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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria ; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria ; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Influence of medial collagen organization and in-situ axial stretch on saccular cerebral aneurysm growth2009In: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, ISSN 0148-0731, E-ISSN 1528-8951, Vol. 131, no 10, article id 101010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for saccular cerebral aneurysm growth, proposed by Kroon and Holzapfel (2007, "A Model for Saccular Cerebral Aneurysm Growth in a Human Middle Cerebral Artery," J. Theor. Biol., 247, pp. 775-787; 2008, "Modeling of Saccular Aneurysm Growth in a Human Middle Cerebral Artery," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 130, p. 051012), is further investigated. A human middle cerebral artery is modeled as a two-layer cylinder where the layers correspond to the media and the adventitia. The immediate loss of media in the location of the aneurysm is taken to be responsible for the initiation of the aneurysm growth. The aneurysmis regarded as a development of the adventitia, which is composed of several distinct layers of collagen fibers perfectly aligned in specified directions. The collagen fibers are the only load-bearing constituent in the aneurysm wall; their production and degradation depend on the stretch of the wall and are responsible for the aneurysm growth. The anisotropy of the surrounding media was modeled using the strain-energy function proposed by Holzapfel et al. (2000, "A New Constitutive Framework for Arterial Wall Mechanics and a Comparative Study of Material Models," J. Elast., 61, pp. 1-48), which is valid for an elastic material with two families of fibers. It was shown that the inclusion of fibers in the media reduced the maximum principal Cauchy stress and the maximum shear stress in the aneurysm wall. The thickness increase in the aneurysm wall due to material growth was also decreased. Varying the fiber angle in the media from a circumferential direction to a deviation of 10 deg from the circumferential direction did, however, only show a little effect. Altering the axial in situ stretch of the artery had a much larger effect in terms of the steady-state shape of the aneurysm and the resulting stresses in the aneurysm wall. The peak values of the maximum principal stress and the thickness increase both became significantly higher for larger axial stretches.

  • 2.
    Khodadad, Davood
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nordebo, Sven
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Mueller, Beat
    Swisstom AG, Switzerland.
    Waldmann, Andreas Daniel
    Swisstom AG, Switzerland.
    Yerworth, Rebecca
    University College London, UK.
    Becher, Tobias
    University Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
    Frerichs, Inez
    University Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
    Sophocleous, Louiza
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Kaam, Anton van
    Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Netherlands ; VU Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Miedema, Martijn
    Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Seifnaraghi, Nima
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Bayford, Richard H
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Optimized breath detection algorithm in electrical impedance tomography2018In: Physiological Measurement, ISSN 0967-3334, E-ISSN 1361-6579, Vol. 39, no 9, article id 094001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This paper defines a method for optimizing the breath delineation algorithms used in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). In lung EIT the identification of the breath phases is central for generating tidal impedance variation images, subsequent data analysis and clinical evaluation. The optimisation of these algorithms is particularly important in neonatal care since the existing breath detectors developed for adults may give insufficient reliability in neonates due to their very irregular breathing pattern. Approach: Our approach is generic in the sense that it relies on the definition of a gold standard and the associated definition of detector sensitivity and specificity, an optimisation criterion and a set of detector parameters to be investigated. The gold standard has been defined by 11 clinicians with previous experience with EIT and the performance of our approach is described and validated using a neonatal EIT dataset acquired within the EU-funded CRADL project. Main results: Three different algorithms are proposed that are improving the breath detector performance by adding conditions on 1) maximum tidal breath rate obtained from zero-crossings of the EIT breathing signal, 2) minimum tidal impedance amplitude and 3) minimum tidal breath rate obtained from Time-Frequency (TF) analysis. As a baseline the zero crossing algorithm has been used with some default parameters based on the Swisstom EIT device. Significance: Based on the gold standard, the most crucial parameters of the proposed algorithms are optimised by using a simple exhaustive search and a weighted metric defined in connection with the Receiver Operating Characterics (ROC). This provides a practical way to achieve any desirable trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity of the detectors.

  • 3.
    Khodadad, Davood
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nordebo, Sven
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seifnaraghi, Nima
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Yerworth, Rebecca
    University College London, UK.
    Waldmann, Andreas D.
    Swisstom AG. Switzerland.
    Muller, Beat
    Swisstom AG, Switzerland.
    Frerichs, Inez
    University Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
    Kaam, Anton van
    Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Miedema, Martijn
    Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Bayford, Richard
    Middlesex University, UK.
    The Value of Phase Angle in Electrical Impedance Tomography Breath Detection2018In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2018, IEEE, 2018, p. 1040-1043Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to report our investigation demonstrating that the phase angle information of complex impedance could be a simple indicator of a breath cycle in chest Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). The study used clinical neonatal EIT data. The results show that measurement of the phase angle from complex EIT data can be used as a complementary information for improving the conventional breath detection algorithms.

  • 4.
    Rems, Lea
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ušaj, Marko
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kandušer, Maša
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Reberšek, Matej
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Miklavčič, Damijan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Pucihar, Gorazd
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cell electrofusion using nanosecond electric pulses2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, article id 3382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrofusion is an efficient method for fusing cells using short-duration high-voltage electric pulses. However, electrofusion yields are very low when fusion partner cells differ considerably in their size, since the extent of electroporation (consequently membrane fusogenic state) with conventionally used microsecond pulses depends proportionally on the cell radius. We here propose a new and innovative approach to fuse cells with shorter, nanosecond (ns) pulses. Using numerical calculations we demonstrate that ns pulses can induce selective electroporation of the contact areas between cells (i.e. the target areas), regardless of the cell size. We then confirm experimentally on B16-F1 and CHO cell lines that electrofusion of cells with either equal or different size by using ns pulses is indeed feasible. Based on our results we expect that ns pulses can improve fusion yields in electrofusion of cells with different size, such as myeloma cells and B lymphocytes in hybridoma technology.

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