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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Waste heat recovery in a cruise vessel2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In three studies of a cruise ship the author has investigated waste heat recovery (WHR)from exhaust gases using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and also mapped the energyand exergy flows within the ship. Data were collected from the ship’s machinerysystem for a total extent of one year, and this data were used for simulations andenergy calculations. An off-design analysis was made and an ORC was simulated andoptimised with regards to the ship’s operating conditions. The ORC working fluid wasoptimised in terms for maximum electrical production in the off-design condition. Theoff-design analysis showed that the ship speed and power consumption was far fromits original design. The results indicate that there is a potential for significant savingsby using an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery. The energy and exergyanalysis gave a better understanding of the energy flows and showed that the singlelargest exergy destruction occurs in the ship’s diesel engines.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Thern, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Waste Heat Recovery in a Cruise Vessel in the Baltic Sea by Using an Organic Rankine Cycle: A Case Study2015In: ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition: Volume 3: Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Cycle Innovations; Electric Power; Industrial and Cogeneration, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 15–19, 2015, ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 3, p. 43392-43416, article id V003T06A018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime transportation is a significant contributor to SOx, NOx and particle matter emissions, even though it has a quite low CO2 impact. New regulations are being enforced in special areas that limit the amount of emissions from the ships. This fact, together with the high fuel prices, is driving the marine industry towards the improvement of the energy efficiency of current ship engines and the reduction of their energy demand. Although more sophisticated and complex engine designs can improve significantly the efficiency of the energy systems in ships, waste heat recovery arises as the most influent technique for the reduction of the energy consumption. In this sense, it is estimated that around 50% of the total energy from the fuel consumed in a ship is wasted and rejected in fluid and exhaust gas streams. The primary heat sources for waste heat recovery are the engine exhaust and the engine coolant. In this work, we present a study on the integration of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in an existing ship, for the recovery of the main and auxiliary engines exhaust heat. Experimental data from the operating conditions of the engines on the M/S Birka Stockholm cruise ship were logged during a port-to-port cruise from Stockholm to Mariehamn over a period of time close to one month. The ship has four main engines Wärtsilä 5850 kW for propulsion, and four auxiliary engines 2760 kW used for electrical consumers. A number of six load conditions were identified depending on the vessel speed. The speed range from 12–14 knots was considered as the design condition, as it was present during more than 34% of the time. In this study, the average values of the engines exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates, for each load case, were used as inputs for a model of an ORC. The main parameters of the ORC, including working fluid and turbine configuration, were optimized based on the criteria of maximum net power output and compactness of the installation components. Results from the study showed that an ORC with internal regeneration using benzene would yield the greatest average net power output over the operating time. For this situation, the power production of the ORC would represent about 22% of the total electricity consumption on board. These data confirmed the ORC as a feasible and promising technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of existing ships.

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Waste Heat Recovery in a Cruise Vessel in the Baltic Sea by Using an Organic Rankine Cycle: A Case Study2016In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 138, no 1, article id 011702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime transportation is a significant contributor to SOx,NOx, and particle matter (PM) emissions, and to a lesser extent, of CO2. Recently, new regulations are being enforced in special geographical areas to limit the amount of emissions from the ships. This fact, together with the high fuel prices, is driving the marine industry toward the improvement of the energy efficiency of ships. Although more sophisticated and complex engine designs can improve significantly of the energy systems on ships, waste heat recovery arises as the most effective technique for the reduction of the energy consump- tion. In this sense, it is estimated that around 50% of the total energy from the fuel con- sumed in a ship is wasted and rejected through liquid and gas streams. The primary heat sources for waste heat recovery are the engine exhaust and coolant. In this work, we present a study on the integration of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in an existing ship, for the recovery of the main and auxiliary engines (AE) exhaust heat. Experimental data from the engines on the cruise ship M/S Birka Stockholm were logged during a port-to- port cruise from Stockholm to Mariehamn, over a period of 4 weeks. The ship has four main engines (ME) W€artsil€ a 5850kW for propulsion, and four AE 2760kW which areused for electrical generation. Six engine load conditions were identified depending on the ship’s speed. The speed range from 12 to 14 kn was considered as the design condi- tion for the ORC, as it was present during more than 34% of the time. In this study, the average values of the engines exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates, for each load case, were used as inputs for a model of an ORC. The main parameters of the ORC, including working fluid and turbine configuration, were optimized based on the criteria of maximum net power output and compactness of the installation components. Results from the study showed that an ORC with internal regeneration using benzene as working fluid would yield the greatest average net power output over the operating time. For this situation, the power production of the ORC would represent about 22% of the total elec- tricity consumption on board. These data confirmed the ORC as a feasible and promisingtechnology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of existing ships.

  • 4. Ala-Juusela, M.
    et al.
    Paiho, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Successful sustainable renovation business for single-family houses2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Melting Characteristics and Morphology of Bottom Ash and Filter Ash of the Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler2013In: 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, Danmark, 3rd-7th June, 2013, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2013, p. 1189-1191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate the melting characteristics and morphology of filter ash and bottom ash with and without 7% of peat addition to the fuel of the circulating fluidized bed boiler. The samples were characterized by simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The STA results indicate that the filter ash melts at 1140oC with 10 wt% of the mass loss and Bottom ash partially melts at 1170oC with below 2 wt% of the mass loss. The low melting point of the filter ash is due to the high concentration of the alkali metals in the filter ash. Similar trends were observed in the case of fly ash and bottom ash with peat admixture to the fuel. Furthermore the elementary analysis via scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that 7% of peat addition to the fuel does not significantly effect on the ash composition.

