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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    A social sustainability perspective on an environmental intervention to reduce ship emissions2015In: Creating Sustainable Work-environments: Proceedings of NES2015, Nordic Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Conference, 01-04 November 2015, Lillehammer, Norway / [ed] Knut Inge Fostervold, Svein Åge Kjøs Johnsen, Leif Rydstedt, Reidulf G. Watten, 2015, p. A4-12-A4-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a case study examining the effects on the shipboard work environment of an operative decision to change fuel oil type on two Swedish passenger vessels operating in the Baltic Sea. The results show positive changes in work tasks, reduced exposure to harmful pollutants evaporating from the fuel, reduced use of chemicals for cleaning, and a generally cleaner work environment. The outcome illustrates the benefit of a systems perspective when evaluating environmental interventions. Here, the intervention can be seen as an investment that not only reduces emissions to the environment, but contributes towards sustainable working life at sea.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of technology, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hilevi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Karolinska Insitutet, Sweden.
    Hägg, Göran M
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janzon, Olle
    SSAB Europe, Occupational Health & Safety.
    Pettersson, Per Johan
    Merident Optergo AB.
    Stavervik, Mathias
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Strategies to develop and strengthen human factors and ergonomics knowledge among stakeholders in Sweden2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, Melbourne: International Ergonomics Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge and application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) has significant potential as auseful tool and solution provider in the development, design and implementation of safe, efficient and sustainable artefacts and systems. Yet, it seems that this HFE knowledge is not utilised to its full potential. In a world of competing financial and commercial priorities, HFE specialists have apparently not succeeded in selling the systems approach as a tool towards improved overall systems performance and human well-being.

    The present paper describes the strategic and practical workperformed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) to strengthen the quality of human factors and ergonomics knowledge and practice among various stakeholders in Sweden. EHSS view human factors and ergonomics as a systems and design oriented discipline that extends across all aspects of human activity. Beyond the traditional domains of specialization within the discipline, the physical, cognitive and organisational ergonomics, EHSS has identified three focus areas; visual ergonomics, voice ergonomics and ergonomics design for all.

    Practitioner Summary: This paper presents the strategic and practical work performed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) in order to strengthen the quality of human factors and ergonomics knowledge and practice in Sweden. EHSS has identified three focus areas for its strategic work: visual ergonomics, voice ergonomics and ergonomics design for all.

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  • 3.
    Ahmed, Suhail
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sun, Hong
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Developing a Model for Managing Production Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study developed a model for production performance management of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Sweden. The developed model works for assessing, follow up and improvement in production performance. SMEs differ in size, structure, culture, competition, management practices, resource availability and lot more when compared with large organizations. SMEs also lack in effective performance management framework as most of the framework developed are designed for large organizations.

     

    Production is core and critical value adding process especially for SMEs manufacturer for their survival and growth. SMEs are more motivated with doing rather than measuring it. Taking all these consideration a comprehensive model is developed which consists of four major steps. The model starts with studying of company’s strategy, and then there are steps for design of production performance measurement which works for identifying details strategically aligned performance measures. Benchmarking step is included to compare performance with best practices, finally measurements results are analysed and improvement actions are taken to continuously improve the production performance.

     

    Developed model based on literature study, multiple case study (three case studies) are being conducted to check model applicability. The result of case studies supports the applicability and formulated problem is also well-answered by developed model.

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  • 4.
    Al-Hamed, Heba
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Qiu, Xiaojin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    A Model for Assessing Cost Effectiveness of Applying Lean Tools2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a model for assessing cost effectiveness of applying lean tools. The

    model consists of eight phases: it starts by understanding customers' requirements using Voice of Customer

    (VOC) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) tools. In phase 2, the current state of plant is assessed

    using lean profile charts based on Balanced Scorecard (BSC) measures. In phase 3 and phase 4,

    identification of critical problem(s) and generating of improvement suggestion(s) are performed. Phase 5

    provide evaluation of the cost effectiveness of implementing the suggested lean methods based on life cycle

    cost analysis (LCCA) and phase 6 prefers the right alternative based on multiple criteria decision making

    (MCDM). In phase 7 the selected alternative is supposed to be implemented and finally the user should

    monitor and control the process to make sure that the improvement is going as planned. The model was

    verified successfully using a case study methodology at one Swedish sawmill called Södra Timber in

    Ramkvilla, one part of Södra group. Results obtained from the study showed that the production and human

    resources perspectives are the most critical problem areas that need to be improved. They got the lowest

    scores in the lean profile, 63% and 68%, respectively. Using value stream mapping (VSM) it was found that

    the non value added (NVA) ratios for the core and side products are 87.4% and 90.4%, respectively. Using

    the model, three improvement alternatives were suggested and evaluated using LCCA and MCDM.

    Consequently, implementing 5S got the highest score, second came redesigning the facility layout.

    However, it was estimated that 4.7 % of NVA for the side product would be reduced by redesigning the

    facility layout. The recommendations were suggested for the company to improve their performance. The

    novelty of the thesis is based on the fact that it addresses two main issues related to lean manufacturing:

    firstly, suggesting lean techniques based on assessment of lean profile that is based on BSC and QFD, and

    secondly assessing the cost effectiveness of the suggested lean methods based on LCCA and MCDM. This

    thesis provides a generalized model that enables the decision-maker to know and measure, holistically, the

    company performance with respect to customer requirements. This will enable the company to analyze the

    critical problems, suggest solutions, evaluate them and make a cost effective decision. Thus, the company

    can improve its competitiveness.

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  • 5.
    Alhasan, Jenan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Nguyen, Dat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kartläggning och förbättring av internt logistikflöde2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalisation has led to increased competition among companies, operating both locally and internationally. As a result, it has become crucial to stand out on the market by working cost-effectively, meeting customer requirements, offering short delivery times, smart material planning, among other things. New conditions, ranging from technological advancements to environmental demands, have prompted companies to focus on improving their material flow. The concept of logistics, along with lean-production, is now being recognized as a powerful tool. The purpose of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding of wastes in a company's internal logistics flow and provide improvement suggestions for enhancing efficiency. The goal is to provide a foundation for future enhancements in the logistics flow of a manufacturing operation.

    To achieve the study's objectives and address the research questions, a case study is performed. The study will consist of a three-step plan. In the first stage, the problem is discussed, a literature study is carried out and suitable methods are identified. The next stage involves gathering information through interviews, observations, and documentation. Data is analysed and evaluated according to lean-principles. In the last phase, improvement proposals are developed based on the analysis. Theoretical approaches include deduction. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative research methods.

    The improvement suggestions are presented in the results chapter, categorized into general proposals, material handling, mapping, as well as a spaghetti diagram of the future state. The proposals focus on creating a continuous flow in production and minimizing security flaws. In addition, it is justified why a pulling-system and kanban-system should be introduced. The value stream mapping of the future state shows theoretically that the lead time can be halved if the stock size is minimized.

    The study analysed internal logistics waste and provided a basis for future projects. Using value stream mapping and spaghetti diagram, the authors successfully identified various improvement suggestions. For future research, it is recommended to include areas such as education, economic calculations, PDCA implementation, order and hook analysis, waste reduction, and optimal utilization of production space in the development process.

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  • 6.
    Alkhatib, Tammam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Robotic 3D Printing of sustainable structures2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis aims to integrate and evaluate a 3D printing robotic cell at the SmartIndustry Group – SIG lab at Linnaeus University (LNU).A sustainable structure consisting of wood fiber polymer composites was 3D printed withan industrial robot. Sustainable 3D printing material can be recycled or burned for energyafterwards. The 3D printing material used in this thesis stems from certificated forests.

