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  • 1.
    Altgen, Michael
    et al.
    Aalto Univ, Finland.
    Willems, Wim
    FirmoLin Technol BV, Netherlands.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto Univ, Finland.
    Hydroxyl accessibility and dimensional changes of Scots pine sapwood affected by alterations in the cell wall ultrastructure during heattreatment2018In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 152, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a complex link between the water sorption behavior and the presence of accessible hydroxyl groups in the wood cell wall, which can be altered by heat-treatment (HT). This study analyses the effect of changes in the cell wall ultrastructure caused by two HT techniques on the hydroxyl accessibility, water vapor sorption and dimensional changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood. HT of wood in pressurized hot water at 120-170 °C was applied to cause the preferential bond cleavage, whereas HT of wood in oven-dry state in superheated steam at 180-240 °C was performed to create additional covalent cross-links within the cell wall matrix. Removal of cell wall polymers by HT and water leaching reduced the oven-dry dimensions of wood and enhanced the cellulose aggregation during drying. Cellulose aggregation restricted the cell wall shrinkage in circumferential direction, resulting in inhomogeneous shrinkage of the cell wall with only little changes in lumen volume by HT. Cellulose aggregation also reduced the water-saturated dimensions, but a decrease in swelling was only achieved when additional cross-links were formed by HT in dry state. Additional cross-links in the cell wall matrix also resulted in an additional reduction in water sorption at 25 °C and 93% RH. However, this was not caused by a further reduction in the hydroxyl accessibility. Instead, cross-linking was shown to reduce the amount of accessible OH groups that are simultaneously active in sorption, which was explained based on the concept of sorption of water dimers at hydroxyl group pairs at high RH levels.

  • 2.
    Elmukashf, Elsiddig
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Numerical analysis of dynamic crack propagation in rubber2012In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 177, no 2, p. 163-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, dynamic crack propagation in rubber is analyzed numerically using the finite element method. The problem of a suddenly initiated crack at the center of stretched sheet is studied under plane stress conditions. A nonlinear finite element analysis using implicit time integration scheme is used. The bulk material behavior is described by finite-viscoelasticity theory and the fracture separation process is characterized using a cohesive zone model with a bilinear traction-separation law. Hence, the numerical model is able to model and predict the different contributions to the fracture toughness, i.e. the surface energy, viscoelastic dissipation, and inertia effects. The separation work per unit area and the strength of the cohesive zone have been parameterized, and their influence on the separation process has been investigated. A steadily propagating crack is obtained and the corresponding crack tip position and velocity history as well as the steady crack propagation velocity are evaluated and compared with experimental data. A minimum threshold stretch of 3.0 is required for crack propagation. The numerical model is able to predict the dynamic crack growth. It appears that the strength and the surface energy vary with the crack speed. Finally, the maximum principal stretch and stress distribution around steadily propagation crack tip suggest that crystallization and cavity formation may take place.

  • 3.
    Elmukashfi, Elsiddig
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Numerical analysis of dynamic crack propagation in biaxially strained rubber sheets2014In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 124/125, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a computational framework for dynamic crack propagation in rubber in which a nonlinear finite element analysis using cohesive zone modeling approach is used. A suddenly initiated crack at the center of biaxially stretched sheet problem is studied under plane stress conditions. A transient dynamic analysis using implicit time integration scheme is performed. In the constitutive modeling, the continuum is characterized by finite-viscoelasticity theory and coupled with the fracture processes using a cohesive zone model. This computational framework was introduced previously by the present authors (Elmukashfi and Kroon, 2012). In the current work, the use of a rate-dependent cohesive model is examined in addition to investigation of generalized biaxial loading cases. A Kelvin–Voigt element is used to describe the rate-dependent cohesive model wherein the spring is described by a bilinear law and dashpot with a constant viscosity is adopted. An explicit integration is used to incorporate the rate-dependent cohesive model in the finite element environment. A parametric study over the cohesive viscosity is performed and the steady crack propagation velocity is evaluated and compared with experimental data. It appears that the viscosity varies with the crack speed. Further, the total work of fracture is estimated using rate-independent cohesive law such that the strength of the cohesive zone is assumed to be constant and the separation work per unit area is determined form the experimental data. The results show that fracture-related processes, i.e. creation of new surfaces, cavitation and crystallization; contribute to the total work of fracture in a contradictory manner.