  • 6.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Hailemariam, Matias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Maintenance Solutions for Continuous & Cost-effective Improvement of Wind Turbine Performance2012In: Workshop on Advanced Maintenance Engineering, Services and Technology (A-Mest'12), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancement of company competitiveness and profitability demands continuous, high quality and trouble free production. Technical specifications and the condition of a wind turbine depend on the quality and condition of its significant components, which usually have the biggest impact on production continuity, - cost per KW and the environment. These necessitate intelligent technologies for maintaining the quality of significant components. Thus, it would be mandatory to select the most informative condition monitoring (CM) system and most cost-effective maintenance policy. In this paper, wind turbine problems are specified and described, available maintenance and CM techniques are discussed, and a maintenance solution with clearly specified objectives are suggested, discussed and the potential results are outlined in the end.

     

  • 7.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis as a tool for communication and corporate environmental decision-making2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjoint analysis has been used extensively in marketing, transportation and healthcare for the past 50 years. Since the mid-1990s, it has also been applied to an increasing number of environmental issues. In this thesis, conjoint analysis is applied to environmental objectives of the Swedish steel industry. The aim of the research project has been to develop a method for eliciting stakeholder preferences for environmental issues and to present the results to the stakeholders through the multivariate data analysis method of partial least squares regression.

    This licentiate thesis is based on three studies: a literature review of all conjoint studies conducted on environmental issues, a pilot study in which a new method was developed, and a main study where this method was tested on four environmental objectives of the Swedish steel industry. Up to the present, 109 environmental conjoint studies have been carried out. Recently, studies in environ¬mental economy have dominated, with investigators trying to estimate a mone¬tary value on environmental values or products. The problem selection has varied widely, from ecosystem management and green products to waste and risk management.

    One trend among environmental conjoint studies has been to use conjoint methods that report results at a group level. In the pilot study here, conjoint analysis was combined with partial least squares regression to enable presentation of results at individual level. The benefit of individual-level results is that they can be used to initiate a dialogue between an industry and its stakeholders, as well as between different stakeholder groups. The presentation mode also allows the researcher to find segments of respondents that think alike, although perhaps from different groups. In the pilot study, cluster analysis was used successfully to find hidden segments among the respondents.

    In the main study, the method from the pilot study was used to elicit preferences for four environmental objectives of the Swedish steel industry: reduced use of non-renewable energy, reduced use of non-renewable resources, decreased emission of carbon dioxide and weight reduction of products. Six stakeholder groups participated in the study, and the results showed that decreased emission of carbon dioxide was the environmental objective that most participants prioritised highest. Lowest priority was given to weight reduction of products.

    Conjoint analysis combined with multivariate data analysis methods such as partial least squares regression, principal component analysis and cluster analysis has been verified as an effective method for eliciting stake¬holder preferences on industry-wide environmental issues.

  • 8. Andersson, B L
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Monitoring of climatic/environmental data at the Swedish National Testing Institute in Borås1989Report (Other academic)
  • 9. Andersson, I
    et al.
    Bylander, S A
    Wernståhl, K
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Routines for calibration and control of equipment for artificial weathering testing at the Swedish National Testing Institute1989In: Proc. of Colloquium on Artificial Weathering, SP Nov, Borås, Sweden, 1989Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Andersson, J
    et al.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    Azoulay, M
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Kinetics of the Sorption of Water Vapour by Silica Gel1985In: Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physcal Chemistry in Condensed Phases, Vol. 81, p. 2681-2692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics and mechanism of the sorption reaction between water vapour and silica gel have been investigated in the pressure range 1–50 Torr using thermogravimetry under controlled temperature and water-vapour pressure. Measurements at equilibrium were carried out in order to determine the pertinent equilibrium parameters and the extent of hysteresis. The influence of particle radius and temperature on the kinetics in the whole of the pressure range investigated are well described by theoretical curves fitted to experimental data by taking into account simultaneous mass- and heat-transfer. Calculations yield a diffusivity of 8 × 10–10 m2 s–1. The sorption kinetics in the pressure range 15–40 Torr are shown to be controlled by heat transfer. 

  • 11.
    Andersson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Vilka platser ombord löper störst brandrisk: Var startar bränderna ombord2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fires onboard a seagoing vessel is a very serious accident since you can not rely on shorebased firefighers. The only resource available is the crew and their ability to tackle the situation. Fires can quickly get uncontrollable since there is large amounts of fueloil and even the cargo might be flammable. The purpose with this thesis is to highlight those places onboard that have the greatest risk of fire. So that the crew can either awoid fire or be better prepared if a fire starts.

    The result is based upon data taken from incidentreports from Northern European countries and vessels with length greater than 100m.

    The conclusion that was made is that the engineroom area was the most common place for fires.

    The most common reasons for the fire to start was a leakage of flammable liquid  or electrical failiures.

