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  • 1.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Group of Forest Products2018In: Presented at Symposium "Perspectives in Renewables", 4-5 June 2018, BOKU Vienna, Austria, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Utilisation of renewable biomass and waste materials in furniture and construction composites2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lankveld, Chiel
    Accsys Group.
    Acoustic properties of acetylated wood under different humid conditions and its relevance for musical instruments2018In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wood Modification 2018, Arnhem, The Netherlands / [ed] Jos Creemers, Thomas Houben, Bôke Tjeerdsma, Holger Militz and Brigitte Junge, The Netherlands: Practicum , 2018, p. 236-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In musical instrument making, less expensive wood species and materials with good characteristics and acoustical properties can provide potentials to find alternatives to the traditional exotic wood species used today. Modified wood could be such a choice if shows similar sound characteristics to wood coming from endangered and expensive tropical species with problematic commercial availability. In musical instruments, the overall functionality depends on the contribution of wood to different material performance indexes like sound radiation coefficient (R), characteristic impedance (z) and acoustic conversion efficiency (ACE). In this study, the performance indexes were measured for acetylated beech, maple and radiata pine and compared with these obtained for the reference wood materials maple, mahogany, alder and ash. A non-destructive free-free flexural vibration test method was used at constant temperature (20oC) but in different humid conditions- dry (35% RH), standard (65% RH) and wet (85% RH). Dimensional changes in the different humid conditions were also taken in account. Acetylated wood showed lower EMC with higher dimensional stability at each humidity level as compared with the reference wood materials. These properties are considered important factors for making quality musical instruments. Based on the acoustical properties, acetylated wood materials, especially radiata pine, showed good potential for use for musical instruments where specific characteristics of sound are required. However, the other types of acetylated wood can also be used for specific musical instruments.

  • 4.
    Ahmad, Waqar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Sultan Qaboos Univ, Oman.
    Vakilinejad, Ali
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Oman;Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Aman, Zachary M.
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Vakili-Nezhaad, G. Reza
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Oman.
    Thermophysical Study of Binary Systems of tert-Amyl Methyl Ether with n-Hexane and m-Xylene2019In: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, ISSN 0021-9568, E-ISSN 1520-5134, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 459-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents the experimentally determined density (rho), viscosity (eta), speed of sound (u), and surface tension (sigma) data for tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) + n-hexane and TAME + m-xylene systems at several temperatures (298.15, 308.15, 318.15, 323.15, and 328.15 K). These experimentally determined thermophysical data are utilized to compute various excess/deviation parameters such as molar volume (V-E), isentropic compressibility (K-s(E)), speed of sound (u(E)), deviation in viscosity (Delta In eta), isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (alpha(E)(P)), and surface tension (sigma(E)). The inspection of parameters response may interpret the existing specific molecular interactions as well as the mixing behavior of solutions. The critical analysis of observed parametric behavior have unveiled the strong and weak molecular interactions in TAME with m-xylene and TAME with n-hexane systems, respectively.

  • 5.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Berastegui, Pedro
    Stockholm University.
    Esmaeilzadeh, Saeid
    Stockholm University.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University.
    Jekabs, Grins
    Stockholm University.
    A cubic calcium oxynitrido-silicate, Ca2.89Si2N1.76O4.242011In: Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online, ISSN 1600-5368, E-ISSN 1600-5368, Vol. 67, article id i66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The title compound, tricalcium oxynitride silicate, withcomposition Ca3-xSi2N2-2xO4+2x (x ’ 0.12), is a perovskiterelatedcalcium oxynitrido silicate containing isolated oxynitridosilicate 12-rings. The N atoms are statistically disorderedwith O atoms (occupancy ratio N:O = 0.88:0.12) and occupythe bridging positions in the 12 ring oxynitrido silicate anion,while the remaining O atoms are located at the terminalpositions of the Si(O,N)4 tetrahedra. The majority of the Ca2+cations fill the channels along [100] in the packing of the 12-ring anions. The rest of these cations are located at severalpositions, with partial occupancy, in channels along the bodydiagonals.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Vattenhaltmätning i konfektyr och sylt med Karl Fishermetoden2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract (in English)

    The task for the diploma work was to develop methods for measuring of moisture content by the Karl Fischer method, in jam, jelly sweets, and fudge.

    The start premises was a for the company whole new equipment, which should be started up. Then programs should be developed for different kind of samples.

    In the task it was as well included to develop methods for dissolving the different kind of samples, since the Karl Fischer method demands completely dissolved sample material.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Sven
    et al.
    SP.
    Bäfver, Linda
    SP.
    Davidsson, Kent
    SP.
    Pettersson, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Schmidt, Hans
    SP.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Yngvesson, Johan
    SP.
    Skrubberintegrerat vått elfilter, WESP2012Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Apostolou, Vasileios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Identification of covalently labeled, non-catalytic residues in proteins using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Protein inhibition by covalent modifications has been widely explored during the last decades. Despite the worries regarding the toxicity and suitability of irreversible covalent drug inhibitors, lately they have gained more and more attention in scientific community. Here we investigate covalent modifications of non-catalytic protein residues with small-molecules as the potential building blocks for future drug discovery. The intricacies of protein structure and the environment they exist in, usually complicate the understanding of the reactivity between the amino acids and compounds. In this study, we attempted to approach this subject from an analytical point of view. By applying recombinant DNA techniques, we expressed and purified proteins of interest; using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) we attempted to label a number of redesigned proteins with the ultimate goal to apply this to human protein kinases, few of which will be presented here. This may potentially assist in rationally target residues in proteins, ideally not ctalytic ones that can be covalently modified, which can serve in later drug design studies. Furthermore, it will optimistically lead us to new efforts in discovering alternative methods of cancer treatment. Ultimately, the combination of experimental techniques and computational models will broaden our knowledge of covalent modifications at allosteric positions in proteins.

  • 9.
    Biollaz, S.
    et al.
    PSI.
    Calbry-Muzyka, A.
    PSI.
    Rodriguez, S.
    PSI.
    Sárossy, Z.
    DTU.
    Ravenni, G.
    DTU.
    Fateev, A.
    DTU.
    Seiser, R.
    UCSD.
    Eberhard, M.
    KIT.
    Kolb, T.
    KIT.
    Heikkinen, N.
    VTT.
    Reinikainen, M.
    VTT.
    Brown, R.C.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Johnston, P.A.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Nau, P.
    DLR.
    Geigle, K.P.
    DLR.
    Kutne, P.
    DLR.
    Işık-Gülsaç, I.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Aksoy, P.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Çetin, Y.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Sarıoğlan, A.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Tsekos, C.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    de Jong, W.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Benedikt, F.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Hofbauer, H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Waldheim, L.
    SFC.
    Engvall, K.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Neubauer, Y.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Funcia, I.
    CENER.
    Gil, J.
    CENER.
    del Campo, I.
    CENER.
    Wilson, I.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Khan, Z.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Gall, D.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gómez-Barea, A.
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Schmidt, F.
    Umeå University.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Anca-Couce, A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    von Berg, L.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Larsson, A.
    GoBiGas.
    Sánchez Hervás, J.M.
    CIEMAT.
    van Egmond, B.F.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Geusebroek, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Toonen, A.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Kuipers, J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Cieplik, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Boymans, E.H.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Grootjes, A.J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Fischer, F.
    TUM.
    Schmid, M.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Maric, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Defoort, F.
    CEA.
    Ravel, S.
    CEA.
    Thiery, S.
    CEA.
    Balland, M.
    CEA.
    Kienzl, N.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Martini, S.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Loipersböck, J.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Basset, E.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Barba, A.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Willeboer, W.
    RWE-Essent.
    Venderbosch, R.
    BTG.
    Carpenter, D.
    NREL.
    Pinto, F.
    LNEG.
    Barisano, D.
    ENEA.
    Baratieri, M.
    UNIBZ.
    Ballesteros, R.
    UCLM.
    Mourao Vilela, C. (Editor)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Vreugdenhil, B.J. (Editor)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 12018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). In practice, a trade-off between reliability, accuracy and cost has to be reached when selecting the proper analysis technique for a specific application. The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.

