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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Waste heat recovery in a cruise vessel2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In three studies of a cruise ship the author has investigated waste heat recovery (WHR)from exhaust gases using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and also mapped the energyand exergy flows within the ship. Data were collected from the ship’s machinerysystem for a total extent of one year, and this data were used for simulations andenergy calculations. An off-design analysis was made and an ORC was simulated andoptimised with regards to the ship’s operating conditions. The ORC working fluid wasoptimised in terms for maximum electrical production in the off-design condition. Theoff-design analysis showed that the ship speed and power consumption was far fromits original design. The results indicate that there is a potential for significant savingsby using an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery. The energy and exergyanalysis gave a better understanding of the energy flows and showed that the singlelargest exergy destruction occurs in the ship’s diesel engines.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Thern, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Waste Heat Recovery in a Cruise Vessel in the Baltic Sea by Using an Organic Rankine Cycle: A Case Study2015In: ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition: Volume 3: Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Cycle Innovations; Electric Power; Industrial and Cogeneration, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 15–19, 2015, ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 3, p. 43392-43416, article id V003T06A018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime transportation is a significant contributor to SOx, NOx and particle matter emissions, even though it has a quite low CO2 impact. New regulations are being enforced in special areas that limit the amount of emissions from the ships. This fact, together with the high fuel prices, is driving the marine industry towards the improvement of the energy efficiency of current ship engines and the reduction of their energy demand. Although more sophisticated and complex engine designs can improve significantly the efficiency of the energy systems in ships, waste heat recovery arises as the most influent technique for the reduction of the energy consumption. In this sense, it is estimated that around 50% of the total energy from the fuel consumed in a ship is wasted and rejected in fluid and exhaust gas streams. The primary heat sources for waste heat recovery are the engine exhaust and the engine coolant. In this work, we present a study on the integration of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in an existing ship, for the recovery of the main and auxiliary engines exhaust heat. Experimental data from the operating conditions of the engines on the M/S Birka Stockholm cruise ship were logged during a port-to-port cruise from Stockholm to Mariehamn over a period of time close to one month. The ship has four main engines Wärtsilä 5850 kW for propulsion, and four auxiliary engines 2760 kW used for electrical consumers. A number of six load conditions were identified depending on the vessel speed. The speed range from 12–14 knots was considered as the design condition, as it was present during more than 34% of the time. In this study, the average values of the engines exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates, for each load case, were used as inputs for a model of an ORC. The main parameters of the ORC, including working fluid and turbine configuration, were optimized based on the criteria of maximum net power output and compactness of the installation components. Results from the study showed that an ORC with internal regeneration using benzene would yield the greatest average net power output over the operating time. For this situation, the power production of the ORC would represent about 22% of the total electricity consumption on board. These data confirmed the ORC as a feasible and promising technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of existing ships.