  • 12. Azoulay, M
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Chemical Substances for Heat-of-Sorption Storage - Thermodynamic Data for some Solid/Gas Phase Dissociation Reactions1982Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Baldi, Francesco
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nguyen, Tuong-Van
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Gabrielii, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship2015In: Proceedings of ECOS 2015 - the 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of  Energy Systems, Pau: Pau University , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping sector is today facing numerous challenges. Fuel prices are expected to increase in the medium-long term, and a sharp turn in environmental regulations will require several companies to switch to more expensive distillate fuels. In this context, passenger ships represent a small but increasing share of the industry. The complexity of the energy system of a ship where the energy required by propulsion is no longer the trivial main contributor to the whole energy use thus makes this kind of ship of particular interest for the analysis of how energy is converted from its original form to its final use on board.To illustrate this, we performed an analysis of the energy and exergy flow rates of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea based on a combination of available measurements from ship operations and of mechanistic knowledge of the system. The energy analysis allows identifying propulsion as the main energy user (41% of the total) followed by heat (34%) and electric power (25%) generation; the exergy analysis allowed instead identifying the main inefficiencies of the system: exergy is primarily destroyed in all processes involving combustion (88% of the exergy destruction is generated in the Diesel engines and in the oil-fired boilers) and in the sea water cooler (5.4%); the main exergy losses happen instead in the exhaust gas, mostly from the main engines (67% of total losses) and particularly from those not equipped with heat recovery devices.The improved understanding which derives from the results of the energy and exergy analysis can be used as a guidance to identify where improvements of the systems should be directed.

  • 14.
    Baldi, Francesco
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nguyen, Tuong-Van
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The application of process integration to the optimisation of cruise ship energy systems: a case study2016In: ECOS 2016: 29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Envirionmental Impact of Energy Systems. June 19-23 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the shipping industry has faced an increasing number of challenges in terms of fluctuating fuel prices, stricter environmental regulations, and concerns about global warming. In this situation, passenger volumes on cruise ships have increased from around 4 million to 13 million from 1990 to 2008 and keep growing today. A small cruise ship can emit about 85 tons of CO2 per day, and require around 27 tons of fuel per day. To keep up with market demand, while reducing their impact on the environment, cruise ships will need to improve their energy efficiency. Most previous research in marine technology relates to energy efficiency focused on propulsion, which for most ship types constitutes the largest energy demand. On cruise ships, however, auxiliary heat and electric power also have a significant importance. For this reason, we focus in this paper on the heat demand and its integration with available sources of waste heat on board. In this study, the principles of process integration are applied to the energy system of a cruise ship operating in the Baltic Sea. The heat sources (waste heat from the main and auxiliary engines in form of exhaust gas, cylinder cooling, charge air cooling, and lubricating oil cooling) and sinks (HVAC, hot water, fuel heating) are evaluated based on one year of operational data and used to generate four operating conditions that best represent ship operations. Applying the pinch analysis to the system revealed that the theoretical potential for heat integration on board could potentially allow the reduction of the external heat demand by between 35% and 85% depending on the investigated case. A technoeconomic optimisation allowed the identification of the most economically viable heat exchanger network designs: two in the “retrofit” scenario and one in the “design” scenario, with a reduction of 13-33%, 15-27% and 46-56% of the external heat demand, respectively. Given the high amount of heat being available after the process integration, we also analysed the potential for the installation of a steam turbine for the recovery of the energy available in the exhaust gas, which resulted in up to 900 kW of power being available for on board electric power demand.

  • 15.
    Baldi, Fransceco
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Melino, Francesco
    Universitá di Bologna, Italy.
    Gabrielii, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Optimal load allocation of complex ship power plants2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 124, p. 344-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world with increased pressure on reducing fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, thecruise industry is growing in size and impact. In this context, further effort is required for improvingthe energy efficiency of cruise ship energy systems.In this paper, we propose a generic method for modelling the power plant of an isolated system withmechanical, electric and thermal power demands and for the optimal load allocation of the different componentsthat are able to fulfil the demand.The optimisation problem is presented in the form of a mixed integer linear programming (MINLP)problem, where the number of engines and/or boilers running is represented by the integer variables,while their respective load is represented by the non-integer variables. The individual components aremodelled using a combination of first-principle models and polynomial regressions, thus making thesystem nonlinear.The proposed method is applied to the load-allocation problem of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea,and used to compare the existing power plant with a hybrid propulsion plant. The results show thebenefits brought by using the proposing method, which allow estimating the performance of the hybridsystem (for which the load allocation is a non-trivial problem) while also including the contribution ofthe heat demand. This allows showing that, based on a reference round voyage, up to 3% savings couldbe achieved by installing the proposed system, compared to the existing one, and that a NPV of11 kUSD could be achieved already 5 years after the installation of the system.

  • 16.
    Beckeman, Klara
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Miljöeffekter vid ändrad ytbehandling på ITT Water & Wastewater2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ITT Water & Wastewater will perhaps change the surface treatment method of the pumps to improve the elimination of the rust attacks the pumps get affected by today. The task for this degree project is to analyze and describe the effects of the environment caused by the new surface treatment methods the company investigates.The aim with the project is to develop groundwork and a recommendation on which of the surface treatment ITT Water & Wastewater should choose from an environmental point of view.The methods that have been studied are:

    • Iron phosphatising + electro coating

    • Zinc manganese phosphatising + electro coating

    • Oxsilan + electro coating

    These methods have been compared to the no-action alternative, which means today’s process continuing unchanged.The studied effects on the environment of the different methods are:

    • Emission to air and water

    • Waste

    • Energy

    From the three new methods and the no-action alternative, Oxsilan followed by electro coating is the alternative that causes least effects of the environment. The method has no emissions of VOC to air, it doesn´t cause any hazardous waste and the waste created is a small amount. The energy consumption is also less than for the other studied methods.