    This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to(biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. The report is composed of a set of 2 documents. Document 1(the present report) describes the available analysis techniques (both commercial and underdevelopment) for the measurement of different compounds of interest present in gasification gas. The objective is to help the reader to properly select the analysis technique most suitable to the target compounds and the intended application. Document 1 also describes some examples of application of gas analysis at commercial-, pilot- and research gasification plants, as well as examples of recent and current joint research activities in the field. The information contained in Document 1 is complemented with a book of factsheets on gas analysis techniques in Document 2, and a collection of video blogs which illustrate some of the analysis techniques described in Documents 1 and 2.

    This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.

  • 10.
    Biollaz, S.
    et al.
    PSI.
    Calbry-Muzyka, A.
    PSI.
    Rodriguez, S.
    PSI.
    Sárossy, Z.
    DTU.
    Ravenni, G.
    DTU.
    Fateev, A.
    DTU.
    Seiser, R.
    UCSD.
    Eberhard, M.
    KIT.
    Kolb, T.
    KIT.
    Heikkinen, N.
    VTT.
    Reinikainen, M.
    VTT.
    Brown, R.C.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Johnston, P.A.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Nau, P.
    DLR.
    Geigle, K.P.
    DLR.
    Kutne, P.
    DLR.
    Işık-Gülsaç, I.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Aksoy, P.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Çetin, Y.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Sarıoğlan, A.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Tsekos, C.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    de Jong, W.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Benedikt, F.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Hofbauer, H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Waldheim, L.
    SFC.
    Engvall, K.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Neubauer, Y.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Funcia, I.
    CENER.
    Gil, J.
    CENER.
    del Campo, I.
    CENER.
    Wilson, I.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Khan, Z.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Gall, D.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gómez-Barea, A.
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Schmidt, F.
    Umeå University.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Anca-Couce, A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    von Berg, L.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Larsson, A.
    GoBiGas.
    Sánchez Hervás, J.M.
    CIEMAT.
    van Egmond, B.F.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Geusebroek, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Toonen, A.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Kuipers, J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Cieplik, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Boymans, E.H.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Grootjes, A.J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Fischer, F.
    TUM.
    Schmid, M.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Maric, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Defoort, F.
    CEA.
    Ravel, S.
    CEA.
    Thiery, S.
    CEA.
    Balland, M.
    CEA.
    Kienzl, N.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Martini, S.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Loipersböck, J.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Basset, E.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Barba, A.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Willeboer, W.
    RWE-Essent.
    Venderbosch, R.
    BTG.
    Carpenter, D.
    NREL.
    Pinto, F.
    LNEG.
    Barisano, D.
    ENEA.
    Baratieri, M.
    UNIBZ.
    Ballesteros, R.
    UCLM.
    Mourao Vilela, C. (Editor)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Vreugdenhil, B.J. (Editor)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 2 - Factsheets on gas analysis techniques2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.

    This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to (biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.

  • 11.
    Brandin, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Bio-Propane from glycerol for biogas addition2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, the technical and economical feasibility to produce higher alkanes from bioglycerol has been investigated. The main purpose of producing this kind of chemicals would be to replace the fossil LPG used in upgraded biogas production. When producing biogas and exporting it to the natural gas grid, the Wobbe index and heating value does not match the existing natural gas. Therefore, the upgraded biogas that is put into the natural gas grid in Sweden today contains 8-10 vol-% of LPG. The experimental work performed in association to this report has shown that it is possible to produce propane from glycerol. However, the production of ethane from glycerol may be even more advantageous. The experimental work has included developing and testing catalysts for several intermediate reactions. The work was performed using different micro-scale reactors with a liquid feed rate of 18 g/h. The first reaction, independent on if propane or ethane is to be produced, is dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. This was showed during 60 h on an acidic catalyst with a yield of 90%. The production of propanol, the second intermediate to producing propane, was shown as well. Propanol was produced both using acrolein as the starting material as well as glycerol (combining the first and second step) with yields of 70-80% in the first case and 65-70% in the second case. The propanol produced was investigated for its dehydration to propene, witha yield of 70-75%. By using a proprietary, purposely developed catalyst the propene was hydrogenated to propane, with a yield of 85% from propanol. The formation of propane from glycerol was finally investigated, with an overall yield of 55%.

    The second part of the experimental work performed investigated the possibilities of decarbonylating acrolein to form ethane. This was made possible by the development of a proprietary catalyst which combines decarbonylation and water-gas shift functionality. By combining these two functionalities, no hydrogen have to be externally produced which is the case of the propane produced. The production of ethane from acrolein was shown with a yield of 75%, while starting from glycerol yielded 65-70% ethane using the purposely developed catalyst. However, in light of this there are still work to be performed with optimizing catalyst compositions and process conditions to further improve the process yield. The economic feasibility and the glycerol supply side of the proposed process have been investigated as well within the scope of the report. After an initial overview of the glycerol supply, it is apparent that at least the addition of alkanes to biogas can be saturated by glycerol for the Swedish market situation at the moment and for a foreseeable future. The current domestic glycerol production would sustain the upgraded biogas industry for quite some time, if necessary. However, from a cost standpoint a lower grade glycerol should perhaps be considered.

  • 12.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Reforming of tars and hydrocarbons from gasified biomass2013In: Relesing Green Bioenergy for Human: Main Conference Volum 2, Dalia, PR China: BIT Congress , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tars are produced during gasification of biomass due to thermal decomposition of main constituent of the biomass, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Since the tars will condense on colder surfaces, they cause problems by clogging of pipes and valves and depositions on heat transfer surfaces, for instance. One strategy is to remove the tars by condensing them in water or oil scrubbers, however since the tars might contain a significant part of the heating value in the producer gas the yield of the produced synthesis gas will decrease. To utilize the heat content in the tars they can be converted in situ to synthesis gas either by a catalytic process like steam reforming or autothermal reforming (ATR). The problem with catalytic reforming is that the catalysts used are sensitive towards the sulphur content, mainly H2S, in the producer gas. The deactivation of the reforming catalysts can be counteracted by increasing the reforming temperature, for instance  by the use of ATR. However, at elevated temperature, 1000-1100 oC, the thermal sintering of the catalyst will be accelerated instead. There is a need for development of new high temperature stable reforming catalysts. Another problem is the production of soot due to the high temperatures in the flame in the autothermal reformer unit. The formed sooth will cause problems by clogging packed bed of reforming catalyst and to cope with this it is probably necessary to use a monolithic catalyst.   However, by developing a way to homogenous combust the added oxygen, avoiding the peak temperatures in the flame, would suppress or eventually eliminate the soot formation.      