  • 4.
    Huang, Tianxiao
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hydrophobic Coating on Cellulosic Textile Material by Betulin and a Betulin Based Polymer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Betulin is a naturally abundant compound in the outer bark of birch and can be easily

    obtained by solvent extraction. Herein, solutions of betulin were used to treat cellulosic

    textile fibers and improve their water repellency. Cotton fabrics impregnated in a 7.5 g

    L-1 solution of betulin in ethanol showed the highest water contact angle of about 153°

    while the impregnation in a 3.75 g L-1 solution resulted in a close effect. A terephthaloyl

    chloride-betulin copolymer was synthesized and dissolved in tetrahydrofuran to afford a

    solution with a concentration of 3.75 g L-1. The cotton fabric impregnated in this

    solution showed a water contact angle of 150°. Changes in morphology of the cellulose

    fibers before and after the treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy,

    and the water repellency was measured by a standard spray test. The marketing strategy

    of the potential product, which will be developed based on this technique, was discussed.

  • 5.
    Jin, Min
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Determination of fracture mechanics behavior of polyethylene sheets2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethylene is a widely-used material in package industries. The fracture behavior of this material has not been studied in the plastic region in many years. In this thesis work, the J-Integral which is one material property used to represent the plastic material strength is calculated through the numerical analysis. To build a correct numerical model, the material behavior is summarized from previous uniaxial tensile test. The result from the fracture experiment for variable initial crack length is used to validate the reliability of the numerical model. The numerical analysis is done by the software ABAQUS which has the function to get the value of J-Integral directly. The final result contains the comparison between experiments and numerical analysis and the value of J-Integral at the crack initiation. 

  • 6.
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    A constitutive framework for modelling thin incompressible viscoelastic materials under plane stress in the finite strain regime2011In: Mechanics of time-dependant materials, ISSN 1385-2000, E-ISSN 1573-2738, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 389-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rubbers and soft biological tissues may undergo large deformations and are also viscoelastic. The formulation of constitutive models for these materials poses special challenges. In several applications, especially in biomechanics, these materials are also relatively thin, implying that in-plane stresses dominate and that plane stress may therefore be assumed. In the present paper, a constitutive model for viscoelastic materials in the finite strain regime and under the assumption of plane stress is proposed. It is assumed that the relaxation behaviour in the direction of plane stress can be treated separately, which makes it possible to formulate evolution laws for the plastic strains on explicit form at the same time as incompressibility is fulfilled. Experimental results from biomechanics (dynamic inflation of dog aorta) and rubber mechanics (biaxial stretching of rubber sheets) were used to assess the proposed model. The assessment clearly indicates that the model is fully able to predict the experimental outcome for these types of material.

  • 7.
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    A constitutive model for strain-crystallising rubber-like materials2010In: Mechanics of materials (Print), ISSN 0167-6636, E-ISSN 1872-7743, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 873-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, a constitutive model for strain-crystallising rubber is proposed. The constitutive behaviour is formulated in terms of a strain energy function, where the full network approach is adopted. The Arrhenius equation provides the basis for the crystallite nucleation law. The full network approach allows for the development of an anisotropic crystal structure. The model was applied to experimental results from uniaxial tensile tests. Strain-crystallisation causes a hysteresis in the stress–stretch relation, but according to the model predictions, the effect of crystallisation is not sufficient to explain the mechanical hysteresis observed in the tensile tests. Hence, additional viscoelasticity associated with amorphous polymer chains must be included. The model was fully able to predict both the stress vs. stretch relations and the crystallinity vs. stretch relations from the experiments.