  • 17. Bengtsson, L
    et al.
    Bendz, D
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Rosquist, H
    Åkesson, M
    Water balance for landfills of different age1994In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 158, no 3-4, p. 203-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-related processes in landfills are discussed with emphasis on internal processes such as field capacity, moisture variation in time and space, and macropore flow. Runoff production and evaporation from landfills in Sweden of different age are investigated. It is clarified in what ways and for how long a closed municipal landfill differs from an ordinary land area from a hydrological point of view. 

  • 18.
    Bengtsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Andersen, Kristian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hur dokumenteras blackout ombord på fartyg?: En studie av haverirapporter där blackout var en del av händelseförloppet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On board vessels it is not desirable to have a power failure, a so-called blackout. The thesis

    has investigated to what extent it is feasible to perform comparative and preventive studies

    with the accident reports from European flag states as a basis. This in order to investigate

    recurring shortcomings, of the vessels or in the work on board that has caused the blackout. In

    addition the possibility to categorize the cases was investigated. The categories were technical

    errors, operational errors and organization errors. Roughly half of the cases show that a single

    category of fault could not be identified due to a combination of faults leading to the blackout.

    However there are recurring cases with almost identical scenarios. For example unsatisfactory

    insulation caused fires due to leaking fuel hitting the hot surfaces.

    The survey shows that there is a lack of symmetry regarding the language used, structure,

    scope and form of publication. It also showed faults in the search engines of the databases.

  • 19.
    Bennani, Mohamed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Smarter technologies towards Greener Homes: A Human-Centred Approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in technology continuously reshape habits, behaviours and interactions at individual, organisational and societal levels. Information and Communication technology (ICT) is pervasive, and is the bearer of crucial information, analysis and responses to the recipient. It assists in processes such as understanding phenomena and taking appropriate action. It also provides communication means, platforms and tools to interact with one another.

    In the United Kingdom’s (UK) Energy industry, smart meters are currently being deployed by energy suppliers to their customers. These are presented as a revolutionary device that supports a more efficient energy use at home and/or in the workplace, and helps customers save on their energy bill and reduce carbon footprint.

    Using interpretivist phenomenological Human-centred qualitative research, The thesis work explores the impact of using smart meter devices, as perceived by UK customers, in helping to monitor, use and manage energy consumption at home. Also, the study looks into alternative technology and customers’ expectations in the context of energy efficiency. And finally, the principles of a design is presented to respond to customers demands and desires. Passive participant observation, Future workshop and inspiration cards session are the methods and techniques applied in this research to collect  data.

    The findings constitute good grounds for individual consumers to be aware of the opportunities made available by alternative technology. At organisational level it is a basis for energy suppliers to change their behaviour towards a changing demand and adapt by switching their core business to supplying Information and analysis as well as energy efficiency management solutions. At societal level government bodies and regulating agencies can tackle sustainability and green energy issues by controlling the profit driven character of privatised energy companies and responding to real market demand as perceived by consumers.

    Emerging technologies present opportunities that have the capabilities of breaking the status quo of energy supply industry in the UK as well as the rest of world.

    The value of this research is to show customers’ perceived reality and expectations, as well as opportunities to change the way energy is supplied and consumed.

  • 20. Berg, Jørn. E
    et al.
    GLT-avfall, GLT-avfall
    Marika, Hogland
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hvorfor grave ut "gammel moro"?2009In: Kretsløpet - Tidsskrift for avfall og gjenvinning, Vol. dec, no 6, p. 25-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Borg, Lars
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Försurningens inverkan på upptaget av magnesium- och kalciumjoner hos gran1990Report (Other academic)
  • 22. Berndtsson, R.
    et al.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dator-modellering för bestämning av bräddning - Ett nytt Hjälpmedel vid Upprättandet av Saneringsplaner1985In: Vann, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Berndtsson, R.
    et al.
    Hogland, William
    Lunds Universitet.
    Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Urban Discharge to Small River Basins in the South West of Sweden1983In: Nordic Hydrology, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Berndtsson, R
    et al.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, M
    Dator-modellering för bestämning av bräddning: Ett nytt hjälpmedel vid upprättandet av saneringsplaner1985In: Vann, ISSN 0042-2592, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Berndtsson, R
    et al.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, M
    Niemczynowicz, J
    Aspects of computer modelling techniques for a semi-arid small catchment in Tunisia, Urban Drainage Modeling1986In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Comparison of Urban Drainage Models with Real Catchment Data, UDM'86, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia: Pergamon Press , 1986, p. 285-291Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26. Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    11. The Effect of Enhancing the Thermal Conductivity of the Sorbent Bed in a Chemical Heat Pump1984In: Part of doctoral thesis "Heat Storage and Heat Transfer in a Chemical Heat Pump - The Water Vapour - Silica Gel Adsorption System", by Henrik Bjurström, TRITA-FYK-8403, Department of Physical Chemistry Royal Institute of Technology, Stock¬holmArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 27. Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    2. Heat and mass transfer characteristics of thermochemical heat storage media - Quantitative charac-terization of the system of the heat-of sorption system water vapour /silica gel - Exergy analysis of sensible and latent heat storage media; Research report for the Swedish Council for Building Re-search for project BFR 810316-31984Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm 70, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Department of Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm 70, Sweden.
    An Exergy Analysis of Sensibel and Latent Heat Storage1985In: Journal of Heat Recovery Systems, ISSN 0198-7593, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 233-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of sensible and latent heat storage units is performed in both energy and exergy terms. The stores are compared, through variation of design parameters for both charging and discharging in order to find exergy extrema, i.e. operating conditions that maximize the exergy yield in the transfer of heat to and from the stores. Reference is made to the stratified sensible heat store.