  • 13.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Usage of Biofuels in Sweden2013In: CSR-2 Catalyst for renewable sources: Fuel, Energy, Chemicals Book of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibrisk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, p. 5-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, biofuels have come into substantial use, in an extent that are claimed to be bigger than use of fossil oil. One driving force for this have been the CO2-tax that was introduced in 1991 (1). According to SVEBIO:s calculations (2) based on the Swedish Energy Agency´s prognosis, the total energy consumption in Sweden 2012 was 404 TWh. If the figure is broken down on the different energy sources (figure 1) one can see that the consumption roughly distribute in three different, equally sized, blocks, Biofuels, fossil fuels and water & nuclear power. The major use of the fossil fuels is for transport and the water & nuclear power is used as electric power. The main use of the biofuels is for heating in the industrial sector and as district heating. In 2009 the consumption from those two segments was 85 TWh, and 10 TWh of bio power was co-produced giving an average biomass to electricity efficiency of 12%. This indicates a substantial conversion potential from hot water production to combined heat and power (CHP) production. in Sweden 2013 broken down on the different energy sources. In 2006 the pulp, paper and sawmill industry accounted for 95% of the bio energy consumption in the industrial sector, and the major biofuel consumed was black liquor (5). However, the pulp and paper industries also produced the black liquor in their own processes. The major energy source (58%) for district heating during 2006 was woody biomass (chips, pellets etc.) followed by waste (24%), peat (6%) and others (12%) (5). The use of peat has probably decreased since 2006 since peat is no longer regarded as a renewable energy source. While the use of biofuel for heating purpose is well developed and the bio-power is expected to grow, the use in the transport sector is small, 9 TWh or 7% in 2011. The main consumption there is due to the mandatory addition (5%) of ethanol to gasoline and FAME to diesel (6). The Swedish authorities have announced plans to increase the renewable content to 7.5 % in 2015 on the way to fulfill the EU’s goal of 10 % renewable transportation fuels in 2020. However the new proposed fuel directive in EU says that a maximum of 5% renewable fuel may be produced from food sources like sugars and vegetable oils. Another bothersome fact is that, in principle, all rape seed oil produced in Sweden is consumed (95-97%) in the food sector, and consequently all FAME used (in principle) in Sweden is imported as FAME, rape seed oil or seed (6). In Sweden a new source of biodiesel have emerged, tall oil diesel. Tall oil is extracted from black liquor and refined into a diesel fraction (not FAME) and can be mixed into fossil diesel, i.e. Preem Evolution diesel. The SUNPINE plant in Piteå have a capacity of 100 000 metric tons of tall oil diesel per annum, while the total potential in all of Sweden is claimed to be 200 000 tons (7). 100 000 tons of tall oil corresponds to 1% of the total diesel consumption in Sweden. in Sweden for 2010 and a prognosis for 2014. (6). Accordingly, the profoundest task is to decrease the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector, and clearly, the first generation biofuels can´t do this on its own. Biogas is a fuel gas with high methane content that can be used in a similar way to natural gas; for instance for cooking, heating and as transportation fuel. Today biogas is produced by fermentation of waste (municipal waste, sludge, manure), but can be produced by gasification of biomass, for instance from forest residues such as branches and rots (GROT in Swedish). To get high efficiency in the production, the lower hydrocarbons, mainly methane, in the producer gas, should not be converted into synthesis gas. Instead a synthesis gas with high methane content is sought. This limits the drainage of chemically bonded energy, due to the exothermic reaction in the synthesis step (so called methanisation). In 2011 0.7 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden by fermentation of waste (6) and there were no production by gasification, at least not of economic importance. The potential seems to be large, though. In 2008 the total potential for biogas production, in Sweden, from waste by fermentation and gasification was estimated to 70 TWh (10 TWh fermentation and 60 TWh gasification) (8). This figure includes only different types of waste and no dedicated agricultural crops or dedicated forest harvest. Activities in the biogas sector, by gasification, in Sweden are the Göteborgs energi´s Gobigas project in Gothenburg and Eon´s Bio2G-project, now pending, in south of Sweden. If the producer gas is cleaned and upgraded into synthesis gas also other fuels could be produced. In Sweden methanol and DME productions are planned for in the Värmlands metanol-project and at Chemrecs DME production plant in Piteå.

  • 14.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sanati, Mehri
    The technical feasibility of biomass gasification for hydrogen production2005In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 106, no 1-4, p. 297-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification for energy or hydrogen production is a field in continuous evolution, due to the fact that biomass is a renewable and CO2 neutral source. The ability to produce biomass-derived vehicle fuel on a large scale will help to reduce greenhouse gas and pollution, increase the security of European energy supplies, and enhance the use of renewable energy. The Värnamo Biomass Gassification Centre in Sweden is a unique plant and an important site for the development of innovative technologies for biomass transformation. At the moment, the Värnamo plant is the heart of the CHRISGAS European project, that aims to convert the produced gas for further upgrading to liquid fuels as dimethyl ether (DME), methanol or Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) derived diesel. The present work is an attempt to highlight the conditions for the reforming unit and the problems related to working with streams having high contents of sulphur and alkali metals.

  • 15.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Biofuel-Solution AB, Limhamn .
    Multi-function catalysts for glycerol upgrading2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last three years Biofuel-Solution, a privately held Swedish entity, has developed an IP-portfolio around gas-phase glycerol conversion into medium-value chemicals. The targeted chemicals have large to very large markets, to allow for use by more than a fraction of the glycerol available today without impacting the cost of the product. The reason behind is that glycerol is a by-product from the biofuel industry, including biodiesel and bioethanol. This indicates large production volumes, even though the glycerol is a fraction of the fuel produced. A by-product from any fuel process will be vast and therefore any chemical produced from this side-product will have to have a large market to offset it to. In order to avoid changing the fundamental market behavior, similar to what the biodiesel industry has done to the glycerol market.

    In the course of this work, several end-products have been targeted. These include plastic monomers, mono-alcohols and energy gases; using acrolein as a common starting point. To produce chemicals with high purity and efficiency, selective and active catalysts are required. For instance, a process for producing propionaldehyde and n-propanol has been developed to the point of demonstration and commercialization building on the gas-phase platform.

    By developing multi-function catalysts which perform more than one task simultaneously, synergies can be reached that cannot be achieved with traditional catalysts. For instance, by combining catalyst functionalities, reactions that are both endothermic and exothermic can be performed simultaneously.

    This mean lower inlet reactor temperatures (in this particular case) and a more even temperature distribution. By performing the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein in combination with another, exothermal reaction by-products can be suppressed and yields increased.