    The objective is to utilise this technology in manufacturing courses and research projectsat the SIG lab at LNU. This objective is achieved by creating an operation manual and avideo tutorial in this thesis.The integration and evaluation process will involve offline robot programming,simulation, and practical experiments on the 3D printing robotic cell.

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  • 7.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    A computerized model for assessing the return on investment in maintenance: following up maintenance contribution in company profit2009In: Engineering asset lifecycle management: Proceedings of the World congress on engineering asset management (WCEM 2009), 28-30 september 2009 / [ed] Dimitris Kiritsis, Christos Emmanouilidis, Andy Koronios, and Joseph Mathew, Springer, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce as much as possible the economic losses that are generated due to lack or inefficient maintenance, it is necessary to map, analyse and judge maintenance performance and act on deviations before it is too late. It is always necessary for a company to act for increasing profit and consequently enhance its competitiveness. In this paper, a software model (MainSave) has been developed for mapping, monitoring, analysis, following up and assessing the cost-effectiveness of maintenance (and maintenance investments). MainSave can be used for assessing savings and profit/losses due to maintenance performance, identify problem areas and primarily plan for new beneficial investments in maintenance. The module has been tested at Fiat/CRF in Italy. The major conclusion is; applying MainSave it would be possible to identify, assess and follow up maintenance contribution in company business.

  • 8.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    A Maintenance Model for Identification, Quantification and Elimination of Losses in Companies Profitability: Application Examples2009In: Proceedings of the 22nd international congress on condition monitoring and diagnostic engineering management / [ed] Aitor. Arnaiz; Ana. Aranzabe; B. K. N. Rao, Eibar: Fundación Tekniker , 2009, , p. 35Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A production process includes several sub-processes, which may also be called working areas or disciplines that are responsible for performing the different tasks required to accomplish the mission of the process. It is crucial that the tasks performed in these sub-processes are synchronised with each other without unnecessary and uncontrollable gaps and overlapping, which in turn may lead to losses in production time and manpower. It is important to avoid a shortage of resources, unplanned stoppages and idle times that may arise due to the gaps. In this paper gaps are generated due to missing the tasks or inputs that are required because of deficiencies in planning, the lack of responsibilities or of knowledge and experience concerning these inputs. On the other hand, effective synchronising of production-different disciplines will enhance production process effectiveness as well as company profitability and competitiveness.

    The problem addressed in this paper is: How should maintenance be considered in conjunction with plant activities, such as production, quality and personnel competence, in order to easily and effectively identify and quantify company losses in profitability and competitiveness and consequently to eliminate underlying causes? In this paper the gaps and overlapping between maintenance, production, competence and quality are defined, identified and described through a technical analysis of the production sub-processes and their respective sub-organisations. The major result achieved in this study is the development of a new model (Maintenance Function Deployment (MFD)), for an easy and effective identification and quantification of company losses in profitability and competitiveness for cost-effective elimination of the root-causes. MFD can be applied through identifying:

    1. the requirements that are necessary to achieve and maintain company strategic goals,

    2. tools to maintain the condition of these requirements,

    3. activities for the effective utilisation of the tools above, and

    4. the factors required to support the integration of maintenance with plant business for enhancing production process effectiveness as well as company profitability and competitiveness.

    The structure of the quality house has been used as a platform for developing MFD model for effectively integrating maintenance with production, competence and quality. Two examples are conducted to demonstrate the possibility of applying the model and its potential for enhancing production processes profitably. The main conclusion is: applying MFD gives an enormous opportunity to continuously maintain the quality of the working areas under consideration, which makes MFD one of the company’s objective-driven tools for enhancing its profitability and competitiveness. Also, it implies the application of the PDCA cycle, which in turn improves the integration of relevant working areas cost-effectively and continuously.

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  • 9.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    A Maintenance Model for Indentification, Quantification and Elimination of Losses in Companies Profitability: An Application Example2009In: COMADEM 2009: June 9-11 2009, San Sebastian, Spain, Miramar Palace / [ed] Aitor Arnaiz, Ana Aranzabe, and Raj BKN Rao, Eibar, Spain: Fundaci n Tekniker , 2009, p. 45-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A production process includes several sub-processes (working areas) that are responsible for performing the different tasks required to accomplish the mission of the process. Thus, it is important to avoid a shortage of resources, unplanned stoppages and idle times that may arise. The problem addressed in this paper is: How should maintenance be considered in conjunction with plant activities, such as production, quality and personnel competence for easily and effectively identifying and quantifying company losses in profitability and eliminating underlying causes? In this paper, the interactions between major working areas have been introduced and discussed. The major result achieved in this study is the development of a new model (Maintenance Function Deployment (MFD)), for an easy and effective identification and quantification of company losses in profitability. Four matrixes have been used for developing MFD model for effectively integrating maintenance with production, competence and quality. An application example is conducted to demonstrate the possibility of applying the model and its potential for enhancing production processes profitably. The main conclusion is: applying MFD gives an enormous opportunity to continuously maintain the quality of the working areas under consideration, which makes MFD one of the company’s objective-driven tools for enhancing its profitability and competitiveness.

  • 10.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Computerised Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) for Simulating and Selecting the most Cost-effective Production and Maintenance Solution: Case Study in FIAT/CRF, Italy2010In: Computerised Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) for Simulating and Selecting the most Cost-effective Production and Maintenance Solution: Case Study in FIAT/CRF, Italy / [ed] Susumu Okumura, Tadao Kawai, Peng Chen and Raj B.K. N. Rao, Hikone, Japan: Sunrise Publishing Limited , 2010, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To survive the hard international competition, it is necessary for many companies to enhance their competition positions through, for example; reducing production cost, and maintaining and improving production process and product quality for increasing the profit margin. In order to achieve these strategic goals, a tool for making investments in maintenance more profitable is developed, introduced, tested and discussed. This tool/module is one of the modules included by an innovatively new Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). Theoretical backgrounds are introduced, and software prototype (AltSim) for making the application of any of the tool on the daily basis easier and more cost-effective are developed, discussed and their functionalities are tested in FIAT/CRF, Italy. It is designed to support maintenance and production engineers to achieve cost-effective maintenance decisions. The major result of this study is development and testing of innovatively new tool/software module for simulating and selecting the most cost-effective production and maintenance solution. The major conclusion that can be drawn is; applying AltSim it is possible to identify and select the most cost-effective solution when there are several technically application solutions for the same problem.

  • 11.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Cost-eefective & continous improvement of production process and company's business when using Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain)2006In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Maintenance Engineering, 2006, , p. 1-13p. 1-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new concept of condition-based maintenance (CBM), Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain) is presented. It aims to maintain not only machines but the quality of the essential elements involved in the production process, such as methods, operational conditions, personnel competence, raw material, quality and managerial systems. The major results achieved, which are based on several case studies, are: Evidence of prolonging the bearing's effective live by using more accurate diagnosis is confirmed when faulty bearing installation, faulty machinery design and harsh environmental condition are considered.