  • 8.
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    An 8-chain model for rubber-like materials accounting for non-affine chain deformations and topological constraints2011In: Journal of elasticity, ISSN 0374-3535, E-ISSN 1573-2681, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 99-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several industrial applications involve rubber and rubber-like materials, and it is important to be able to predict the constitutive response of these materials. In the present paper, a new constitutive model for rubber-like solids is proposed. The model is based on the 8-chain concept introduced by Arruda and Boyce (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 41, 389–412, 1993) to which two new components are added. Real polymer networks do not deform affinely, and in the proposed model this is accounted for by the inclusion of an elastic spring, acting in series with the representative polymer chain. Furthermore, real polymer chains are not completely free to move, which is modelled by imposing a topological constraint on the transverse motions of the representative polymer chain. The model contains five model parameters and these need to be determined on the basis of experimental data. Three experimental studies from the literature were used to assess the proposed model. The model was able to reproduce experimental data performed under conditions of uniaxial tension, generalised plane deformation, and biaxial tension with an excellent accuracy. The strong predictive abilities together with the numerically efficient structure of the model make it suitable for implementation in a finite element context.

  • 9.
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    An asymptotic analysis of dynamic crack growth in rubber2011In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 78, no 17, p. 3111-3122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asymptotic analyses of the mechanical fields in front of stationary and propagating cracks are important for several reasons. For example, they facilitate the understanding of the mechanical and physical state in front of crack tips, and they enable prediction of crack growth. Furthermore, efficient modelling of arbitrary crack growth by use of XFEM (extended finite element method) requires accurate knowledge of the asymptotic crack tip fields. The present study focuses on the asymptotic fields in front of a crack that propagates dynamically in rubber. Static analyses of this type of problem have been made in previous studies. In order to be able to compare the present results with these earlier studies, the constitutive model from Knowles and Sternberg (J. Elast. 3:67–107, 1973) was adopted. It is assumed that viscoelastic stresses become negligible compared with the singular elastic stresses close to the crack tip. The present analysis shows that in materials with a significant hardening, the inertia term in the equations of motion becomes negligible in the asymptotic analysis. However, for a neoHookean type of model, inertia comes into play and causes a maximum theoretical crack speed that equals the shear wave speed.

  • 10. Kroon, Martin
    Analysis of dynamic crack propagation in rubber2012In: Presented at 10th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 8-13 July, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Asymptotic mechanical fields at the tip of a mode I crack in rubber-like solids2014In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 1923-1930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asymptotic analyses of the mechanical fields in front of stationary and propagating cracks facilitate the understanding of the mechanical and physical state in front of crack tips, and they enable prediction of crack growth and failure. Furthermore, efficient modelling of arbitrary crack growth by use of XFEM (extended finite element method) requires accurate knowledge of the asymptotic crack tip fields. In the present work, we perform an asymptotic analysis of the mechanical fields in the vicinity of a propagating mode I crack in rubber. Plane deformation is assumed, and the material model is based on the Langevin function, which accounts for the finite extensibility of polymer chains. The Langevin function is approximated by a polynomial, and only the term of the highest order contributes to the asymptotic solution. The crack is predicted to adopt a wedge-like shape, i.e. the crack faces will be straight lines. The angle of the wedge and the order of the stress singularity depend on the hardening of the strain energy function. The present analysis shows that in materials with a significant hardening, the inertia term in the equations of motion becomes negligible in the asymptotic analysis. Hence, there is no upper theoretical limit to the crack speed.

  • 12.
    Kroon, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Dynamic Crack propagation in Rubber2016In: Presented at 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICTAM), Montreal, Canada, August 21-26, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kroon, Martin
    Malmö University.
    Dynamic Energy Release Rates in Rubber2016In: Presented at European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS), Crete, Greece, June 5-10, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Dynamic steady-state analysis of crack propagation in rubber-like solids using an extended finite element method2012In: Computational Mechanics, ISSN 0178-7675, E-ISSN 1432-0924, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, a computational framework for studying high-speed crack growth in rubber-like solids under conditions of plane stress and steady-state is proposed. Effects of inertia, viscoelasticity and finite strains are included. The main purpose of the study is to examine the contribution of viscoelastic dissipation to the total work of fracture required to propagate a crack in a rubber-like solid. The computational framework builds upon a previous work by the present author (Kroon in Int J Fract 169:49-60, ). The model was fully able to predict experimental results in terms of the local surface energy at the crack tip and the total energy release rate at different crack speeds. The predicted distributions of stress and dissipation around the propagating crack tip are presented. The predicted crack tip profiles also agree qualitatively with experimental findings.