    It also means that new reaction pathways can be achieved, allowing for new ways to produce chemicals and fuels from glycerol. As in the case of ethane production from acrolein, where a catalyst surface has been devised where acrolein is first adsorbed. The actual mechanism is unknown but in speculation, the adsorbed acrolein is decarbonyled into ethylene and carbon monoxide on a first reaction site. The formed carbon monoxide diffuses to another active site, where it reacts with water through the so called water-gas shift reaction to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Said carbon dioxide leaves as an end-product, and the hydrogen diffuses to another active site where it reacts with ethylene to form ethane. This gives a way of producing energy gases from glycerol in a very compact reactor set-up, effectively reducing footprint and capital cost and increasing productivity of an installation.

  • 16.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola .
    Leveau, Andreas
    Biofuel-Solutions AB.
    Selective Catalysts for Glycerol Dehydration2013In: CRS-2, Catalysis for Renewable Sources: Fuel,Energy,ChemicalsBook of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     There has been an increased interest over the last decade for replacing fossil based feedstock’s with renewable ones. There are several such feedstock’s that are currently being investigated such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, triglycerides etc. However, when trying to perform selective reactions an as homogeneous feedstock as possible is preferable. One such feedstock example is glycerol, a side-product from biofuels production, which is a tri-alcohol and thus has much flexibility for reactions, e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, addition reactions etc. Glycerol in itself is a good starting point for fine chemicals production being non-toxic and available in rather large quantities [1-2]. A key reaction for glycerol valorisation is the dehydration of glycerol to form acrolein, an unsaturated C3 aldehyde, which may be used for producing acrylic acid, acrylonitrile and other important chemcial products. It has recently been shown that pore-condensation of glycerol is an issue under industrial like conditions, leading to liquid-phase reactions and speeding up the catalyst activity and selectivity loss [3]. To address this issue, modified catalyst materials have been prepared where the relevant micro and meso pores have been removed by thermal sintering; calculations have shown that pores below 45 Å may be subject to pore condensation. The catalyst starting material was a 10% WO3 by weight supported on ZrO2 in the form of beads 1–2 mm and it was thermally treated at 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 700°C, 800°C, 850°C, 900°C and 1000°C for 2 hours. The catalysts were characterised using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), Raman spectroscopy and ammonia temperature programmed desorption. The thermal sintered catalysts show first of all a decreasing BET surface area with sintering commencing between 700°C and 800°C when it decreases from the initial 71 m2/g to 62 m2/g and at 1000°C there is a mere 5 m2/g of surface area left. During sintering, the micro and meso-porosity is reduced as evidenced by MIP and depicted in figure 1. As may be seen in the figure, sintering decrease the amount of pores below and around 100 Å is reduced at a sintering temperature of 800°C and above. The most suitable catalyst based on the MIP appears to be the one sintered at 850°C which is further strengthened by the Raman analysis. There is a clear shift in the tungsten structure from monoclinic to triclinic between 850°C and 900°C and it is believed that the monoclinic phase is important for activity and selectivity. Further, the heat treatment shows that there is an increase in catalyst acidity measured as mmol NH3/(m2/g) but a decrease in the acid strength as evidenced by a decrease in the desorption peak maximum temperature.

     

  • 17.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund University.
    High-temperature and high concentration SCR of NO with NH3: application in a CCS process for removal of carbon dioxide2012In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 191, p. 218-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates several commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts (A–E) for application in a high-temperature (approximately 525 °C) and high-concentration (5000 ppm NO) system in combination with CO2 capture. The suggested process for removing high concentrations of NOx seems plausible and autothermal operation is possible for very high NO concentrations. A key property of the catalyst in this system is its thermal stability. This was tested and modelled with the general power law model using second-order decay of the BET surface area with time. Most of the materials did not have very high thermal stability. The zeolite-based materials could likely be used, but they too need improved stability. The SCR activity and the possible formation of the by-product N2O were determined by measurement in a fixed-bed reactor at 300–525 °C. All materials displayed sufficiently high activity for a designed 96% conversion in the twin-bed SCR reactor system proposed. The amount of catalyst needed varied considerably and was much higher for the zeolithic materials. The formation of N2O increased with temperature for almost all materials except the zeolithic ones. The selectivity to N2 production at 525 °C was 98.6% for the best material and 95.7% for the worst with 1000 ppm NOx in the inlet; at 5000 ppm NOx, the values were much better, i.e., 98.3 and 99.9%, respectively.

  • 18.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund university.
    Deactivation and Characterization of SCR Catalysts Used in Municipal Waste Incineration Applications2018In: Catalysis Letters, ISSN 1011-372X, E-ISSN 1572-879X, Vol. 148, no 1, p. 312-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalysts used for selective catalytic reduction were deactivated for various times in a slipstream from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and then characterized. The activity for NO reduction with NH3 was measured. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas were determined by N2 adsorption from which the pore size distributions in the mesopore region were obtained. Micropore areas and volumes were also obtained. The composition of fresh and deactivated catalysts as well as fly ash was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The changes in surface area (8% decrease in BET surface area over 2311 h) and pore structure were small, while the change in activity was considerable. The apparent pre-exponential factor was 1.63 × 105 (1/min) in the most deactivated catalyst, compared to 2.65 × 106 (1/min) in the fresh catalyst, i.e. a reduction of 94%. The apparent activation energy for the fresh catalyst was 40 kJ/mol, decreasing to 27 kJ/mol with increasing deactivation. Characterization showed that catalytic poisoning is mainly due to decreased acidity of the catalyst caused due to increasing amounts of Na and K.

  • 19.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund University .
    Poisoning of SCR Catalysts used in Municipal Waste Incineration Applications2017In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 60, no 17-18, p. 1306-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial vanadia, tungsta on titania SCRcatalyst was poisoned in a side stream in a waste incinerationplant. The effect of especially alkali metal poisoningwas observed resulting in a decreased activity at long timesof exposure. The deactivation after 2311 h was 36% whilethe decrease in surface area was only 7.6%. Thus the majorcause for deactivation was a chemical blocking of acidicsites by alkali metals. The activation–deactivation modelshowed excellent agreement with experimental data. Themodel suggests that the original adsorption sites, fromthe preparation of the catalyst, are rapidly deactivated butare replaced by a new population of adsorption sites dueto activation of the catalyst surface by sulphur compounds(SO2, SO3)in the flue gas.

  • 20.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Tunér, Martin
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Small Scale Gasifiction: Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a joint project, Linnaeus University in Växjö (LNU) and the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University (LTH) were commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency to make an inventory of the techniques and systems for small scale gasifier-gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) production and to evaluate the technology. Small scale is defined here as plants up to 10 MWth, and the fuel used in the gasifier is some kind of biofuel, usually woody biofuel in the form of chips, pellets, or sawdust. The study is presented in this report.

    The report has been compiled by searching the literature, participating in seminars, visiting plants, interviewing contact people, and following up contacts by e-mail and phone.