    Machine speed and load influence the information delivered by vibration signals. Applying vibration spectral analysis, it is possible to detect the deviations in the quality of a product during the processing time and before it is completed

    Maintenance profit of one paper machine was found to be at minimum about 3.58 MSEK yearly. The main conclusion is; identifying and eliminating causes behind deviations in quality and equipment condition at an early stage are vital to accomplish continuous improvements and to assure longer machine live and high quality products at competitive price

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  • 12.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Dynamic e-Maintenance: Applying eMaintenance Decision Support System (eMDSS) in Case Companies2011In: 7th IMA International Conference on Modelling in Industrial Maintenance and Reliability: Sidney Susses College, University of Cambrige, UK, UK: Institute of Mathematics & its applications , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to maintain and improve company profitability especially during financial crises and lower profit-margin, it is necessary to reduce economic losses. This can be achieved through maintaining and improving the quality of the elements involved in the production process. Therefore, the maintenance strategy applied should be dynamic to suit the changes occur in a production process cost-effectively. Therefore, it is essential for maintenance and production managers to have a system providing the data required to achieve dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions. In this paper, a new Maintenance Decision Support System (eMDSS) for achieving dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions is introduced, tested and discussed. It consists of three toolsets and five software modules for performing six services to; enhance accuracy of maintenance decisions, select the most cost-effective maintenance solutions, identify and prioritise problem areas, and assess losses in production time, and map, follow up and assess maintenance cost-effectiveness (maintenance savings and profit) to achieve continuous & cost effective improvement. The major result of this tsudy is verfication of a new innovative Mainteance Decision Support System (eMDSS). The system has been tested at Fiat (car manufacturer)/CRF in Italy and GORATU (CNC-machine manufacturer).  The main conclusion is; applying eMDSS it is possible to map production and maintenance processes, identify and prioritise problems, select the most cost-effective maintenance investment and follow up and control investments results.

  • 13.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    eMaintenance Decision Support System: Case Studies for Securing Production Process & Following up Maintenance Contribution in Company Business2011In: COMADEM 2011 : proceedings of the 24th international congress on conditioning monitoring and diagnostics engineering management: advances in industial asset integrity management / [ed] Maneesh Singh, Raj B.K.N. Rao and J.P. Liyanage, India: PL, Kolkata , 2011, p. 395-406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, all the elements involved in a production process, such as tools, machinery, methods, competence and working environment are exposed to dynamic changes. Thus, in order to maintain and improve company profitability and competitiveness especially during financial crises and lower profit-margin, it is necessary to reduce losses through maintaining and improving the quality of the elements involved in the production process. Therefore, the maintenance strategy applied should be dynamic to follow all these changes cost-effectively. The accuracy of maintenance decisions is essential for reducing economic losses generated due to unnecessary stoppages especially when stoppage time is very expensive. Therefore, it is necessary for maintenance and production managers to have a system providing the data required to achieve dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions. In this paper, the role of & importance of dynamic and cost effective maintenance in company business is discussed. Also, a scenario for applying a new eMaintenance Decision Support System (eMDSS) for achieving dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions is introduced, tested and discussed. eMDSS introduces four different strategies for continuously improving the cost-effectiveness of maintenance and production processes. It consists of three toolsets and five software modules for performing six services to;

    1. enhance accuracy of maintenance decisions

    2. select the most cost-effective maintenance solutions

    3. identify and prioritise problem areas, and assess losses in production time

    4. map, follow up and assess maintenance cost-effectiveness (maintenance savings and profit) for achieving continuous & cost effective improvement.

    The major result of this tsudy is a new innovative eMDSS. The system has been tested at Fiat (car manufacturer)/CRF inItalyand GORATU (CNC-machine manufacturer).  The main conclusion is; applying eMDSS it is possible to map production an maintenance processes, identify and prioritise investments results.

  • 14.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. systemekonomi.
    Maintenance from Different Perspectives: Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain) for a Comprehensive Asset Maintenance2008In: ICOMS 2008 Conference Proceedings, Asset Management Council, Surrey Hills, Australia , 2008, p. 37/1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the interactions between the working areas involved in a production process, such as operation, quality, management, working environment, LCC management and analysis and maintenance, problems in these working areas are usually complex. It is well-known that maintenance is influenced by and influences these working areas. Maintenance role can be described technically using; failures, downtime, availability, planned stoppages, etc. or economically using; direct cost of maintenance, maintenance cost to production cost, spare part cost, etc. In order to high light maintenance technical and economic role and quantify its impact on company profitability and competitiveness, it is necessary to cover all relevant working areas within plant where maintenance affect. Thus, maintenance should be considered from different perspectives due to its interplay with the working areas involved in the production process. In this paper, maintenance is recognised as a means for maintaining the quality of the working areas involved in a production process at a continuous reduced cost. Also, we introduce maintenance from different perspectives based on its role in company profitability and competitiveness. Further more, the paper give big attention to introduce and discuss Total Quality maintenance (TQMain) philosophy with respect to the maintenance broader definition. An industrial case highlights TQMain applicability & maintenance economic importance is also introduced.

  • 15.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Maintenance from Different Relevant Perspectives: Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain) for a Comprehensive Asset Maintenance2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strategies for Maintenance Cost-effectiveness2010In: E-maintenance / [ed] Kenneth Holmberg, London: Springer, 2010, 1, p. 297-344Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To survive hard international competition, it is necessary for many producing companies to enhance their competition positions by, for example, reducing production costs and maintaining and improving product quality to increase the profit margin. In order to achieve these strategic goals, strategies for making maintenance more profitable are developed, introduced and discussed in this chapter. These strategies are all developed as software modules included by an innovatively new maintenance decision support system (MDSS). Also, theoretical backgrounds are introduced, and software prototypes for making the application of any of the tools on a daily basis easier and more cost-effective are developed and discussed, and their functionalities are tested. MDSS consists of three toolsets, where each toolset consists of one to three tools that can be used for different objectives and applications. It is designed to support maintenance and production engineers to achieve dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions. The latter will be discussed in Chapter 13. MDSS software prototype can be utilised for several objectives, such as, to:

    • enhance the accuracy of maintenance decisions;

    • simulate and select the most cost-effective maintenance solution, i.e., the best investment in maintenance;

    • identify and prioritise problem areas; and

    • map, monitor, analysis, follow up and assess maintenance contribution in company profit.

  • 17.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Jacobsson, Martin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    A Model to Describe the Relationships Man–Machine–Maintenance–Economy (MMME)2007In: IMECS 2007: International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, 2007, Vol. II, p. 2127-2132p. 2127-2132Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the globalisation spirit, one of the major objectives of companies is how to reduce the production losses cost-effectively for continuously enhancement of competitiveness and profitability. However, this area has been neglected by scientists and not given the attention justified considering its obvious link to company profitability. To fill this gap, better understanding of the relations and interactions between man, machine/production process, maintenance and economy is vital. Also, it is important for identifying and eliminating root causes of the losses. In this paper, we develop a model to describe these interactions using the most relevant factors, such as maintenance organisation, personnel commitment, machine condition and characteristics, and the impact of maintenance performance on production time. The use of the model and its potential benefits are tested using an application example. This example illustrates how the above mentioned factors affect the production time and is thereafter derived to financial results. The result is accordingly a model that can help all producing companies categorise the causes behind losses and identify where losses arise and where to focus their work of continuous cost-effective improvements.