    The overall conversion efficiency for the thermal exergy supplied by the heat source to the heat load via the heat store is of the order of 10% at NTU = 1. The stratified store is the most efficient at high NTU values.

    For the charging operation there exists exergy extrema for both the well-mixed sensible store and the PCM store. An energy analysis of the charging of the PCM store shows that the transition temperature should be low. From an exergetic point of view the transition temperature should be the geometric mean of the charging and the initial temperatures, if the charging temperature is fixed. When the end temperature of a store in a changing operation is fixed the transition temperature should be low. Charging with a constant heating rate is advantageous if the transition temperature is low. No optimal stopping time can be recognized for the discharging operation. The merit of a high exergy content is that of a high thermal power during discharging. This favours a PCM store with a high transition temperature. 

  • 29. Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The importance of heat transfer in a chemical heat pump utilizing a gas - solid sorption reaction1983In: Proc. 3rd Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer Conference April, Miami Beach, USA, 1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30. Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    Karawacki, E
    Carlsson, Bo
    Department of Physical Chemistry, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Thermal Conductivity of a Microporous Particulate Medium1984In: International journal of heat and mass transfer, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 2025-2036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic study of the thermal conductivity of beds of moist silica gel is presented. The influence of porosity, water content, total gas pressure and temperature is determined through measurements under transient conditions with the transient hot-strip (THS) method and under static conditions in a bench-scale reactor. The predictions of the effective thermal conductivity of the beds from four different simple models (Russell, geometric mean value, unit-cell model and stochastic model) agree reasonably well with the experimental results. The unit-cell model is extended in order to account for the water sorbed in the micropores and describes satisfactorily the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on the water content. 

  • 31.
    Björkman, Robin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rehnberg, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    CV och personligt brev för nyutexaminerade fartygsbefäl i den svenska sjöfartsbranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the competition for employment toughens amongst deck officers high effort is required in order to stand out from the crowd regarding job applications. The purpose of this study has been to investigate what content the Swedish shipping industry values most in CVs and cover letters. This was achieved by interviewing nine recruiters from different shipping companies and management agencies that recruit Swedish junior officers. A literature search regarding previous studies concerning recruitment provided a wider understanding of the subject and its relevance for maritime science graduates. The literature search also revealed a knowledge gap regarding recruiters in the Swedish shipping industry preferences about CVs and cover letters. The results of the study show some patterns and tendencies amongst the respondents, common to all of which is a preference of short and concise CVs and cover letters with content that is relevant for the applied position. The results also show that a job application is interpreted subjectively and therefore to some extent must be tailored to each individual employment opportunity.

  • 32.
    Bonakdar, Farshid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Cost-optimality approach for prioritisation of buildings envelope energy renovation: A techno-economic perspective2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing residential buildings in the European countries are rather old and often fail to meet the current energy performance criteria. In Sweden, about 45% of the existing residential buildings have been constructed before 1960. Considering the significant contribution of existing buildings to Greenhouse Gas emissions, improving buildings energy performance could considerably help to achieve the national targets. Sweden’s fourth national action plan calls for 45% reduction in final energy use for heating of buildings by 2050, compared to 1995. Deep energy renovation of buildings envelope would significantly contribute to heat demand reduction. However, it is often subject to complex challenges from economic perspectives.

    In this thesis, the cost-effectiveness and cost-optimality of building energy renovation have been studied in order to provide knowledge on where to start building renovation, in which order and to what extent. It aims at suggesting cost-effective approaches for prioritising the implementation of energy renovation measures in residential buildings, considering different techno- economic scenarios. An extensive building energy simulation work and analytical analysis were performed on a multi-family building and single- family houses.

    The findings suggest how to prioritise the energy renovation of different envelope components in buildings located in different outdoor climates from energy saving and cost-effective perspectives. The findings indicate that the energy renovation of older buildings in northern climate zones are more cost- effective, compared to less old buildings in southern zones, when renovated to a cost-optimal level. The older buildings offer more energy saving when renovated to a cost-optimal level, compared to less old buildings or those in southern zones. The contribution of climate zones to the cost-effectiveness of energy renovation varies significantly in different components, depending on their level of exposure to outdoor climate.

    An optimisation exercise was done in order to maximise energy saving by renovation of building envelope components under budget constraint condition. The enumerative algorithm of Brute-force was employed for this optimisation problem. The results suggest optimum renovation packages which could offer as much energy saving as a limited budget allows. It helps to develop a forward-thinking perspective that would guide individuals and financial institutions in their investment plans and incentives allocation policy.

  • 33.
    Bonakdar, Farshid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Cost-optimum analysis of building fabric renovation in a Swedish multi-story residential building2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, p. 662-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analysed the cost-optimum level of building fabric elements renovation in a multi-story residential building. We calculated final energy use for space heating of the building considering a wide range of energy efficiency measures, for exterior walls, basement walls, attic floor and windows. Different extra insulation thicknesses for considered opaque elements and different U-values for new windows were used as energy efficiency measures. We calculated difference between the marginal saving of energy cost for space heating and the investment cost of implemented energy efficiency measures, in order to find the cost-optimum measure for each element. The implications of building lifespans, annual energy price increase and discount rate on the optimum measure were also analysed. The results of the analysis indicate that the contribution of energy efficiency measures to the final energy use reduces, significantly, by increasing the thickness of extra insulation and by reducing the U-value of new windows. We considered three scenarios of business as usual (BAU), intermediate and sustainability, considering different discount rates and energy price increase. The results of this analysis suggest that the sustainability scenario may offer, approximately, 100% increase in the optimum thickness of extra insulation compare to BAU scenario. However, the implication of different lifespans of 40, 50 or 60 years, on the optimum measure appears to be either negligible or very small, depending on the chosen scenario. We also calculated the corresponding U-value of the optimum measures in order to compare them with the current Swedish building code requirements and passive house criteria. The results indicate that all optimum measures meet the Swedish building code. None of the optimum measures, however, meet the passive house criteria in BAU scenario. This study suggests that the employed method of building renovation cost-optimum analyses can be also applied on new building construction to find the cost-optimum design from energy conservation point of view.