    The first, descriptive part of the report, examines the state-of-the-art technology for gasification, gas cleaning, and gas engines. The second part presents case studies of the selected plants:

    • Meva Innovation’s VIPP-VORTEX CHP plant
    • DTU’s VIKING CHP plant
    • Güssing bio-power station
    • Harboøre CHP plant
    • Skive CHP plant

    The case studies examine the features of the plants and the included unit operations, the kinds of fuels used and the net electricity and overall efficiencies obtained. The investment and operating costs are presented when available as are figures on plant availability. In addition we survey the international situation, mainly covering developing countries.

    Generally, the technology is sufficiently mature for commercialization, though some unit operations, for example catalytic tar reforming, still needs further development. Further development and optimization will probably streamline the performance of the various plants so that their biofuel-to-electricity efficiency reaches 30-40 % and overall performance efficiency in the range of 90 %.

    The Harboøre, Skive, and Güssing plant types are considered appropriate for municipal CHP systems, while the Viking and VIPP-VORTEX plants are smaller and considered appropriate for replacing hot water plants in district heating network. The Danish Technical University (DTU) Biomass Gasification Group and Meva International have identified a potentially large market in the developing countries of Asia.

    Areas for suggested further research and development include:

    • Gas      cleaning/upgrading
    • Utilization      of produced heat
    • System      integration/optimization
    • Small scale      oxygen production
    • Gas engine      developments
  • 21. Braovac, Susan
    et al.
    Fackler, Karin
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Ters, Thomas
    Chemical Composition of the Archaeological Oak Wood from the Oseberg Ship2011In: Cultural Heritage Preservation.EWCHP - 2011: Proceedings of the European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation. Berlin, Germany, September 26 to 28, 2011, Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, 2011, p. 156-163Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bäck, Andreas
    et al.
    Alstom Power Sweden AB.
    Grubbström, Jörgen
    Alstom Power Sweden AB.
    Ecke, Holger
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Pettersson, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Operation of an Electrostatic Precipitator at a 30 MWth Oxyfuel Plant2011In: International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1881-8692, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 141-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a full-scale ESP was studied at the Vattenfall AB oxyfuel pilot plant in Schwarze Pumpe. The lignite-fired boiler has a 30 MWth top-mounted pulverized coal burner and was operated under conventional air combustion as well as oxyfuel combustion. The ESP was operated with varying numbers of fields in service and at different current/voltage settings. Particle number size distributions downstream the ESP were established on-line in the size range 0.015-10 m, using an electrical mobility spectrometer and an aerodynamic particle sizer. The particle size distribution at oxyfuel operation was qualitatively very similar to the results obtained for air-firing. Gravimetric measurements of total fly ash concentration showed outlet emissions below 5 mg/Nm3 when the ESP was operated with two fields in service at oxyfuel conditions.

  • 23.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjerstadius, Hamse
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Haghighatafshar, Salar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsson, Mikael Emil
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wachtmeister, Hilla
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Cour Jansen, Jes la
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60 °C ON pharmaceuticals and organic pollutants2013In: Presented at the 1st International IWA Conference on Holistic Sludge Management, Västerås, Sweden, May 6-8, 2013, 2013, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of treated sewage sludge on farmland is a suggested method for recycling nutrients and reducing demand for commercial fertilizer. However sludge needs to be rendered safe from possible contaminants which can cause acute and long-term health and environmental problems. Residual pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants in sludge are mentioned as emerging threats since wastewater treatment plants are not designed to degrade these substances thus yielding an accumulation in sludge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence, and reduction, of pharmaceuticals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60ºC and during pasteurization at 70°C. The substrate used was mixed primary and secondary sludge from a 300 000 person-equivalents municipal wastewater treatment plant in southern Sweden. In general no reduction of pharmaceuticals could be observed at any temperature or minimum exposure time, except for the beta-blocker Irbesartan and the antibiotic Trimethoprim. The results from pharmaceuticals in mesophilic sludge agreed with results in recent Swedish studies. Also, no reduction of PAHs during digestion or pasteurization (70°C – 1 hour) was seen, but for single PAHs digestion could lead to reduction.

  • 24.
    Einvall, Jessica
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Impact of fly ash from biomass gasification on deactivation of reforming catalyst2006In: 12th Nordic Symposium in Catalysis-May 28-30-Trondheim-Norway, 2006, p. 132-133Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Emtlind, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Galvaniska strömmar mellan olika material i mark2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Strömmar ut från metall till elektrolyt orsakar korrosion vilket försvagar metallen och kan leda till sönderfall.

    Det finns sätt att skydda mot korrosion. Ett isolerande skikt kan läggas mellan metall och elektrolyt för att dämpa strömmen ut i elektrolyt. För att hindra att ström alls går ut i elektrolyt kan anod och katod sammankopplas metalliskt. Vissa ämnen som kallas inhibitorer kan hämma korrosionshastigheten när tillagda i rätt mängd. Kan också mota elektroner som vill ut med elektroner in.

    I uppsatsen undersöks läckströmmars beteende för olika marktyper, metaller och spänningar. 

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eilersen, Ann Marie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Technical report writing: how to write a technical report2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Gavrilovic, Ljubisa
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Blekkan, Ed Anders
    Norwegian University of Science and technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Venvik, H.J.
    Norwegian University of Science and technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmen, Anders
    Norwegian University of Science and technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Influence of potassium species on Co based Fischer-Tropsch-catalyst.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Introduction

    The purpose of this work is better understanding of the alkali influence on Co-based F-T catalyst. Since potassium is one of the elements that can be present in syngas from biomass[1], one of the questions is how potassium species affect the Co catalyst. From previous work it has been shown that alkali species act as poisons, thus deactivating catalysts[2]. Most previous work in this group[3][4] and by others[5] has concerned Co catalysts that were exposed to potassium species by incipient wetness impregnation, which is essentially different from the real behaviour during the gasification process where the species will mainly be in the vapor phase. In the present work we study potassium influence on a Co-based catalyst, using aerosol technology as a new method for potassium deposition on the Co surface.

     

    2. Experimental

    4 different potassium salts were deposited using aerosol deposition on 20%Co/0.5%Re/γAl2O3. The amount of potassium salts deposited were determined using ICP analysis. Potassium salts were chosen from studies of the gases from biomass gasification[6]. These are K2SO4, KCl, KNO3 and K2CO3. KNO3 will be reduced to KOH during biomass gasification, but since in these experiments temperature was not so high and there was no H2/CO, most likely KNO3 will be deposited as such on the Co surface.

    BET N2 adsorption, H2 chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR) were used to characterize all the poisoned catalysts.

    Fischer Tropsch activity and selectivity measurements were performed at the in house build set-up, at 210°C, 20 bar and at H2:CO ratio of 2.1. The GHSV was consistently varied to maintain comparable CO conversion levels between 20-50%. A detailed description of the setup and procedures can be found elsewhere[3].

     

    3. Results

    The potassium species were deposited using aerosol technology in the apparatus shown in Fig. 1. Potassium salts are dissolved in deionized water and the solution is placed inside the atomizer, which produces aerosol particles. Nitrogen is used as a carrier gas which forces aerosol particles in the reactor direction. Before entering the reactor, the gas mixture carrying the aerosol is passing the impaction vessel to remove large particles. The catalyst bed is placed in the middle of the reactor, which can be heated up to 800°C. The generated aerosol particles were physically characterized according to their electrical mobility using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) consisting of a differential mobility analyser (DMA) and a condensation particle counter (CPC)[7]. The three target concentrations of potassium salts,  200 ppm, 800 ppm and 4000 ppm,  were monitored by the above-mentioned instruments.