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  • 18.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Ciganovic, Renato
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    A Model for More Accurate Maintenance Decisions2010In: Engineering Asset Management: Proceeding of the Fourth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM) 2009 / [ed] Dimitris Kiritsis, Christos Emmanouilidis, Andy Koronios, and Joseph Mathew, Springer, 2010, p. 7-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is usual when using CM technology for assessing the state of a component and planning maintenance actions using predetermined levels for warnings and replacements. The replacement of a damaged component is usually done at lower or higher than the predetermined level, which both means losses. This is because the probability of doing replacements just at the predetermined level is negligibly small. The accuracy in the assessment of the condition of a component has big technical and economic impact on the output of the machine, production process and consequently company profitability and competitiveness. The higher the accuracy in assessing the condition of a component yields higher probability of avoiding failures and planning maintenance actions at low costs. In this paper, techniques for assessing the state of a component using both mechanistic and other statistical approaches are considered. This paper also applies Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) Chart for identifying the time of damage initiation and reducing false alarms.  Techniques for assessing the probability of failure of a component and its residual life, and predicting the vibration level at the next planned measuring opportunity or planned stoppage are introduced, discussed, computerised and tested. The problem addressed is: How is it possible to increase the accuracy of assessing the condition of a component? The major result achieved is; development of a model for more accurate assessment of the condition of a component/equipment through combining different approaches. The main conclusion that can be drawn is; applying the model, it is possible to enhance the accuracy of assessment of the condition of a component/equipment and consequently maintenance decision since the integrated model provides comprehensive and relevant information in one platform.

  • 19.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Eberhagen, Niclas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Dynamic and Cost-effective Maintenance Decisions2010In: E-maintenance / [ed] Kenneth Holmberg, London: Springer, 2010, 1, p. 345-390Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, all the elements involved in a production process, such as tools, machinery, methods, competence and working environment are exposed to changes. Thus, to maintain and improve company profitability and competitiveness, it is necessary to reduce losses through maintaining and improving the quality of the elements involved in the production process. Therefore, the maintenance strategy applied should be dynamic to be suited for all these changes cost-effectively. In producing companies, the accuracy of maintenance decisions is essential for reducing economic losses generated due to unnecessary stoppages in companies of intensive capital investment where stoppage time is expensive, especially in paper and pulp mills, refineries, power stations and engineering manufacturing. Therefore, it is necessary for maintenance and production managers to have a system providing the data required to achieve dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions.

    In this chapter, the new maintenance decision support system (MDSS) for achieving dynamic and cost-effective maintenance decisions developed in Chapter 12 is tested and discussed. The developed system is MIMOSA compatible, consists of three toolsets and five software modules for performing six services to achieve different objectives, e.g.:

    1. higher accuracy of maintenance decisions;

    2. selection of the most cost-effective maintenance solutions;

    3. identification and prioritisation of problem areas and assessment of losses in production time; and

    4. mapping, follow up and assessment of maintenance cost-effectiveness (maintenance savings and profit) to achieve continuous and cost effective improvement.

  • 20.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    E-maintenance Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Pre-Study: Info & technology needed for Cloud based smart sustainable integrated production-maintenance system2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The project had several objectives, such as gathering and preparing the required information to highlight the problems and challenges experienced by the factories of AstraZeneca (AZ) and Ericsson in India and Sweden: Identifying the knowledge, tools, and technologies that are necessary for solving/meeting the problems/challenges experienced by these factories: Preparing for a new joint project, Smart sustainable integrated production-maintenance (Smart-Pro) system: and identifying additional Indians partners in the spirit of the collaboration between Sweden and India.The project consisted of three WPs (WP1, WP2 and WP3) which were interdependent. WP1 was responsible of management, administration, supporting WPs, transferring knowledge and experience between WPs, develop a conceptual model and the final reports.WP2 responsibilities were identifying the problems/challenges experienced as well as new Indian partners. Therefore, WP2 started by gathering the information needed for the analysis of the production and maintenance processes at the factories. WP3 was responsible of identifying the knowledge, tools and technologies needed to solve/meet the problems/challenges identified by WP2. The planned objectives of WP2 and WP3 have been achieved and reported.Based on the achieved results by WP2 and WP3, WP1 developed a conceptual model describing Smart-Pro system for effective production planning, scheduling, follow up and decision making. In addition, it is also described a Plug-and-Play solution for automatic detection-localizing of damages, damage severity estimation, predicting damage development, recommending what, where and when to act cost-effectively to maintain production process quality.

  • 21.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Kans, Mirka
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    A Model to Identify Relevant Data for Accurate Problem Tracing and Localisation, and Cost-effective Decisions: A Case Study2006In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Maintenance Engineering ICME 2006 New Century New Maintenance / [ed] Jia Xisheng et al., 2006, , p. 14-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping the technical and financial effectiveness of a production is crucial for making cost-effective maintenance decisions. But, a successful mapping cannot be achieved without a well-structured database including all relevant data required for this task. The problem addressed in this paper is how to identify the relevant variables and performance measures that should be monitored for achieving cost-effective maintenance decisions that enhance company’s business? The main result achieved is a model for identifying relevant data required for accurate problem tracing and localisation within maintenance and production processes using a top down approach. The potential of applying the model is examined in a case study including databases of two commercial software programs developed for maintenance. The main conclusions are integration of IT and data resources within the enterprise is needed for developing a holistic view of the production process and a well-formulated and documented procedure of data identification will ensure that the data can be traced back to root sources and in this way we can support the work of continuous cost-effective improvement by eliminating root causes of problems at an early stage.

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  • 22.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Slabon, Adam
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Chezhianvelu, Arvindselvan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    E-maintenance Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Technologies needed for Smart Pro meeting industrial challenges and problems2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major goal of the pre-study is to identify and prepare the required information, knowledge, tools, modules, and technologies for a project within Smart Manufacturing in the spirit of the collaboration between Sweden and India.WP3 focus is: Identification of the technologies needed to be considered in Smart-Pro project as an Innovation action. This means that the input technologies that will be identified in the Pre-study project should be in about TRL 3-, and the demonstrated results of Smart-Pro should be in about TRL 6-7. Smart Pro project will be based on effective collaboration between universities/research institutes and industry.In WP3, we will develop a list of the tools, methods, modules and technologies (in the areas below) which are available at the members of the Pre-study consortium (and in industry in general), and necessary for developing Smart-Pro system.According to the project description, WP3 has two Tasks:• T3.1: Production-maintenance technologies needed for Smart-Pro.• T3.2: Communication and integration technologies needed for Smart-Pro.The tasks have been distributed between E-maintenance AB (Emaint), which the leader of the WP and the two tasks, Linnaeus University (LNU), Uppsala University (UU) and Stockholm University (SU).

  • 23.
    Alsyouf, Imad
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Maintenance practices in Swedish industries: Survey results2009In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 121, p. 212-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the maintenance practices that are used in Swedish industry. The study was performed by conducting a cross-sectional survey within Swedish firms that have at least 100 employees. The main results achieved from the study show that the role of maintenance is not highly recognised. There is a need to spend and invest more in maintenance, which is considered by the majority of Swedish industries as a necessary expense. Although about 13% of the maintenance department time is spent on planning maintenance tasks, nevertheless, about one third of the time is spent on unplanned tasks. There is a need for more adoption of maintenance concepts such as total productive maintenance (TPM) and reliability-centred maintenance (RCM). The lack or ineffectiveness of planning and scheduling can significantly restrict the maintenance department in achieving its objectives and can thus prevent the company from maximising business profits and offering competitive advantages.

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  • 24.
    Altsäter, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Lagerstyrningssystem för ökad flexibilitet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project has been performed at Production unit 1 (PV1) at Wexiödisk AB, where hood type washing machines is manufactured. The purpose of this project has been to investigate which inventory control models that could be suitable to control the section’s material supplies. The work has been accomplished in two steps. At first, items unique to products manufactured at PV1 were treated, followed by items common with other products. According models in relevant literature, suggestions were made to how the models could be applied practically. The suggestions was presented to and discussed with the parties concerned who chose Two-bin system 2. A trial was carried out according to the principle of “the Japanese river” which implied lowered inventory levels. The problems that occurred were noted. The result was that the number of items that was weekly picked and distributed was reduced which has created a basis to also reduce the administration of the systems picking lists. The item wagon has been removed which has cleared floor space at the assembly section. Conditions have been created to merge two picking lists into one and thereby simplify the work for the inventory staff.