  • 15. Kroon, Martin
    Dynamic steady-state crack propagation in rubber-like solids2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Kroon, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Energy release rates in rubber during dynamic crack propagation2015In: Presented at ASME Applied Mechanics and Material Conference, July 25-29, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Energy release rates in rubber during dynamic crack propagation2014In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 51, no 25-26, p. 4419-4426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical understanding of the fracture mechanics of rubber is not as well developed as for other engineering materials, such as metals. The present study is intended to further the understanding of the dissipative processes that take place in rubber in the vicinity of a propagating crack tip. This dissipation contributes significantly to the total fracture toughness of the rubber and is therefore of great interest from a fracture mechanics point of view. To study this, a computational framework for analysing high-speed crack growth in a biaxially stretched rubber under plane stress is therefore formulated. The main purpose is to investigate the energy release rates required for crack propagation under different modes of biaxial stretching. The results show, that inertia comes into play when the crack speed exceeds about 50 m/s. The total work of fracture by far exceeds the surface energy consumed at the very crack tip, and the difference must be attributed to dissipative damage processes in the vicinity of the crack tip. The size of this damage/dissipation zone is expected to be a few millimetres.

  • 18.
    Kroon, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Experimental measurement of energy release rate in polyethylene2017In: The 14th International Conference on Fracture, Rhodes, Greece, June 18-23, 2017, Rhodes, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Kroon, Martin
    Numerical analysis of steady-state crack growth in rubber2012In: Presented at 10th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 8-13 July, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Kroon, Martin
    Numerical analysis of steady-state crack growth in rubber-like solids2011In: Presented at US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, 24-28 July, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Kroon, Martin
    Some aspects of crack propagation in rubber2015In: Presented at 5th B. Broberg Symposium, August 24-25, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Steady-state Crack Growth in Rubber-like Solids2011In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 169, no 1, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture toughness of rubber-like materials depends on several factors. First there is the surface energy required to create new crack surface at the crack tip. Second, a significant amount of energy is dissipated through viscoelastic processes in the bulk material around the crack tip. Third, if the crack propagates very rapidly, inertia effects will come into play and contribute to the fracture toughness. In the present study, a computational framework for studying high-speed crack growth in rubber-like solids under conditions of steady-state is proposed. Effects of inertia, viscoelasticity and finite strains are included. The main purpose of the study is to study the contribution of viscoelastic dissipation to the total work of fracture required to propagate a crack in a rubber-like solid. The model was fully able to predict experimental results in terms of the local surface energy at the crack tip and the total energy release rate at different crack speeds. In addition, the predicted distributions of stress and dissipation around the propagating crack tip are presented.

  • 23.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Andreasson, E.
    Tetra Pak ; Blekinge Technical University.
    Persson Jutemar, E.
    Tetra Pak.
    Petersson, V.
    Tetra Pak.
    Persson, L.
    Tetra Pak.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, P.A.T.
    Malmo University.
    Anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic properties of at finite strains of of injection-moulded low-density polyethylene2018In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 75-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Injection-moulding is one of the most common manufacturing processes used for polymers. In many applications, the mechanical properties of the product is of great importance. Injection-moulding of thin-walled polymer products tends to leave the polymer structure in a state where the mechanical properties are anisotropic, due to alignment of polymer chains along the melt flow direction. The anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic properties of low-density polyethylene, that has undergone an injection-moulding process, are therefore examined in the present work. Test specimens were punched out from injection-moulded plates and tested in uniaxial tension. Three in-plane material directions were investigated. Because of the small thickness of the plates, only the in-plane properties could be determined. Tensile tests with both monotonic and cyclic loading were performed, and the local strains on the surface of the test specimens were measured using image analysis. True stress vs. true strain diagrams were constructed, and the material response was evaluated using an elastic-viscoplasticity law. The components of the anisotropic compliance matrix were determined together with the direction-specific plastic hardening parameters.