  • 34. Bonanni, L
    et al.
    Ebner, Hannes
    Hockenberry, M
    Sayan, B
    Brandt, Nils
    Csikszentmihàlyi, N
    Ishii, H
    Turpeinen, Marko
    Young, S
    Zapico, Jorge Luis
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Sourcemap. org: First Application of Linked and Open LCA Data to Support Sustainability2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Bonanni, Leonardo
    et al.
    MIT Media Lab, USA.
    Ebner, Hannes
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hockenberry, Matthew
    MIT Media Lab , USA.
    Sayan, Bianca
    University of Waterloo , Canada.
    Zapico Lamela, Jorge Luis
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Brandt, Nils
    MIT Media Lab, USA.
    Csikszentmihàlyi, Chris
    MIT Media Lab , USA.
    Ishii, Hiroshi
    MIT Media Lab, USA.
    Turpeinen, Marko
    MIT Media Lab, USA.
    Young, Steven
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    The Open Sustainability Project: A Linked Data Approach to LCA2010In: LCA X, Bridging Science, Policy, and the Public 2-4 November 2010, Portland, Oregon, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The proprietary nature of LCA tools and information limits widespread adoption of sustainability measures. We introduce the Open Sustainability Project(OSP), a Linked Data resource for broadening access to LCA in an effort to increase the transparency and accuracy of environmental impact assessments(2, 9).The OSP applies Free and Open Source Software(FOSS) principles and Linked Data structures to LCA standards and reporting so that communities including students, SME’s and the general public can participate in the assessment and verification of sustainability practices(1,6). The highly flexible data format allows disparate data sources and assessments to be compared along an open standard compliant with ISO 14048 reporting(5, 8, 12).In addition, the OSP makes available a free database of Life Cycle Assessment data using an approach based on Linked Data and RESTful interfaces which supports the development of rich third-party applications for specific user groups and industries(7). This novel combination of linked data and web-based tools is inherently transparent so that LCA practices can be standardized, compared and verified by a broad community.The OSP is an international collaboration between academics, government and industry groups leveraging expertise in LCA, Open Data and web-based tools for sustainability(10). Our first Open Source and Open Data web sustainability tools have confirmed the potential to engage a wider audience, with over two thousand registered users, three thousand environmental assessments performed and over 330,000 page views from more than 75 countries since September 2009(3, 4, 11). The OSP aims to expand reach of LCA through a free and open Application Programming Interface(API) to support distributed development of third-party applications for sustainability assessment through the emerging metrics for social and environmental sustainability(a free LCA "App Store"). These applications are intended to disseminate LCA standards, encourage transparency in environmental reporting and leverage Collective Intelligence in the collection, publication and verification of LCA.The OSP aims to transform LCA into a collaborative process where data collection, analysis, assessment and reporting benefit from the feedback and ideas of a growing worldwide LCA community.

  • 36.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Hulteberg, Christain
    Kusar, Henrik
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    A review of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into biofuels: focusing on gas cleaning and up-grading process steps2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    It is not easy to replace fossil-based fuels in the transport sector, however, an appealing solution is to use biomass and waste for the production of renewable alternatives. Thermochemical conversion of biomass for production of synthetic transport fuels by the use of gasification is a promising way to meet these goals.

    One of the key challenges in using gasification systems with biomass and waste as feedstock is the upgrading of the raw gas produced in the gasifier. These materials replacing oil and coal contain large amounts of demanding impurities, such as alkali, inorganic compounds, sulphur and chlorine compounds. Therefore, as for all multi-step processes, the heat management and hence the total efficiency depend on the different clean-up units. Unfortunately, the available conventional gas filtering units for removing particulates and impurities, and also subsequent catalytic conversion steps have lower optimum working temperatures than the operating temperature in the gasification units.

    This report focuses on on-going research and development to find new technology solutions and on the key critical technology challenges concerning the purification and upgrading of the raw gas to synthesis gas and the subsequent different fuel synthesis processes, such as hot gas filtration, clever heating solutions and a higher degree of process integration as well as catalysts more resistant towards deactivation. This means that the temperature should be as high as possible for any particular upgrading unit in the refining system. Nevertheless, the temperature and pressure of the cleaned synthesis gas must meet the requirements of the downstream application, i.e. Fischer-Tropsch diesel or methanol.

    Before using the gas produced in the gasifier a number of impurities needs to be removed. These include particles, tars, sulphur and ammonia. Particles are formed in gasification, irrespective of the type of gasifier design used. A first, coarse separation is performed in one or several cyclone filters at high temperature. Thereafter bag-house filters (e.g. ceramic or textile) maybe used to separate the finer particles. A problem is, however, tar condensation in the filters and there is much work performed on trying to achieve filtration at as high a temperature as possible.