    Results from characterization by elemental analysis, H2 chemisorption, BET surface area, TPR together with the results from the Fischer Tropsch synthesis i.e. CO conversion, selectivity, and activity will be compared with the same catalyst without any poison and also with previous results obtained from solution impregnation of the same poisons[8][3][9].

    4. Discussion

    The purpose of the work is to study how this procedure of poisoning Co catalyst with aerosol particles will affect catalyst performances during Fischer Tropsch reaction. Previous similar work on Ni catalyst in the SCR reaction using aerosol technology as a method of deposition, has proven loss in metallic surface area, decreasing of metal dispersion and severe reduction in the catalytic activity [7]. The idea is to develop a technique to transfer potassium species, and potentially other relevant impurities, in vapor phase to the catalyst surface. This new approach can to a great extent simulate behaviour during the real industrial process. The aerosol could better represent in situ poisoning and therefore give a more realistic picture of the effect of potassium. This knowledge will be useful for designing new BTL processes.

     

    5. Conclusion

    Aerosol technology was used as a new method for depositing potassium salts on the Co surface. Poisoned catalysts were tested in Fischer Tropsch synthesis reactor together with elemental analysis. Results are compared to the reference catalyst and with previous work which use IWI as poisoning method.

     

     

    6. References

    [1]       A. Norheim, D. Lindberg, J. E. Hustad, and R. Backman, Energy and Fuels, (2009)

    [2]       E. S. Wangen, A. Osatiashtiani, and E. A. Blekkan, Top. Catal., (2011)

    [3]       C. M. Balonek, A. H. Lillebø, S. Rane, E. Rytter, L. D. Schmidt, and A. Holmen, Catal. Letters, (2010)

    [4]       E. A. Blekkan, A. Holmen, S. Vada, Acta Chem. Scand., (1993)

    [5]       J. Gaube and H. F. Klein, Appl. Catal. A Gen., (126–132, 2008)

    [6]       H. M. Westberg, M. Byström, and B. Leckner, Energy and Fuels, (18–28, 2003)

    [7]       S. Albertazzi, F. Basile, J. Brandin, J. Einvall, G. Fornasari, C. Hulteberg, M. Sanati, F. Trifirò, and A. Vaccari, Biomass and Bioenergy, (2008)

    [8]       A. H. Lillebø, E. Patanou, J. Yang, E. A. Blekkan, and A. Holmen, in Catalysis Today, (2013)

    [9]       E. Patanou, A. H. Lillebø, J. Yang, D. Chen, A. Holmen, and E. A. Blekkan, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., (2014)

    [10]     J. Einvall, S. Albertazzi, C. Hulteberg, A. Malik, F. Basile, A. C. Larsson, J. Brandin, and M. Sanati, Energy and Fuels, (2007)

  • 28.
    Gavrilovic, Ljubisa
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Blekkan, Edd
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Holmen, Anders
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Venvik, Hilde
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Investigation of CO catalyst by exposure to aerosol particles of potassium salts2015In: Norwegian Catalyst Symposium 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gavrilovic, Ljubisa
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Holmen, Anders
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Venvik, Hilde
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Myrstad, R.
    SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Norway.
    Blekkan, Edd
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Deactivation of Co-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst by aerosol deposition of potassium salts2018In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 1935-1942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 20%Co/0.5%Re/γAl2O3 Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was poisoned by four potassium salts (KNO3, K2SO4, KCl, K2CO3) using the aerosol deposition technique, depositing up to 3500 ppm K as solid particles. Standard characterization techniques (H2 Chemisorption, BET, TPR) showed no difference between treated samples and their unpoisoned counterpart. The Fischer-Tropsch activity was investigated at industrially relevant conditions (210 °C, H2:CO = 2:1, 20 bar). The catalytic activity was significantly reduced for samples exposed to potassium, and the loss of activity was more severe with higher potassium loadings, regardless of the potassium salt used. A possible dual deactivation effect by potassium and the counter-ion (chloride, sulfate) is observed with the samples poisoned by KCl and K2SO4. The selectivity towards heavier hydrocarbons (C5+) was slightly increased with increasing potassium loading, while the CH4 selectivity was reduced for all the treated samples. The results support the idea that potassium is mobile under FT conditions. The loss of activity was described by simple deactivation models which imply a strong non-selective poisoning by the potassium species.

  • 30.
    Gavrilovic, Ljubisa
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Holmen, Anders
    Norwegian University of Science and technology, Norway .
    Venvik, Hilde
    Norwegan University of Science and technology, Norway.
    Myrstad, Rune
    SINTEF Industry, Norway.
    Blekkan, Edd
    Norwegan University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Investigation of the deactivation of a Co catalyst by exposure to aerosol particles of potassium salt2018In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, E-ISSN 1873-3883, Vol. 230, p. 203-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of potassium species on a Co based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was investigated using an aerosol deposition technique. This way of poisoning the catalyst was chosen to simulate the actual potassium behaviour during the biomass to liquid (BTL) process utilizing gasification followed by fuel synthesis. A reference catalyst was poisoned with three levels of potassium and the samples were characterized and tested for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction under industrially relevant conditions. None of the conventional characterization techniques applied (H2 Chemisorption, BET, TPR) divulged any difference between poisoned and unpoisoned samples, whereas the activity measurements showed a dramatic drop in activity following potassium deposition. The results are compared to previous results where incipient wetness impregnation was used as the method of potassium deposition. The effect of potassium is quite similar in the two cases, indicating that irrespective of how potassium is introduced it will end up in the same form and on the same location on the active surface. This indicates that potassium is mobile under FTS conditions, and that potassium species are able to migrate to sites of particular relevance for the FT reaction.