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  • 25.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jönsson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av produktion på producerande företag.: Fallstudie på Eksjöhus AB.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har utförts på Eksjöhus AB för att öka förståelsen för hur produktion kan effektiviseras med hjälp av produktionsteknik. Företaget står inför en snabbt ökad efterfrågan och behöver effektivisera sin produktion för att kunna möta kommande utmaningar. Vid studier av nuvarande läge konstaterades att produktionens väntetider är mycket långa, samtidigt som mycket material transporteras långa sträckor och hanteras på ett sätt som enligt Lean Production benämns som slösaktigt. Genom fyra förbättringsförslag har ledtiden på en teoretisk nivå kunnat reduceras med cirka 20 procent.

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  • 26.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Förbättrad precision vid ankomstkontroll2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet utfördes på Balco AB i Växjö, som tillverkar och erbjuder balkongsystem på

    totalentreprenad. Eftersom Balcos ökade omsättning har lett till att ankomstrollen inte längre kan utföras med

    tillräckligt hög precision, så har produktionsplaneringen blivit lidande. Syftet med projektet var därför att Balco

    ska kunna ankomstrapportera inkomna aluminiumprofiler från underleverantörer på ett smidigt sätt, samt med

    hög precision.

    För att lösa Balcos problem vid ankomstkontrollen, så att de enkelt kan rapportera in och få en god översikt

    av ankommit gods, har projektgruppen kommit fram till tre olika alternativa lösningar. Dessa lösningar är

    streckkodssystem, RFID-system och manuell identifiering. För bästa resultat, och användning av

    identifikationssystemen, är det troligtvis nödvändigt att ett MPS-system implementeras.

    Slutsatsen och rekommendationerna innefattas främst av en lösning med ett streckkodssystem, men där den

    primära nyckeln till ökad precision och kontroll av ankommande gods ligger i att införa ett väl fungerande

    datasystem.

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Isac
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ström, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Säker och tidseffektiv förflyttning av betongelement2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid konstruktion med betong har prefabricerade betongelement blivit allt mer frekvent förekommande. I samband med detta blir moment som förflyttning av betongelement ett problem under tillverkning, på grund av dess storlek och vikt. Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka transporter av betongelement på en industri. Elementen ska framföras säkert och tidseffektivt.

    Målet är att minimera risken för arbetsrelaterade skador genom att konstruera en ny lastanordning. Konstruktionen ska även främja en mer tidseffektiv hantering än dagens situation. Studien är kvalitativ då forskningen är baserad vid ett fallstudieobjekt. Däremot är både datainsamlingen kvalitativ och kvantitativ.

    Forskningen resulterade i dels ett koncept med en rälsgående A-bock, dels ett koncept med en A-bock anpassad för transport med dragtruck. Vid simulering av koncepten var resultatet positivt då båda koncepten uppnådde en säkerhetsfaktor av 1,25-4 i relation till materialets sträckgräns.

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  • 28.
    Andersson, Saga
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Eriksson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Automatiserad artikelplockning: En fallstudie på Scania Sverige AB i Oskarshamn2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En äldre verkstad som är anpassad till en tillverkning med många manuella moment är svår att automatisera. Det är en av anledningarna till att många industrier fortfarande har en del manuella moment i sin tillverkning och därmed en bristande arbetsergonomi. Den bristande arbetsergonomin är ett stort problem hos många tillverkande industrier. Genom att visa på automationsmöjligheter i en äldre verkstad såsom pressverkstaden hos Scania så hoppas vi på att flera industrier kan se förbättringsmöjligheterna och erbjuda sina anställda en bättre arbetsergonomi.

    Genom en kartläggning av TAK och jämförelser mellan manuellt beräknade värden och de som genererats automatiskt i företagets system kan brister i de egna systemen identifieras.

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  • 29.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Svensson, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    A model to guide a company towards a decision of whether to change the due date of work orders or not: a case study2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a model that will guide a company towards a decision of whether to

    change the current due date of work orders or not. The model will help the company to reveal the technical and

    financial factors that will be affected and how these factors can be assessed. After accomplishing a thorough

    literature review, we found no existing practical models in this specific area. We developed a model to cover this

    gap in the existing theories. A case study approach was used to test the developed model on our case company

    Elitfönster in Lenhovda who manufactures windows. We applied our model at the processing department and the

    change concerned going from a weekly to a daily due date of work orders. The technical factors that would be

    affected by the change of the due date are; setup times, lead time and output of components. The financial

    factors that will be affected are the tied-up capital and the manning. We found that a change could not be carried

    through without a purchase of an extra plane. The model also showed that the financial benefits that the change

    generated could not surpass the costs that an extra plane would cause. Thereby, our recommendations to the

    case company are to keep the current due date of work orders until the rest of the company can handle the extra

    components that can be produced after the change.

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  • 30.
    Angelov, Borislav
    et al.
    University of Ruse, Bulgaria.
    Ahmed, Ahmed
    University of Ruse, Bulgaria.
    Haralanova, Valentina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    An integrated model of technical system design: Further development of the concept2021In: AIP Conference Proceedings / [ed] Rosen Hristov;Radostin Dimitrov, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2021, article id 020003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the research performed earlier, it was found that the development of technical systems in practice solves four major tasks-adapting an existing solution to work in new conditions, refining an existing solution, combining it with previously developed elements and creating a new solution. Accordingly, the principal focus of the present research is on a more integrated model for the design of technical systems. The model is obtained by combining (overlaying) the methods for solving the four main tasks defined. The current study presents the findings from the subsequent development of the concept-the place of the scientific research in the proposed integrated model is determined and the process of selecting or synthesizing a technical proposal in each of the defined four cases is clarified.

  • 31.
    Arnaiz, Aitor
    et al.
    Fdacion Tekniker, Spain.
    Iung, Benoit
    Nancy University, France.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jantunen, Erkki
    VTT Technical Research Cnetre of Finland.
    Holmberg, Kenneth
    VTT Technical Research Cnetre of Finland.
    Naks, Tonu
    Baglee, David
    A New Integrated E-maintenance Concept2010In: E-maintenance / [ed] Kenneth Holmberg, London: Springer, 2010, 1, p. 61-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter outlines the work done in Dynamite project (http://DYNAMITE.vtt.fi), as well as the resulting concept nicknamed as DynaWeb. DynaWeb represents the link between Dynamite and the e-maintenance technologies described in previous chapters and results in a global framework where all technologies can participate within an advanced maintenance solution.