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Thern, Marcus
    Lund University.
    Waste Heat Recovery in a Cruise Vessel in the Baltic Sea by Using an Organic Rankine Cycle: A Case Study2016In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 138, no 1, article id 011702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime transportation is a significant contributor to SOx,NOx, and particle matter (PM) emissions, and to a lesser extent, of CO2. Recently, new regulations are being enforced in special geographical areas to limit the amount of emissions from the ships. This fact, together with the high fuel prices, is driving the marine industry toward the improvement of the energy efficiency of ships. Although more sophisticated and complex engine designs can improve significantly of the energy systems on ships, waste heat recovery arises as the most effective technique for the reduction of the energy consump- tion. In this sense, it is estimated that around 50% of the total energy from the fuel con- sumed in a ship is wasted and rejected through liquid and gas streams. The primary heat sources for waste heat recovery are the engine exhaust and coolant. In this work, we present a study on the integration of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in an existing ship, for the recovery of the main and auxiliary engines (AE) exhaust heat. Experimental data from the engines on the cruise ship M/S Birka Stockholm were logged during a port-to- port cruise from Stockholm to Mariehamn, over a period of 4 weeks. The ship has four main engines (ME) W€artsil€ a 5850kW for propulsion, and four AE 2760kW which areused for electrical generation. Six engine load conditions were identified depending on the ship’s speed. The speed range from 12 to 14 kn was considered as the design condi- tion for the ORC, as it was present during more than 34% of the time. In this study, the average values of the engines exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates, for each load case, were used as inputs for a model of an ORC. The main parameters of the ORC, including working fluid and turbine configuration, were optimized based on the criteria of maximum net power output and compactness of the installation components. Results from the study showed that an ORC with internal regeneration using benzene as working fluid would yield the greatest average net power output over the operating time. For this situation, the power production of the ORC would represent about 22% of the total elec- tricity consumption on board. These data confirmed the ORC as a feasible and promisingtechnology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of existing ships.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Vilka platser ombord löper störst brandrisk: Var startar bränderna ombord2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fires onboard a seagoing vessel is a very serious accident since you can not rely on shorebased firefighers. The only resource available is the crew and their ability to tackle the situation. Fires can quickly get uncontrollable since there is large amounts of fueloil and even the cargo might be flammable. The purpose with this thesis is to highlight those places onboard that have the greatest risk of fire. So that the crew can either awoid fire or be better prepared if a fire starts.

    The result is based upon data taken from incidentreports from Northern European countries and vessels with length greater than 100m.

    The conclusion that was made is that the engineroom area was the most common place for fires.

    The most common reasons for the fire to start was a leakage of flammable liquid  or electrical failiures.

  • 5.
    Baldi, Francesco
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nguyen, Tuong-Van
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Gabrielii, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship2015In: Proceedings of ECOS 2015 - the 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of  Energy Systems, Pau University , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping sector is today facing numerous challenges. Fuel prices are expected to increase in the medium-long term, and a sharp turn in environmental regulations will require several companies to switch to more expensive distillate fuels. In this context, passenger ships represent a small but increasing share of the industry. The complexity of the energy system of a ship where the energy required by propulsion is no longer the trivial main contributor to the whole energy use thus makes this kind of ship of particular interest for the analysis of how energy is converted from its original form to its final use on board.To illustrate this, we performed an analysis of the energy and exergy flow rates of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea based on a combination of available measurements from ship operations and of mechanistic knowledge of the system. The energy analysis allows identifying propulsion as the main energy user (41% of the total) followed by heat (34%) and electric power (25%) generation; the exergy analysis allowed instead identifying the main inefficiencies of the system: exergy is primarily destroyed in all processes involving combustion (88% of the exergy destruction is generated in the Diesel engines and in the oil-fired boilers) and in the sea water cooler (5.4%); the main exergy losses happen instead in the exhaust gas, mostly from the main engines (67% of total losses) and particularly from those not equipped with heat recovery devices.The improved understanding which derives from the results of the energy and exergy analysis can be used as a guidance to identify where improvements of the systems should be directed.

  • 6.
    Baldi, Francesco
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nguyen, Tuong-Van
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The application of process integration to the optimisation of cruise ship energy systems: a case study2016In: ECOS 2016: 29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Envirionmental Impact of Energy Systems. June 19-23 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the shipping industry has faced an increasing number of challenges in terms of fluctuating fuel prices, stricter environmental regulations, and concerns about global warming. In this situation, passenger volumes on cruise ships have increased from around 4 million to 13 million from 1990 to 2008 and keep growing today. A small cruise ship can emit about 85 tons of CO2 per day, and require around 27 tons of fuel per day. To keep up with market demand, while reducing their impact on the environment, cruise ships will need to improve their energy efficiency. Most previous research in marine technology relates to energy efficiency focused on propulsion, which for most ship types constitutes the largest energy demand. On cruise ships, however, auxiliary heat and electric power also have a significant importance. For this reason, we focus in this paper on the heat demand and its integration with available sources of waste heat on board. In this study, the principles of process integration are applied to the energy system of a cruise ship operating in the Baltic Sea. The heat sources (waste heat from the main and auxiliary engines in form of exhaust gas, cylinder cooling, charge air cooling, and lubricating oil cooling) and sinks (HVAC, hot water, fuel heating) are evaluated based on one year of operational data and used to generate four operating conditions that best represent ship operations. Applying the pinch analysis to the system revealed that the theoretical potential for heat integration on board could potentially allow the reduction of the external heat demand by between 35% and 85% depending on the investigated case. A technoeconomic optimisation allowed the identification of the most economically viable heat exchanger network designs: two in the “retrofit” scenario and one in the “design” scenario, with a reduction of 13-33%, 15-27% and 46-56% of the external heat demand, respectively. Given the high amount of heat being available after the process integration, we also analysed the potential for the installation of a steam turbine for the recovery of the energy available in the exhaust gas, which resulted in up to 900 kW of power being available for on board electric power demand.

