activities in HRI, and to identify human preferences and requirements for the recognition of gestures in human-robot teaching scenarios

  • 27.
    Otero, Nuno
    et al.
    Hertfordshire University, UK.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher L
    Syrdal, Dag
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    Naturally Occurring Gestures in a Human-Robot Teaching Scenario2006In: The 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2006. ROMAN 2006., IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, p. 533-540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes our general framework for the investigation of how human gestures can be used to facilitate the interaction and communication between humans and robots. More specifically, a study was carried out to reveal which "naturally occurring" gestures can be observed in a scenario where users had to explain to a robot how to perform a specific home task. The study followed a within-subjects design where ten participants had to demonstrate how to lay a table for two people using two different methods for their explanation: utilizing only gestures or gestures and speech. The experiments also served to validate a new coding scheme for human gestures in human-robot interaction, with good inter-rater reliability. Moreover, annotated video corpus was produced and characteristics such as frequency, duration, and co-occurrence of the different gestural classes have been gathered in order to capture requirements for the designers of HRI systems. The results regarding the frequencies of the different gestural types suggest an interaction between the order of presentation of the two methods and the actual type of gestures produced. Moreover, the results also suggest that there might be an interaction between the type of task and the type of gestures produced

  • 28.
    Otero, Nuno
    et al.
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Saunders, Joe
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher L
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Teaching robot companions: the role of scaffolding and event structuring2008In: Connection science (Print), ISSN 0954-0091, E-ISSN 1360-0494, Vol. 20, no 2-3, p. 111-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For robots to be more capable interaction partners they will necessarily need to adapt to the needs and requirements of their human companions. One way that the human could aid this adaptation may be by teaching the robot new ways of doing things by physically demonstrating different behaviours and tasks such that the robot learns new skills by imitating the learnt behaviours in appropriate contexts. In human–human teaching, the concept of scaffolding describes the process whereby the teacher guides the pupil to new competence levels by exploiting and extending existing competencies. In addition, the idea of event structuring can be used to describe how the teacher highlights important moments in an overall interaction episode. Scaffolding and event structuring robot skills in this way may be an attractive route in achieving robot adaptation; however, there are many ways in which a particular behaviour might be scaffolded or structured and the interaction process itself may have an effect on the robot's resulting performance. Our overall research goal is to understand how to design an appropriate human–robot interaction paradigm where the robot will be able to intervene and elicit knowledge from the human teacher in order to better understand the taught behaviour. In this article we examine some of these issues in two exploratory human–robot teaching scenarios. The first considers task structuring from the robot's viewpoint by varying the way in which a robot is taught. The experimental results illustrate that the way in which teaching is carried out, and primarily how the teaching steps are decomposed, has a critical effect on the efficiency of human teaching and the effectiveness of robot learning. The second experiment studies the problem from the human's viewpoint in an attempt to study the human teacher's spontaneous levels of event segmentation when analysing their own demonstrations of a routine home task to a robot. The results suggest the existence of some individual differences regarding the level of granularity spontaneously considered for the task segmentation and for those moments in the interaction which are viewed as most important.

  • 29.
    Robins, Ben
    et al.
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Otero, Nuno
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Ferrari, Ester
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Eliciting Requirements for a Robotic Toy for Children with Autism: Results from User Panels2007In: The 16th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human interactive Communication, 2007. RO-MAN 2007., IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 101-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper was carried out within the IROMEC project that develops a robotic toy for children. Play has an important role in child development with many potential contributions to therapy, education and enjoyment. The project investigates how robotic toys can become social mediators, encouraging children with disabilities to discover a range of play styles, from solitary to social and cooperative play (with peers, carers/teachers, parents etc). This paper presents design issues for such robotic toys related specifically to children with autism as the end user target group. In order to understand the play needs of this user group, and to investigate how robotic toys could be used as a play tool to assist in the children's development, a panel of experts (therapists, teachers, parents) was formed and interviewed. Results of the expert panel interview s highlight key points characterizing the play of children with autism, and key points for consideration in the design of future robotic toys.

  • 30.
    Salim, Roaa
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Automation decisions in investment projects: a study in the Swedish wood products industry2018In: Proceedings of the 8th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2018) / [ed] Mauro Onori, Lihui Wang, Xi Vincent Wang & Wei Ji, Elsevier, 2018, p. 255-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to study which aspects are considered when automation decisions are being made in the wood products industry. The aspects were identified in several decision areas of manufacturing. The data collection was based on participation in meetings of an ongoing investment project. The findings demonstrate that in the first phases of an investment project, where the project idea is evaluated, the most critical aspect for decision makers is economic benefits. This paper will provide further insights on the underlying reasoning for decisions on automation of manufacturing in investment projects in the wood products industry.