  • 31.
    Gavrilovic, Lubisa
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Holmen, Anders
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Venvik, Hild J.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Myrstad, Rune
    SINTEF Industry, Norway.
    Blekkan, Edd A.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    The effect of aerosol-deposited ash components on a cobalt-based Fischer–Tropsch catalyst2019In: Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, ISSN 1878-5190, E-ISSN 1878-5204, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 231-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ash salts on Co-based Fisher–Tropsch catalysts was studied using an aerosol deposition technique. The major elements in the ash were found to be K, S and Cl. The ash was deposited on a calcined catalyst as dry particles with an average diameter of approx. 350 nm. The loading of ash particles was varied by varying the time of exposure to the particles in a gas stream. Catalyst characterization did not reveal significant differences in cobalt dispersion, reducibility, surface area, pore size, or pore volume between the reference and the catalysts with ash particles deposited. Activity measurements showed that following a short exposure to the mixed ash salts (30 min), there were no significant loss of activity, but a minor change in selectivity of the catalyst . Extended exposure (60 min) led to some activity loss and changes in selectivity. However, extending the exposure time and thus the amount deposited as evidenced by elemental analysis did not lead to a further drop in activity. This behavior is different from that observed with pure potassium salts, and is suggested to be related to the larger size of the aerosol particles deposited. The large aerosol particles used here were probably not penetrating the catalyst bed, and to some extent formed an external layer on the catalyst bed. The ash salts are therefore not able to penetrate to the pore structure and reach the Co active centers, but are mixed with the catalyst and detected in the elemental analysis.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Strand, Michael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sampling of particles from biomass gasification: a method for testing the tar adsorption capacity of a bed ofgranular activated carbon2009In: Book of Proceedings- Bioenergy 2009: Sustainable Bioenergy Business4th International Bioenergy Conference / [ed] Mia Savolainen, Jyväskylä: FINBIO , 2009, p. 645-649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, a method was developed for testing of the tar adsorption capacity of a bed of granular activated carbon for the application of sampling particles from biomass gasification at high temperature. A laboratory scale gasifier was used to produce a tar-rich gas and sampling was performed using a dilution probe, diluting the gas with either pure nitrogen or nitrogen containing K2SO4 particles. It was found that when using pure nitrogen for dilution; particles were formed using all tested primary dilution ratios; however the concentration decreased when the primary dilution ratio increased. When using nitrogen containing K2SO4 particles for dilution the particle number and volume size distributions were identical with the reference when higher primary dilution ratios were used while particle formation took place when the primary dilution ratio was lower, indicating incomplete tar adsorption. The conclusion of the study was that the method could be used for testing of the tar adsorption capacity of a bed of granular activated carbon for the application of sampling particles from biomass gasification at high temperature and that it is advantageous to use nitrogen containing K2SO4 particles instead of pure nitrogen for dilution in order to facilitate theevaluation of results.

  • 33.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Zabka, Michal
    IKEA Sweden.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Evaluation of dynamic microchamber as a quick factory formaldehyde emission control method for industrial particleboards2018In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, article id 4582383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common formaldehyde control method for wood panels in Europe, the perforator method, measures formaldehyde content, while most of the legal requirements in the world are based on emissions. Chamber methods typically used for emission measurements require too much time to reach steady state for factory quality control. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether emission values of particleboards measured one day after production would be usable for quality control purposes. The correlation between 1-day and 7-day emission values was determined using a dynamic microchamber (DMC). Three industrial board types that differed in density and emission levels were used for the evaluation. The online emission measuring equipment Aero-laser AL4021 connected to the 1 m3 chamber was used to gain further information on the emission reduction behaviour of the different board types. Only the two particleboard types with higher densities showed good correlation between the 1-day and 7-day emissions. The overall results suggested that 1-day emission values can be used for factory quality control purposes; however, if the initial 1-day values are above the permitted level, extensive evaluation for each individual board type needs to be performed

  • 34.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza
    Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran.
    Properties of medium-density fibreboards bonded with dextrin-based wood adhesive2019In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on manufacturing of medium density fibreboard (MDF) panels bonded with dextrin-based wood adhesive and crosslinked in situ with various weight ratios of synthetic (e.g., polymeric-methane diphenyl-diisocyanate, pMDI) or bio-based (e.g., glyoxal) crosslinkers. The physical and mechanical properties of the panels were evaluated and compared with those from panels without crosslinker (control). Modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bond (IB) strength of the MDF panels were considerably increased by increasing the crosslinkers’ content. While, slight improvements were observed in modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the panels as a function of crosslinker type and content. Addition of crosslinkers clearly reduced the thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA) of the panels, whereas, the panels with pMDI showed superior performances than the control and glyoxal added ones within 4 h and 24 h immersion in water. The results indicate the potential of dextrin as wood panel adhesive along with the use of appropriate crosslinkers.

  • 35.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    A Process for Producing Acrolein2012Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a process for dehydrating glycerol into acrolein over an acidic catalyst in gas phase in the presence of hydrogen, minimizing side reactions forming carbon deposits on the catalyst.

  • 36.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB ( Lund University/ Chemical Engineering) .
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Method for Hydrogenating 1,2-Unsaturated Carbonylic Compounds2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a method of hydrogenating an1,2-unsaturated carbonylic compound to obtain the corresponding saturated carbonylic compound in the presence of a palladium catalyst with heterogeneous distribution of palladium

  • 37.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution I Malmö AB (Lund University/ Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Process for Preparing Lower Hydrocarbons from Glycerol2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a process of preparing hydrocarbons from oxygenated hydrocarbons by use of at least two catalysts.

  • 38.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-solution i Malmö AB.
    Woods, Richard Root
    Primafuel Inc. (US).
    Porter, Brook
    Primafuel inc. (US).
    Gas Phase Process for Monoalcohol Production from Glycerol2008Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method of producing short chain alcohols from glycerol generated as a byproduct of biodiesel production is provided.

  • 39.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Leveau, Andreas
    Biofuel-Solution AB, Limhamn.
    Brandin, Jan
    Biofuel-Solution AB, Limhamn.
    Pore Condensation i Glycerol Dehydration2013In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 56, no 9-10, p. 813-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pore condensation followed by polymerizationis proposed as an explanatory model of several observationsreported in the literature regarding the dehydration ofglycerol to acrolein. The major conclusion is that glycerolpore condensation in the micro- and mesopores, followedby polymerization in the pores, play a role in catalystdeactivation.

  • 40.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University .
    Leveau, Andreas
    Biofuel-Solution AB.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Pore Condensation in Glycerol Dehydration: Modification of a Mixed Oxide Catalyst2017In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 60, no 17-18, p. 1462-1472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pore condensation has been suggested as an initiator of deactivation in the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. To avoid potential pore condensation of the glycerol, a series of WO3supported on ZrO2 catalysts have been prepared through thermal sintering, with modified pore systems. It was shown that catalysts heat treated at temperatures above 800 °C yielded suitable pore system and the catalyst also showed a substantial increase in acrolein yield. The longevity of the heat-treated catalysts was also improved, indeed a catalyst heat treated at 850 °C displayed significantly higher yields and lower pressure-drop build up over the 600 h of testing. Further, the catalyst characterisation work gave evidence for a transition from monoclinic to triclinic tungsten oxide between 850 and 900 °C. There is also an increase in acid-site concentration of the heat-treated catalysts. Given the improved catalyst performance after heat-treatment, it is not unlikely that pore condensation is a significant contributing factor in catalyst deactivation for WO3 supported on ZrO2 catalysts in the glycerol dehydration reaction.