  • 7.
    Baldi, Fransceco
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Melino, Francesco
    Universitá di Bologna, Italy.
    Gabrielii, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Optimal load allocation of complex ship power plants2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 124, p. 344-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world with increased pressure on reducing fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, thecruise industry is growing in size and impact. In this context, further effort is required for improvingthe energy efficiency of cruise ship energy systems.In this paper, we propose a generic method for modelling the power plant of an isolated system withmechanical, electric and thermal power demands and for the optimal load allocation of the different componentsthat are able to fulfil the demand.The optimisation problem is presented in the form of a mixed integer linear programming (MINLP)problem, where the number of engines and/or boilers running is represented by the integer variables,while their respective load is represented by the non-integer variables. The individual components aremodelled using a combination of first-principle models and polynomial regressions, thus making thesystem nonlinear.The proposed method is applied to the load-allocation problem of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea,and used to compare the existing power plant with a hybrid propulsion plant. The results show thebenefits brought by using the proposing method, which allow estimating the performance of the hybridsystem (for which the load allocation is a non-trivial problem) while also including the contribution ofthe heat demand. This allows showing that, based on a reference round voyage, up to 3% savings couldbe achieved by installing the proposed system, compared to the existing one, and that a NPV of11 kUSD could be achieved already 5 years after the installation of the system.

  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Andersen, Kristian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hur dokumenteras blackout ombord på fartyg?: En studie av haverirapporter där blackout var en del av händelseförloppet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On board vessels it is not desirable to have a power failure, a so-called blackout. The thesis

    has investigated to what extent it is feasible to perform comparative and preventive studies

    with the accident reports from European flag states as a basis. This in order to investigate

    recurring shortcomings, of the vessels or in the work on board that has caused the blackout. In

    addition the possibility to categorize the cases was investigated. The categories were technical

    errors, operational errors and organization errors. Roughly half of the cases show that a single

    category of fault could not be identified due to a combination of faults leading to the blackout.

    However there are recurring cases with almost identical scenarios. For example unsatisfactory

    insulation caused fires due to leaking fuel hitting the hot surfaces.

    The survey shows that there is a lack of symmetry regarding the language used, structure,

    scope and form of publication. It also showed faults in the search engines of the databases.

  • 9.
    Björkman, Robin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rehnberg, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    CV och personligt brev för nyutexaminerade fartygsbefäl i den svenska sjöfartsbranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the competition for employment toughens amongst deck officers high effort is required in order to stand out from the crowd regarding job applications. The purpose of this study has been to investigate what content the Swedish shipping industry values most in CVs and cover letters. This was achieved by interviewing nine recruiters from different shipping companies and management agencies that recruit Swedish junior officers. A literature search regarding previous studies concerning recruitment provided a wider understanding of the subject and its relevance for maritime science graduates. The literature search also revealed a knowledge gap regarding recruiters in the Swedish shipping industry preferences about CVs and cover letters. The results of the study show some patterns and tendencies amongst the respondents, common to all of which is a preference of short and concise CVs and cover letters with content that is relevant for the applied position. The results also show that a job application is interpreted subjectively and therefore to some extent must be tailored to each individual employment opportunity.