  • 31.
    Saunders, Joe
    et al.
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Otero, Nuno
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher L
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Issues in Human/Robot Task Structuring and Teaching2007In: The 16th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human interactive Communication, 2007. RO-MAN 2007., IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 708-713Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching a robot new skills may require that the teacher scaffolds the teaching experience appropriately. However, due to inherent assumptions made by a human teacher the scaffolding process may in some circumstances fail to effectively teach the robot. Here we illustrate this issue in two simple robot teaching exploratory studies and examine the assumptions made by the teacher when teachingthe robot. In the first study the human teacher had to reason about robot perceived states in order to provide suitable teaching. In the second study the human teachers had to understand the perceptual constraints of the robot based on the instructions given beforehand by the experimenter and subsequently adapt the guidance given. The results suggest that although the two tasks are quite distinct in their level of complexity a common thread can be observed: people tend to underspecify theirteaching. It seems that steps of the explanation are assumed to be known and skipped or not even considered at all. We reflect on the possibility that one of the major challenges in designing robots that are capable interaction partners in these teaching situations is to be able to make them communicate their internal state and current capabilities effectively. Furthermore, we also reflect on designing appropriate behavioral primitives for the robot, corresponding implications on the level of taskdescription and for benefiting from human teaching.

  • 32.
    Syrdal, Dag
    et al.
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Koay, Kheng Lee
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Walter, Michael L.
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Otero, Nuno
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Exploring human mental models of robots through explicitation interviews2010In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication / [ed] IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 638-645Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study exploring how mental models of a mechanoid robot using dog-inspired affective cues behaviour emerges and impacts the evaluation of the robot after the viewing of a video of an assistive robotics scenario interaction with the robot. It discusses this using contrasting case studies based on the analysis of explicitation interviews with three participants. The analysis suggests that while for some users zoomorphic cues may aid in initial interactions, they need to be framed in an authentic interaction, highlighting the actual capabilities of the robot as a technological artifact, and how these impact the everyday life and interests of the potential user.

  • 33.
    Syrdal, Dag
    et al.
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Walter, M. L.
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Koay, Kheng Lee
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Otero, Nuno
    s University of Minho, Portugal .
    The Theatre methodology for facilitating discussion in human-robot interaction on information disclosure in a home environment2011In: Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication / [ed] IEEE, IEEE Press, 2011, p. 479-484Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research is concerned with developing scenarios for robot home companions as part of the EU project LIREC. In this work, we employed a particular methodology to gain user feedback in early stages of robot prototyping: the Theatre HRI (THRI) methodology which we have recently introduced in a pilot study. Extending this work, this study used a theatre presentation to convey the user experience of domestic service robots to a group of participants and to gain their feedback in order to further refine our scenarios. The play was designed both from the perspective of projected technological development of the LIREC project, as well as for facilitating engagement with an audience of secondary school students. At the end of the play the audience was involved in a discussion regarding issues such as acceptability of the scenario and the intra-household disclosure of information by the robot. Findings suggest that this methodology was effective in eliciting discussion with the audience and that problems related to intra-household disclosure of information were best resolved by clear-cut solutions tied to ownership and clear principles.

  • 34.
    Syrdal, Dag Sverre
    et al.
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Otero, Nuno
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Video Prototyping in Human-Robot Interaction: Results from a Qualitative Study2008In: Proceedings of the 15th European conference on Cognitive ergonomics: the ergonomics of cool interaction, ACM Press, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation - Explore and refine qualitative methods of video prototyping in Human-Robot Interaction in order to evaluate user experience of prototype systems.

    Research approach - An exploratory, scenario based study, in which participants were interviewed following some specific guidelines regarding the interviewing technique.

    Findings/Design - The results offer insights into how the context of a presented interaction through video impacts on participants' opinions and attitudes towards a particular interaction, and foster a reflection concerning the wider implications of a system.

    Take away message - The use of evocation in openended interviews regarding user experience of video prototypes is a valuable tool for research.

    Keywords - Human-Robot Interaction, videoprototyping, explication interviews, qualitative methods.

  • 35.
    Syrdal, Dag Sverre
    et al.
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Walters, Michael L
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Otero, Nuno
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Koay, Kheng Lee
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    University of Hertfordshire, UK.
    "He Knows When You Are Sleeping": Privacy and the Personal Robot Companion2007In: Proceedings from Workshop Human Implications of Human-Robot Interaction, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 07), AAAI Press, 2007, p. 28-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most compelling visions of future robots is that of the robot butler. An entity dedicated to fulfilling your every need. This obviously has its benefits, but there could be a flipside to this vision. To fulfill the needs of its users, it must first be aware of them, and so it could potentially amass a huge amount of personal data regarding its user, data which may or may not be safe from accidental or intentional disclosure to a third party. How may prospective owners of a personal robot feel about the data that might be collected about them? In order to investigate this issue experimentally, we conducted an exploratory study where 12 participants were exposed to an HRI scenario in which disclosure of personal information became an issue. Despite the small sample size interesting results emerged from this study, indicating how future owners of personal robots feel regarding what the robot will know about them, and what safeguards they believe should be in place to protect owners from unwanted disclosure of private information.

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