  • 41.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Inst. för kemiteknik, LTH, Lund , Sverige.
    Leveau, Andreas
    Hulteberg CH&E, Tygelsjö, Sverige.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Reneweble Propane: Tayloring WO3/ZrO2 catalyst for the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein.2016In: Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Symposium on Catalysis: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Ingemar Odenbrand, Christian Hulteberg, 2016, p. 206-207Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund University.
    Gustafson, Johan
    Lund University.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund University.
    Preface: Special issue of Topics in Catalysis constitutes the Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Symposium of Catalysis2017In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 60, no 17-18, p. 1275-1275Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Häggblad, Robert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Brandin, Jan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stabilization and regeneration of CeO2 and CeO2/ZrO2 based Pt catalyst for the water gas shift reaction2005In: COM2005: Fuel cell and hydrogen technologies / [ed] Dave Gosh, Montréal: Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2005, p. 641-655Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article deals with stabilisation and regeneration of CeO2 and CeO2/ZrO2 based Pt water gas shift catalysts, subject to high initial deactivation. The reaction gas species effect on the catalyst deactivation was investigated by H2-TPR. Activity measurements enabled the effect of different promoters, some added to the CeO2 based catalysts and some to the CeO2/ZrO2 based Pt catalysts, to be investigated. The catalysts were also characterised by BET and CO-TPR. Deactivated catalysts activity was restored by using various regeneration methods. Of the two selected carriers the CeO2/ZrO2 based Pt catalyst showed the highest resilience to deactivation. For the two different carriers, CeO2 and CeO2/ZrO2, W and Re were the best promoters when the catalyst was subject to deactivation. Experiments with H2-TPR indicate a fast initial change in the platinum oxides concentration and composition. The CO-TPR was used to make conclusions about the various regeneration effects of water and oxygen on the catalyst. Finally it is suggested that not one deactivation mechanism is possible and which mechanism that dominates is dependant on the catalyst and the reaction gas composition. (Less)

  • 44. Håkansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Degradation of acetonitrile through a sequence of microbial processes2005In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, p. 648-654-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of nitrogen containing organic compounds often leads to formation of ammonium and low molecular weight organic compounds. The study is focuseed on degradtion of acetonitrile in a sequence of stirred biofilm reactors, where degradation of acetonitrile to acetic acid and ammonia takes place in the first two reactors. A large fraction of the acetic acid is also degraded in these reactors. The subsequent two reactors were introduced in order to take care of the ammonia, while a fifth reactor was a polishing step before the water was released to the recipient. From earlier studies it is known that the rate of acetonitrile degradation is approximately 80 g acetonitrile/(m3 reactor h). This means that the reactors involved in remval of the nitrogen component needs to be far larger than those dealing with degradation of the more complex molecules.

  • 45.
    Jiang, Junfei
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Lang, Lin
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Liu, Huacai
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Yin, Xiuli
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Wu, Chuang-zhi
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Partial oxidation of filter cake particles from biomass gasification process in the simulated product gas environment2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 1703-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration failure occurs when filter media is blocked by accumulated solid particles. Suitable operating conditions were investigated for cake cleaning by partial oxidation of filter-cake particles (FCP) during biomass gasification. The mechanism of the FCP partial oxidation was investigated in a ceramic filter and by using thermo-gravimetric analysis through a temperature-programmed route in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation of the FCP in the simulated product gas environment was examined at 300–600°C in a ceramic filter that was set and heated in a laboratory-scale fixed reactor. Four reaction stages, namely drying, pre-oxidation, complex oxidation and non-oxidation, occurred in the FCP partial oxidation when the temperature increased from 30°C to 800°C in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation was more effective for FCP mass loss from 275 to 725°C. Experimental results obtained in a ceramic filter indicated that the best operating temperature and FCP loading occurred at 400°C and 1.59 g/cm2, respectively. The FCP were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller before and after partial oxidation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that partial oxidation of the FCP can result in a significant decrease in C–Hn (alkyl and aromatic) groups and an increase in C=O (carboxylic acids) groups. The scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller analysis suggests that during partial oxidation, the FCP underwent pore or pit formation, expansion, amalgamation and destruction.

  • 46.
    Jiang, Wen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kumar, Anuj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Liquefaction of lignocellulosic materials and its applications in wood adhesives — A review2018In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 124, p. 325-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction, a useful method of turning whole biomass into liquids, provides advantages for energy andpolymers and finds applications in many sectors. This paper reviews the different liquefaction technologies andrecent advances in the development of sustainable wood adhesives. Current liquefaction technologies includehydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and moderate acid-catalyzed liquefaction (MACL). HTL produces bio-oils asprimary products, and solid residues and gases as by-products. MACL depends on the solvent types used, whichare grouped to polyhydric alcohols and phenols. Bio-polyols from alcohol liquefaction, phenolated biomass fromphenol liquefaction and phenolic compounds rich-HTL bio-oils have been used in the production of liquefiedbiomass-based adhesives, which have shown competitive properties but face challenges for industrial uses. Yet, abetter understanding of reaction pathways and optimization of the liquefaction processes is needed.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Evaluation of alkali- impregnated honeycomb catalysts for NOx reduction in the SCR-process2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of SCR catalysts were impregnated with the following alkali salts; KCl, K2SO4 and ZnCl2 at two different concentrations in a wet impregnation method. The activities of the six samples were measured in a test reactor and at different temperatures between 250-350 ºC. Compared to fresh catalyst, the impregnated samples all had lower activity. It seems like KCl is the most poisoning salt, depending on the lowest value of the activity. The experimental results are expected as compared to earlier articles, which reports that all alkali salts has deactivating effects on a catalyst and that KCl is among the most poisoning ones. By making a cross-section SEM analysis, the penetration of the metals at different depths in to the catalyst material wall was evaluated. An ICP-AES analysis was carried out in order to see the concentration of K and Zn of the test samples. Finally, the pore diameter and active surface was measured by BET method. Since the values of the active surface didn’t change compared to a fresh catalyst and the pore diameter was only slightly decreased we can suppose that the alkali salts deactivates the catalyst by coating of the catalyst pore structure and not as a pore blocking.

  • 48.
    Kirm, Ilham
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Shift catalysts in biomass generated synthesis gas2006In: 12th Nordic Symposium in Catalysis-May 28-30-Trondheim-Norway, NTNU , 2006, p. 144-145Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Kroon, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Crack Growth in Low-density Polyethylene2018In: Presented at EMMC16, European Mechanics of Materials Conference in Nantes, France, 26-28 March, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    Tetra Pak.
    Olsson, Pär
    Malmo University.
    Modelling of Damage and Crack Growth in Semi-crystalline Polymers2018In: Presented at International Conference on Plasticity, Damage and Fracture 2018, Puerto Rico, Neat press , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crack growth in semi-crystalline polymers, represented by polyethylene, is considered. The material considered comes in plates that had been created through an injection-molding process. Hence, the material was taken to be orthotropic. Material direction were identified as MD: molding direction, CD: transverse direction, TD: thickness direction. Uniaxial tensile testing was performed in order to establish the direction-specific elastic-plastic behaviour of the polymer. In addition, the fracture mechanics properties of the material was determined by performing fracture mechanics testing on plates with side cracks of different lengths. The fracture mechanics tests were filmed using a video camera. Based on this information, the force vs. load-line displacement could be established for the fracture mechanics tests, in which also the current length of the crack was indicated, since crack growth took place. In parallel to the experimental testing, an anisotropic plasticity model for finite strains was developed, which accounts for orthotropic elasticity and orthotropic plastic yielding and hardening. That plasticity model was implemented as a user subrouting in Abaqus. The crack growth experiments were then simulated using Abaqus, using the implemented plasticity model in combination with a damage model. Different types of crack initiation and growth criteria were explored, and the force-displacement-crack length data from the experiments could be well reproduced. Furthermore, the direction-specific work of fracture had been established from the experiments and these energies could be compared to the values of the J-integral from the simulations for the different crack lengths.

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