    This chapter serves as an introduction to the rest of the chapters dealing with specific technologies that have been converted into ‘capabilities’, such as intelligent sensors, wireless communications, intelligent web services or smart PDAs, as well as to the final demonstrations

  • 32.
    Aronsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Håkan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av ett internt materialflöde i en producerande verksamhet: En fallstudie utförd på Växjöfabriken Produktions AB2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to increase our understanding of the different types of waste that affects the internal material- and production flow in a manufacturing company. The study was conducted in order to provide recommendations to improve the efficiency of the process. The study was performed at the company Växjöfabriken Produktions AB, which is located in Växjö and performs cutting processing on casted details. After studying existing theories we created our theoretical base with a selection of theories that we considered important for the study. From these, we generated an analytical model that formed the basis for the continued work in this study. The analytical model provided a structured approach for collecting empirical data from the company, which we then used to make an analytical comparison with our theoretical base. The first step in the process was to conduct a process mapping at the company where we documented all of the data associated with the process. The mapping was then visualized with respect to the flowpaths that the material travels on each machine that were included in our study. The survey also includes the inventory handling and an inspection of the current factory layout.With the process mapping as a basis, we performed an analysis of the current situation in which we analyzed the material and inventory handling, as well as the production layout. With the analysis, we could then identify the different types of waste that belong to the handling of materials that Växjöfabriken currently undertake. The wastes that were found was, in large part, related to a lack of strategy for how the layout is planned. It was also related to a system that places new equipment where there is free space instead of basing its position on a long-term plan for further expansion. With these findings as a starting point, we began to develop new layout options with the aim of reducing the wastes that we found have impact on the process. The first layout is generated without regard to the restrictions that exist at the factory in the form of robotic workstations that are difficult to move. This layout is designed to demonstrate how an optimal material flow with wastes, reduced to a maximum, would look like if there had been a long-term strategy from the start. The development of the next layout, where we had taken the restrictions into account, we sought a design that would get us as close to the previously mentioned one as possible. In the last chapters we discuss the results of newly developed layouts in order to reach conclusions and recommendations for improvements that we believe is feasible and beneficial for Växjöfabriken Produktions AB.

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  • 33.
    Ashrafi, Karzan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Ali Ahmed, Ibrahim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Testning av betongskivor för inredningsändamål2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis aims to develop a new way to use concrete as interior material. Concrete has always been used in larger scale buildings, infrastructure and in other categories. Recently the modern interior design started to use concrete indoors for example as countertop or as a shelf. This thesis focuses on one main question: is concrete a good material choice for interior use. To answer that question, we decided to have sub questions to help to get to the main question. The following questions needed test and analysis methods to get to the answers:

       - Calculate and test the strength of concrete

       - Test impact resistance

       - Analyze how concrete reacts with chemicals with different PH-values

       - Study the production of concrete

       - Relation between environment and concrete

    Lab tests, literature sources, and field studies was used as methods to answer those questions. The results shows that concrete can be utilized as interior material and can be used to a greater extent than is the case today. In conclusion concrete is a good material as used for interior purposes and the future technology will decrease carbon dioxide emissions that comes with production of the concrete. That will make concrete even better as material to use in the future.

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  • 34.
    Axelsson, Leo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Josefsson, Moa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Fallstudie om effekten av att separera värdeskapande processer från stödjande processer2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Globaliseringen har medfört en ökad konkurrens på marknaden vilket tvingar företag att flytta utomlands eller effektivisera sina processer för att fortsätta vara framgångsrika. För att effektivisera sina processer måste även företag prioritera olika processer och öka utnyttjandegraden på de processer som skapar värde för kunden. Följande fallstudie undersöker hur tillgängligheten påverkas om stödjande processer separeras från värdeskapande processer. Syftet med studien är att studera sambandet mellan materialhantering och tillgänglighet i produktion för att förstå effekten av att separera stödjande och värdeskapande processer. Studien har utförts på företaget Gunnebo Industrier där författarna tagit fram lösningsförslag för att företaget ska kunna separera operatörer från logistiska aktiviteter. Med hjälp av nulägesanalys och tester har följande resultat uppkommit; Genom att frigöra operatör från logistiska aktiviteter kan operatören ägna större del av sin tid till värdeskapande aktiviteter vilket medför en ökad tillgänglighet i produktionen.

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  • 35.
    Baglee, David
    et al.
    University of Sunderland, UK.
    Gorostegui, Unai
    Mondragon University, Spain.
    Jantunen, Erkki
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Sharma, Pankaj
    Indian Institute of Technology Dehli, India.
    Campos, Jaime
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    How can SMEs adopt a new method to advanced maintenance strategies: A Case study approach2018In: Conference Proceedings: 30th International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management (COMADEM 2017) / [ed] Ian Sherrington;A. Onsy;H. Brooks;J. George;R. Rao, University of Central Lancashire , 2018, p. 155-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance is crucial to manufacturing operations. In many organisations, the production equipmentrepresents the majority of invested capital, and deterioration of these facilities and equipment increasesproduction costs, reduces product quality. Over recent years the importance of maintenance, and thereforemaintenance management, within manufacturing organisations has grown. The maintenance function hasbecome an increasingly important and complex activity, particularly as automation increases. Theopportunity exists for many organisations to benefit substantially through improvements to theircompetitiveness and profitability by adopting a new approach to maintenance management. Several toolsand technologies including Condition Based Maintenance (CBM), Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM)and more recently e-maintenance have developed under the heading of Advanced Maintenance Strategies.However, the adoption of advanced maintenance strategies and their potential benefits are usuallydemonstrated in large organisations. Unfortunately, the majority of organisations are constrained by thelack of knowledge and understanding on the requirements, which need to be in place before adopting anadvanced maintenance strategy. These are usually classified as Small and Medium Sized Enterprises(SMEs).The research strategy is based on ‘empirical iterations’ using survey secondary data, experts’ interviewsinformation and multiple case studies. The results show that there is a set of recommendations, whichstrongly influence the implementation of an Advanced Maintenance Strategy (AMS) with a Small toMedium Enterprise (SME). Organisations require a structured and integrative approach in order to takeadvantage of a new approach to maintenance management. This paper will propose recommendations forintegrating an AMS into the organisation and provide evidence of a successful implementation.

  • 36.
    Bayley, Peter
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Mätning av produktionstiden vid prefabricerade hus: En tidsstudie vid Sävsjö Trähus AB2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Price-setting of a house includes production-cost and the production-cost is a substanial part of the total price. In production-cost are material, write-offs and salaries included. The last mentioned factor is the one that is most difficult to determine since the house-sizes and architectures never are the same. The person responsible for tender and making deals are today using factors of manufacturing which are based upon many years of experience and where the measurement is either h/m2 or h/pc depending on which factor one uses. The total covering-costs is good totally, but one does not know whether the proportions between different house-types is accurate since it constantly circulates multiple different houses in production. In this examination-work has multiple time-studies been made to research the factors of manufacturing and the proportion of them. The production-flow of the factory is controlled of the manufacturing of outer-walls and therefore the studies narrowed down to measure the stations that are assembling these. The results of the time-study showed tendencies that outer-walls made in the line and gables made at the turning-table have a factor that is high in the present system. Windows that was installed loose in a partition and windows that were studded in windowsill were also measured. Both these factors resulted in a low factor comparing to the presence.During the time-study, that lasted four weeks of time, was even the production-process researched and resulted in suggestions for changes that could increase efficiency, quality and security in the factory. One of the suggestions that could result in more efficiency was dividing the workload more efficiently in production of prefabricated houses.

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  • 37.
    Bengtsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Aron
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Planeringsmetodens påverkan på leveransprecision och kapitalbindning: En fallstudie på Gunnebo Industrier AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att sänka ett företags kapitalbindning och höja dess leveransprecision kan det bli mer konkurrenskraftigt.

    Denna studie baseras på ett fallföretag som vill sänka sitt bundna kapital och som har en leveransprecision på 14%.

    Syftet med denna studie är att se vilka brister som finns i deras nuvarande arbetssätt för planering samt vad dessa brister leder till med målet att ta fram förslag på hur dessa brister kan motverkas och uppskatta vad effekten blir. Fallföretagets problemområden:

    • Planeringsmetoder och följden av de nuvarande metoderna.
    • Isolationen mellan fallföretagets avdelningar.
    • Bristen på insikt i sin egen kapacitet.
    • En komplex planeringssituation till följd av en produktion med många delprocesser och mycket variation.