    The far most stressed technical barriers regarding cleaning of the gases are tars. To remove the tar from the product gas there is a number of alternatives, but most important is that the gasifier is operated at optimal conditions for minimising initial tar formation. In fluid bed and entrained flow gasification a first step may be catalytic tar cracking after particle removal. In fluid bed gasification a catalyst, active in tar cracking, may be added to the fluidising bed to further remove any tar formed in the bed. In this kind of tar removal, natural minerals such as dolomite and olivine, are normally used, or catalysts normally used in hydrocarbon reforming or cracking. The tar can be reformed to CO and hydrogen by thermal reforming as well, when the temperature is increased to 1300ºC and the tar decomposes. Another method for removing tar from the gas is to scrub it by using hot oil (200-300ºC). The tar dissolves in the hot oil, which can be partly regenerated and the remaining tar-containing part is either burned or sent back to the gasifier for regasification.

    Other important aspects are that the sulphur content of the gas depends on the type of biomass used, the gasification agent used etc., but a level at or above 100 ppm is not unusual. Sulphur levels this high are not acceptable if there are catalytic processes down-stream, or if the emissions of e.g. SO2 are to be kept down. The sulphur may be separated by adsorbing it in ZnO, an irreversible process, or a commercially available reversible adsorbent can be used. There is also the possibility of scrubbing the gas with an amine solution. If a reversible alternative is chosen, elementary sulphur may be produced using the Claus process.

    Furthermore, the levels of ammonia formed in gasification (3,000 ppm is not uncommon) are normally not considered a problem. When combusting the gas, nitrogen or in the worst case NOx (so-called fuel NOx) is formed; there are, however, indications that there could be problems. Especially when the gasification is followed by down-stream catalytic processes, steam reforming in particular, where the catalyst might suffer from deactivation by long-term exposure to ammonia.

    The composition of the product gas depends very much on the gasification technology, the gasifying agent and the biomass feedstock. Of particular significance is the choice of gasifying agent, i.e. air, oxygen, water, since it has a huge impact on the composition and quality of the gas, The gasifying agent also affects the choice of cleaning and upgrading processes to syngas and its suitability for different end-use applications as fuels or green chemicals.

    The ideal upgraded syngas consists of H2 and CO at a correct ratio with very low water and CO2 content allowed. This means that the tars, particulates, alkali salts and inorganic compounds mentioned earlier have to be removed for most of the applications. By using oxygen as the gasifying agent, instead of air, the content of nitrogen may be minimised without expensive nitrogen separation.

    In summary, there are a number of uses with respect to produced synthesis gas. The major applications will be discussed, starting with the production of hydrogen and then followed by the synthesis of synthetic natural gas, methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and higher alcohol synthesis, and describing alternatives combining these methods. The SNG and methanol synthesis are equilibrium constrained, while the synthesis of DME (one-step route), FT diesel and alcohols are not. All of the reactions are exothermal (with the exception of steam reforming of methane and tars) and therefore handling the temperature increase in the reactors is essential. In addition, the synthesis of methanol has to be performed at high pressure (50-100 bar) to be industrially viable.

    There will be a compromise between the capital cost of the whole cleaning unit and the system efficiency, since solid waste, e.g. ash, sorbents, bed material and waste water all involve handling costs. Consequently, installing very effective catalysts, results in unnecessary costs because of expensive gas cleaning; however the synthesis units further down-stream, especially for Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and DME/methanol will profit from an effective gas cleaning which extends the catalysts life-time. The catalyst materials in the upgrading processes essentially need to be more stable and resistant to different kinds of deactivation.

    Finally, process intensification is an important development throughout chemical industries, which includes simultaneous integration of both synthesis steps and separation, other examples are advanced heat exchangers with heat integration in order to increase the heat transfer rates. Another example is to combine exothermic and endothermic reactions to support reforming reactions by using the intrinsic energy content. For cost-effective solutions and efficient application, new solutions for cleaning and up-grading of the gases are necessary.

  • 37.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund University .
    Poisoning of SCR Catalysts used in Municipal Waste Incineration Applications2017In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 60, no 17-18, p. 1306-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial vanadia, tungsta on titania SCRcatalyst was poisoned in a side stream in a waste incinerationplant. The effect of especially alkali metal poisoningwas observed resulting in a decreased activity at long timesof exposure. The deactivation after 2311 h was 36% whilethe decrease in surface area was only 7.6%. Thus the majorcause for deactivation was a chemical blocking of acidicsites by alkali metals. The activation–deactivation modelshowed excellent agreement with experimental data. Themodel suggests that the original adsorption sites, fromthe preparation of the catalyst, are rapidly deactivated butare replaced by a new population of adsorption sites dueto activation of the catalyst surface by sulphur compounds(SO2, SO3)in the flue gas.

  • 38.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners2019In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we identify the socio-economic attributes and attitudes that have influencedhouse owners in renovating their homes in the past. Our study is based on responses to an onlinequestionnaire survey of 971 house owners living in Kronoberg County in Sweden. Results showedthat the interest and willingness of the house owners to perform a renovation varied dependingon their demographic background and the age of the house. The latter positively affected pastrenovations, only when combined with the residence time. Furthermore, the age of house ownersstrongly and positively affected the probability of performing aesthetic type of renovations, becauseof a long time of residence in the house. Younger, town living, and highly educated house ownersseem to be more concerned regarding saving energy, which motivated them to perform physicalrenovations on their house. Our results also suggest that income, level of education, and place ofresidence have an effect on renovation decisions only through their effect on the energy concern ofhouse owners, and a varied effect on renovation decisions, when combined with the time of residencein the house.