  • 24.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    Tetra Pak.
    Modeling of damage and crack growth in semi-crystalline polymers2017In: Proceedings of NSCM 30: The 30th Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics, 25-27 October, 2017 / [ed] J. Høgsberg. N.L. Pedersen, DTU Mechanical Engineering , 2017, p. 108-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    t. Crack growth in semi-crystalline polymers, represented by polyethylene, is considered. The material considered comes in plates that had been created through an injection-molding process. Hence, the material was taken to be orthotropic. Material directions were identified as MD: molding direction, CD: transverse direction, TD: thickness direction. Uniaxial tensile testing was performed in order to establish the direction-specific elastic-plastic behaviour of the polymer. In addition, the fracture mechanics properties of the material was determined by performing fracture mechanics testing on plates with side cracks of different lengths. The fracture mechanics tests were filmed using a video camera. Based on this information, the force vs. load-line displacement could be established for the fracture mechanics tests, in which also the current length of the crack was indicated, since crack growth took place. In parallel to the experimental testing, an anisotropic plasticity model for finite strains was developed, which accounts for orthotropic elasticity and orthotropic plastic yielding and hardening. That plasticity model was implemented as a user subroutine in Abaqus. The crack growth experiments were then simulated using Abaqus, using the implemented plasticity model in combination with a damage model. Different types of crack initiation and growth criteria were explored, and the force-displacement-crack length data from the experiments could be well reproduced. Furthermore, the direction-specific work of fracture had been established from the experiments and these energies could be compared to the values of the J-integral from the simulations for the different crack lengths.

  • 25.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    Tetra Pak.
    Olsson, Pär
    Malmö University.
    Assessment of fracture energy of polyethylene2017In: Svenska mekanikdagar 2017 Uppsala 12-13 juni, Uppsala universitet, 2017, p. 49-49Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Faleskog, Jonas
    A J2-J3-dependent constitutive model for porous plasticity2016In: Presented at International Symposium on Plasticity, Big Island, Hawaii, January 3-9, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, P.
    Malmö University.
    Andreasson, E.
    Tetra Pak.
    Petersson, V.
    Estimation of the essential work of fracture of for an LDPE material2017In: The 8th International Conference on Fracture of Polymers, Composites and Adhesives, Les Diablerets, Schwitzerland, 10-14 September, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Nicklisch, Felix
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Weller, Bernhard
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Serrano, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Joint study on material properties of adhesives to be used in load-bearing timber-glass composite elements2014In: Glass | Facade | Energy / [ed] Jens Schneider, Bernhard Weller, Technische Uni Dresden , 2014, p. 271-280Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beyond its transparency, glass offers a large potential to fulfill load-bearing functions. Timber-glass composite elements take advantage of the high stiffness and strength of glass. At the same time the post-breakage behavior of the composite element increases significantly compared to the brittle failure of a pure glass. The current study relates to timber-glass composites where the composite action is obtained via a linear bondline connecting the glass pane to a timber frame. The full potential of these composite elements arises from the use of adhesives of medium and high stiffness which exhibit rather small deformations compared to e.g. structural silicones. A central objective of the research is the assessment and the optimization of the bondline properties with respect to stiffness of the adhesive. The paper summarizes the results of an in-depth study on commercially available adhesives and evaluates their general suitability in timber-glass composites.

    The material properties of the adhesives were determined by thorough mechanical testing of the bulk material in the first place under varying conditions, typically encountered in façades. The potential use in glass-timber composites was then evaluated using small bonded specimens comprising birch plywood or massive pine wood in combination with soda-lime glass. Failure modes were categorized in order to ascertain the influence of the timber strength on the load-bearing capacity.

    In order to guarantee reliable results from various sources, parts of the tests were executed repeatedly at different laboratories. Results were compared and validated throughout the project. Hence the results of this study provide a reliable basis for material models used in e.g. numerical analysis and engineered design solutions. The study presented here is part of the WoodWisdomNet project “LBTGC - Load Bearing Timber Glass Composites”

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