    Efter analys av insamlad data och deras nuvarande metoder så har förbättringsförslag tagits fram för att fallföretaget ska göra rätt med planeringen från start istället för att ständigt förändra produktionsplanen.

    Detta uppskattas leda till en ökning av leveransprecisionen till 70-80% samt en sänkning av kapitalbindningen med 35-40%.

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  • 38.
    Bengtsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Skarheden, Philip
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ökat kapacitetsutnyttjande genom reducerad processvariation: 2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är utförd på ett fallföretag med syftet att skapa en djupare förståelse för hur stabilisering av en produktionsprocess påverkar kapacitetsutnyttjandet.

    Nuläget analyserades genom observationer, intervjuer och företagets egen dokumentation. Två experiment utfördes vilket resulterade i att ett samband hittades mellan variationer och kapacitetsutnyttjandet i en produktionsprocess. Vidare avgränsades vilka produktionsförutsättningar som gav högst kapacitetsutnyttjande. Slutligen presenteras hur det ökade kapacitetsutnyttjandet påverkar de ekonomiska resultaten samt studiens slutsats och rekommendationer till fallföretaget. 

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    Ökat kapacitetsutnyttjande genom reducerad processvariation
  • 39.
    Berggren Turesson, Adam
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Holmberg, Alex
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Optimization of design efficiency by implementing Design for Excellence: A Case Study for Optimizing Rottne Industri AB:s current harvester cabin production2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of humanity's actions on the environment have been a viral topic for many years. The efficiency of refining raw materials is crucial in reducing these effects. This thesis was thereby tasked with improving the assembly efficiency of Rottne Industri AB:s harvester cabin. Various theories were utilized to improve the design, with Design for Excellence being the most notable. By implementing a seven-step product development process, concepts could be generated and later scored based on the customer's comments and discovered issues. The authors selected the idea with the highest score and developed it until they achieved a concept meeting the product's objectives. The concept was then validated by performing simulations and calculations related to its assembly efficiency, environmental impact, and cost. The redesign resulted in an idea possessing a design efficiency 135% higher than the original, a 72% shorter assembly time, 13% less weight, a 25% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and a 41% reduction in assembly and material costs.

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    Optimization of design efficiency by implementing Design for Excellence
  • 40.
    Bergkvist Bäcklin, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Johansson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Belastningsergonomi och arbetsmiljörisker vid maskinrumsarbete på fartyg: Riskbedömning av underhållsarbete på separatorer2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to identify work hazards by analyzing the work activities and work environment during a separator overhaul onboard a ship. To identify risks the study used the Swedish Work Environment Authority´s regulation AFS 2012:02, the assessment form KIM 1 and a biomechanical program ALBA. The results show that there are risks for stress load on the body and that there is room for improvements. An example of an improvement is to design an additional workbench to allow proper work postures and decrease the number of lifts. The results also show the importance of using the right technique while lifting to reduce the chance of stress load. The study can be used for further studies on the work environment hazards onboard ships.

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  • 41.
    Bergqvist, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Maskinkörkort i gymnasieskolan?2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport undersöker hur yrkeslärare på gymnasieskolor inom hantverk/finsnickeri ser på maskinkörkort som från 2012 är nytt i Sverige, och vad yrkeslärarna anser runt den webbaserade utbildningsformen.

    Träindustrin är hårt drabbad av olyckor som ger lång sjukfrånvaro och bestående men.

    Flera projekt har sedan 1980-talet genomförts för att undersöka arbetsmiljön inom träbranschen. Men dessa insatser har inte räckt för att minska arbetsskadorna tillräckligt.

    Det har visat sig att det Danska maskinkörkortet har haft positiv inverkan på olycksstatistiken i Danmark.

    Genom enkäter har information samlats in från yrkeslärare som genomgått testledarkurs för det Svenska maskinkörkortet.

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  • 42.
    Berling, Peter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Marklund, Johan
    Lund University.
    A model for heuristic coordination of real life distribution inventory systems with lumpy demand2013In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 230, no 3, p. 515-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approximation model for optimizing reorder points in one-warehouse N-retailerinventory systems subject to highly variable lumpy demand. The motivation for this work stems fromclose cooperation with a supply chain management software company, Syncron International, and oneof their customers, a global spare parts provider. The model heuristically coordinates the inventory systemusing a near optimal induced backorder cost at the central warehouse. This induced backorder costcaptures the impact that a reorder point decision at the warehouse has on the retailers’ costs, and decomposesthe multi-echelon problem into solving N + 1 single-echelon problems. The decomposition frameworkrenders a flexible model that is computationally and conceptually simple enough to beimplemented in practice.A numerical study, including real data from the case company, shows that the new model performsvery well in comparison to existing methods in the literature, and offers significant improvements tothe case company. With regards to the latter, the new model in general obtains realized service levelsmuch closer to target while reducing total inventory.

  • 43.
    Berntsson, Adam
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Stenberg, Gustav
    Effektiv projektkoordinering i en multi-projektorganisation: En fallstudie på Holtab AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På marknaden idag sätts det allt större krav på att företag ska kunna leverera unika produkter med hög kvalité för vara så attraktiva på marknaden som möjligt. Det har därför blivit allt mer vanligt inom industrier att man delar av sin standard produktion till projektbaserad produktion för att lösa specifika uppgifter. De företag som har många projekt samtidigt är oftast utformad som en multi-projektorganisation. Det karakteristiska draget för en multi-projektorganisation är att fler projekt bedrivs parallellt av samma personal. Fördelen med detta arbetssätt är att företag kan använda de mänskliga resurserna på ett effektivt sätt, då kunskap kan överföras mellan de olika projekten. Projektledarnas roll i företaget blir då allt viktigare samt en effektiv projektstyrning och projektkoordination. I en multi-projektorganisation så kan störningar i ett projekt påverka de övriga projekten. Det är därför viktigt med en jämn fördelning av arbetet och beläggning för projektledarna, inte bara för projektets resultat utan även för arbetsmiljön så att inte det skapas onödig stress eller ovisshet. Projektkoordinatorns roll i organisationen blir då att koordinera projektledarna så deras arbetsmiljö blir hållbar. Att arbeta i en multi-projektmiljö förväntas att öka i framtiden men det finns lite studier inom detta område. Speciellt hur man undviker problemen och vilka förutsättningar som är viktiga för att bedriva en hälsosam och effektiv projektkoordinering.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka förutsättningar som är viktiga vid projektkoordinering och föreslå hjälpmedel för projektkoordinatorns dagliga arbete. Detta sker genom att undersöka projektkoordinering i ett fallföretag och få en förståelse för deras arbetssätt och metoder. Resultatet används för att utveckla och säkerställa en bra och hållbar arbetsmiljö för de anställda samt höja effektiviteten för projektorganisationen.

    Datainsamling har skett genom en kvalitativ fallstudie på Holtab AB. Den har gjorts genom intervjuer och observationer samt studier av dokument. Samtidigt gjordes en kvantitativ datainsamling för att ta reda på vilka problem som generellt förekommer på företag där projektledarna arbetar med flera projekt samtidigt. Detta gjordes genom enkäter via mail.