  • 39. Bäck, Andreas
    et al.
    Grubbström, Jörgen
    Ecke, Holger
    Pettersson, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Operation of an Electroctrostatic Precipitator at a 30 MWth oxyfuel plant2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a full-scale ESP was studied at the Vattenfall AB oxyfuel pilot plant in SchwarzePumpe. The lignite-fired boiler has a 30 MWth top-mounted pulverized coal burner and was operated under conventional air combustion as well as oxyfuel combustion. The ESP was operated with varying numbers of fields in service and at different current/voltage settings. Particle number size distributionsdownstream the ESP were established on-line in the size range 0.015-10 μm, using an electrical mobility spectrometer and an aerodynamic particle sizer. The particle size distribution at oxyfuel operation was qualitatively very similar to the results obtained for air-firing. Gravimetric measurementsof total fly ash concentration showed outlet emissions below 5 mg/Nm3 when the ESP was operatedwith two fields in service at oxyfuel conditions.

  • 40.
    Bävermalm, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Antifoulingfärger: Beväxning och ytråhetens inverkan på fartygsekonomin2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med anledning av dagens höga bunkerpriser är det relevant att undersöka vad man kan göra för att minska bunkerförbrukningen ombord. En viktig del vad gäller bunkerbesparingar är att hålla skrovets kondition i gott skick. Här har ett klokt val av antifoulingfärg en stor betydelse, med en bra antifoulingfärg minskar beväxningen av organismer på skrovet. Detta i sin tur leder till ett minskat motstånd, vilket gynnar fartygsekonomin.

    På marknaden finns flertalet antifoulingfärger tillgängliga, men vilken effekt på ytråheten har respektive färg, och hur påverkar ytråhet i form av beväxning fartyget ekonomiskt? Utöver de rent ekonomiska aspekterna ville jag ta reda på om det finns något miljövänligare alternativ, samt hur det står sig gentemot de biocidbaserade antifoulingfärgerna.

    För att svara på detta har en mängd data studerats från bland annat produktdatablad, fartygskonstruktionsböcker, tidsjournaler och hemsidor. Jag konstaterade att det finns mycket pengar att spara på rätt val av antifouling. Något som förvånade mig var att färgtillverkarens miljövänligaste alternativ också var den effektivaste antifoulingen.

  • 41. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Biomass transportation1996In: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and the environment: World Renewable Energy Congress, 15-21 June 1996, Denver, Colorado, USA, 1996, p. 1033-1036Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive utilisation of logging residues, straw, and energy crops will lead to short transportation distances and thus low transportation costs. The average distance of transportation of biomass to a large-scale conversion slant. suitable for electricitv or methanol uroduction using 300 000 drv tonne biomass vearlv, will be about 30 km in Sweden, if the conversion plant is located at the centre of ihe biomass production area. The estimated Swedish biomass potential of 430 PJ/yr is based on production conditions around 2015, assuming that 30% of the available arable land is used for energy crop production. With present production conditions, resulting in a biomass potential of 220 PJ/yr, the transportation distance is about 42 km. The cost of transporting biomass 30-42 km will be equivalent to 20-25% of the total biomass cost. The total energy efficiency of biomass production and transportation will be 9597%, where the energy losses from transportation are about 20%. Biomass transportation will contribute less than 10% to the total NO,, CO, and HC emissions from biomass production, transportation, and conversion

  • 42. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Greenhouse Gas Balances in Building Construction: Wood versus Concrete from Lifecycle and Forest Land-Use Perspectives2000In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 575-588Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Greenhouse Gas Emission from Building Construction in a Life-Cycle Perspective: Wood or Concrete?1998In: Proceedings of the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings: ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings ; 10 : 1998, Washington: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy , 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Reduction of CO2 emissions from changed land use and substitution of biomass for fossil fuels1997In: International Conference on Technologies for Activities Implemented Jointly 1997, Vancouver, British Columbia: Technologies for activities implemented jointly ; proceedings of the conference, 26th - 29th May 1997, Vancouver, Canada, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 1997, p. 777-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Regional Production and Utilization of Biomass in Sweden1996In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 747-764Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Christersson, L
    Linder, S
    Future Production and Utilisation of Biomass in Sweden: potentials and CO~2 mitigation1997In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Carlson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ljung, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Efter sjökaptensexamen: 2010-talets sjöbefäl i arbetslivet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on study of the employment market for graduates from the Master Mariner degree that graduated in 2010, 2013 and 2016. It is a comparison between the three years of graduation within two Swedish universities that offer the Master Mariner programme. Data collection with combined quantitative and qualitative techniques within a mixed-mode study. Results show a majority occupied within the maritime sector, although vessel-based employment has decreased compared to past studies and redundancy is an emerging element. The percentage occupied within the vessel-based sector is higher in Kalmar Maritime Academy, Linnaeus University, compared to Chalmers University, the results from which show a higher concentration in shore-based occupation. The conclusion of this thesis is that the employment market for graduates from maritime institutions in Sweden is undergoing change. 

  • 48.
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    1. Storage of low temperature heat in salthydrate melts - Studies of materials and heat exchange techniques - Short term storage of solar: Summary research report for the Swedish Council for Building Research for project BFR750016-8, 1979-821983Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    3. Phase Change Behaviour of some Heat-of-Fusion Storage Media Based on Calcium Chloride Hexa-hydrate - Research report for the Swedish Council for Building Research for project BFR 840598-41984Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Carlsson, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Calculation of the Thermal Performance of a Heat-of-Fusion Storage Unit1980Report (Other academic)
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