    Det har blivit tydligt under studien att företag som arbetar i bygg- eller tillverkningsindustrin har speciellt svårt att planera framtiden då projekten måste startas direkt och leveranstiderna är korta. Ett problem som Holtab´s organisation har i dagsläget är att de inte har en korrekt överblick på projektledarnas beläggning. Holtab är just nu i en fas där deras projektorganisation växter och det har anställts fler projektledare under de senaste åren, vilket har gjort att projektchefens roll som projektkoordinator har blivit allt mer nödvändig. Tillsammans med Holtabs projektchef och projektledarna så skapades en kravspecifikation för ett verktyg. Verktyget fick namnet PCAO (Projekt Coordination And Overview) och hade som mål att hjälpa projektorganisationens dagliga arbete och vara ett stöd till projektkoordineringen. PCAO ger projektkoordinatorn möjlighet att få en överblick över hur projektledarnas tid är fördelade i nuläget och i framtiden. Detta ger en möjlighet att kunna se framtida kritiska moment då projektorganisationen är överbelastade under en period. Genom en bra överblick av projektorganisationen så kan fördelningen av projekt hanteras smidigare, vilket gör att det blir lättare att se till att det blir en jämnare arbetsfördelning. Detta resulterar att projektkoordinatorn kan ge projektledarna en bättre arbetsmiljö och bättre förutsättningar för att kunna göra ett så bra och effektivt arbete som möjligt.

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    Effektiv projektkoordinering i en multi-projektorganisation: En fallstudie på Holtab AB
  • 44.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Comparing 2D and 3D models as tools for evaluation of workplaces2015In: Creating Sustainable Work Environments: Proceedings of NES2015, Nordic Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Conference, 01-04 November 2015, Lillehammer, Norwa / [ed] Knut Inge Fostervold, Svein Åge Kjøs Johnsen, Leif Rydstedt, Reidulf G. Watten, NEHF (Norwegian society for Ergonomics and Human Factors) , 2015, p. A3-11-A3-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present a comparison between 2D and 3D models as tools for evaluating workplaces. The comparison focus on differences in the comments when evaluation with 2D and 3D models. The results make strong indication that overall layout, line of sight and space are perceived differently in 2D and 3D models.

  • 45.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The power of the dollhouse: Comparing the use of full-scale, 1:16-scale and virtual 3D-models for user evaluation of workstation design2018In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 68, p. 344-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of having users evaluate product or workplace design during the development process are well known. This is often achieved by letting users interact with one or more models of the design proposal, in order to elicit feedback. The issue for product developers is to choose what type(s) of models to use (from paper drawings to physical or virtual mock-ups or fully working prototypes) and when to use them in the development process, while making optimal use of resources like time, money and personnel.

    This paper compares three types of simple three-dimensional (3D) models (1:1 scale, 1:16 scale and CAD) representing a ship bridge workstation, examining what kind of feedback they elicit in a design evaluation with representative users. Participants were asked to assess the proposed design and to compare the models' relative merits. The study found that while all three types of 3D models elicited several types of useful design feedback, there were differences in both quantity and content of the feedback elicited by each model type. The physical models elicited more feedback than the CAD model, both regarding content richness (direct and indirect design feedback) and quantity. The tangibility of the models seems to greatly influence acceptance and credibility.

  • 46.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Using 2D and 3D models as tools during a workplace design process: a question of how and when2014In: Proceedings of the 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, 2014, p. 799-804Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of involving users in a development process are well described. This paper describes a procedure for using 2D and 3D models in a workplace design process, which is based on three rounds of user studies within the maritime domain. The process includes various kinds of models that can be used in order to elicit design feedback in a cost-effective manner. Design teams can greatly benefit from using such mediating objects to draw out the users’ previous experiences. It was found that different model types allow different levels of reflection and questioning of the design from the prospective users.

  • 47.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Resource utilization in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 142-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used in an operation, and it is usually determined as the ratio of what is consumed in the production. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often taking complex shapes, using a raw material with high variation, and requiring machining processes that create scrap material that needs to be handled. Therefore, maintaining high productivity in industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports on productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and a processing station. The study seeks to increase the understanding of production-related problems in this industry. This research has been based on productivity measurement as well as on interactive discussions between researchers and workers. Measurement of cycle times indicated bottlenecks in the processing cell. The discussion led via cycle times, processing residues and chatter marks to an examination of the foundation and rigidity of the CNC-machine in the processing cell. The study indicated that the performance of the CNC machine did not correspond to expectations. The machine was too weak to handle the required output in an efficient manner. Thus, there is a need to determine the performance expected before a machine or machine group is purchased. An update of the existing purchasing literature and its dissemination will support the crystallization of the purchasing process as a way forward to support the industry.

  • 48.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Downtime causes in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017In: 23rd International Wood Machining Seminar Proceedings / [ed] Marcin Zbiec and Kazimierz Orlowski, Warsaw, Poland: The Polish Chamber of Commerce of Furniture Manufacturers , 2017, p. 28-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used for an operation. Most often, the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it determines productivity. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often with complex shapes, a raw material with high variation, and machining processes that create scrap materials that need to be handled. Therefore, keeping a high productivity in the industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and processing station. The study seeks to increase understanding of production-related problems in this industry. The research has been using productivity measurement as well as interactive discussions between researchers and workers.

    Measurement of downtime causes were made for 20 days, for a total of approximately 300 hours. The production cell had 1,299 minutes of stops. Of those, 450 minutes were one-time events. The rest were intermittent disturbances. Many of them could be explained by the dust-laden air and processing residues but were also related to veneer and adhesive. There is a need for determining material and processing parameters; however, the first priority is cleaning the factory.

    From a social perspective, some other issues must be added to the discussion of this paper. First and foremost, the business has gone through a transformation from a family business to a privately held firm. From the non-family employee’s view, this is a huge change. This has resulted in unclear roles and responsibilities within the company, which has also affected the productivity of the company.

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  • 49.
    Blomstrand, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Akhter, Moumita
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Zdenac, Ines
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Internlogistiken i en monteringsprocess2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har i syfte att presentera en lösning på ett fallföretags problem inom materialförsörjning för att förbättra information- och materialflödet. Detta problem har angripits genom att studera huruvida en supermarket är en bra lösning. Tre olika simuleringar har utförts för att skapa tre individuella supermarkets. Experimentens utfall har analyserats och diskuterats för att avslutningsvis presentera en slutsats där undersökningsfrågan besvarats.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Boström Cars, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mind the Gap!: Maritime education for gender-equal career advancement2015In: Maritime Women: Global Leadership / [ed] M. Kitada, E. Williams & L. L. Froholdt, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2015, 1, p. 143-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafaring as an occupation, and the maritime community as a whole, is still a male-dominated industry. In order to encourage more women to engage in a career at sea, a number of campaigns have been launched by various stakeholders. Since gender gaps in education generally are larger in the developing world, while steadily closing in the developed countries, it is both understandable and appropriate that efforts largely have been directed towards enabling women in developing countries to engage in professional education and training, may it be maritime or other. However, is opening the door and encouraging women to participate in maritime training sufficient to keep and encourage women to embark on a maritime career?

    In this paper, we set out to examine how gender equality is addressed in the curricula of maritime education. A document analysis was performed, examining official study plans and curricula from eight maritime universities in Finland, Norway, Sweden and the Philippines; all nations ranked in the top five in the Global gender Gap Index. The results show that gender issues are not explicitly mentioned or addressed in these documents, indicating a lack of clear strategies for these matters. Educational institutions are important bearers of societal norms and values. Without effective gender-inclusive strategies and pedagogical and didactic approaches, there is a risk of reproducing inequality, instead of producing equality. Increasing numbers of female students will not alone close the gender gap in the maritime industry. Gender issues must be well defined, operationalised and included in educational policy and curricula-making at individual, structural as well as symbolical levels.

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