  • 10.
    Bävermalm, Joakim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Antifoulingfärger: Beväxning och ytråhetens inverkan på fartygsekonomin2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med anledning av dagens höga bunkerpriser är det relevant att undersöka vad man kan göra för att minska bunkerförbrukningen ombord. En viktig del vad gäller bunkerbesparingar är att hålla skrovets kondition i gott skick. Här har ett klokt val av antifoulingfärg en stor betydelse, med en bra antifoulingfärg minskar beväxningen av organismer på skrovet. Detta i sin tur leder till ett minskat motstånd, vilket gynnar fartygsekonomin.

    På marknaden finns flertalet antifoulingfärger tillgängliga, men vilken effekt på ytråheten har respektive färg, och hur påverkar ytråhet i form av beväxning fartyget ekonomiskt? Utöver de rent ekonomiska aspekterna ville jag ta reda på om det finns något miljövänligare alternativ, samt hur det står sig gentemot de biocidbaserade antifoulingfärgerna.

    För att svara på detta har en mängd data studerats från bland annat produktdatablad, fartygskonstruktionsböcker, tidsjournaler och hemsidor. Jag konstaterade att det finns mycket pengar att spara på rätt val av antifouling. Något som förvånade mig var att färgtillverkarens miljövänligaste alternativ också var den effektivaste antifoulingen.

  • 11.
    Carlson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ljung, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Efter sjökaptensexamen: 2010-talets sjöbefäl i arbetslivet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on study of the employment market for graduates from the Master Mariner degree that graduated in 2010, 2013 and 2016. It is a comparison between the three years of graduation within two Swedish universities that offer the Master Mariner programme. Data collection with combined quantitative and qualitative techniques within a mixed-mode study. Results show a majority occupied within the maritime sector, although vessel-based employment has decreased compared to past studies and redundancy is an emerging element. The percentage occupied within the vessel-based sector is higher in Kalmar Maritime Academy, Linnaeus University, compared to Chalmers University, the results from which show a higher concentration in shore-based occupation. The conclusion of this thesis is that the employment market for graduates from maritime institutions in Sweden is undergoing change. 

  • 12.
    Carlén, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandgathe, Ulrica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ackumulatorer som räddar liv: En livscykelkostnadsanalys om UPS som nödkraftkälla2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The SOLAS regulations for merchant vessels states that in the event of loss of power, a backup power supply will start automatically. This paper investigated the possibility to replace the widely-used generator driven by a fossil-fuel powered internal combustion engine, with a UPS. Focus of the investigation included regulations concerning the use of accumulators onboard, market product range fulfilling the legal requirements and price difference based on purchase price and maintenance costs for 25 years. The cost results where compared as a Life Cycle Cost calculation. Regulations by the Swedish transport agency and the Classification DNV-GL allow the use of emergency power from accumulators or generator.

     

    For the possibility to investigate through cost estimations, a theoretical model of a merchant vessel with Swedish flag, was set up. All companies contacted were Swedish manufacturer. The results in the LCC show the situation of today and lets us know that the most cost efficient investment is the conventional emergency generator.

  • 13.
    Dahlin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Gustavsson, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Brandskyddet i Göteborgs Hamn AB:s Energihamn: Ett projektarbete i fallstudieform för Göteborgs Hamn AB, som undersöker vilka förväntningar personal vid rederier och fartygsbefäl har på brandskyddet i Energihamnen, en hamnanläggning i Göteborgs Hamn AB.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is part of a major project that the Port of Gothenburg has embarked upon, and is produced as a result of a project directive. The purpose of that project is to renew its current fire protection in Energihamnen (the Energy Port) but also meet future requirements. The purpose of the present study is to examine what expectations shipping companies and ship´s officers, which regularly arrive to the Energy Port, have on the Port of Gothenburg’s fire prevention systems and fire emergency plans. Further investigated are the requirements that form the basis for the fire protection equipment onboard tankers that regularly arrive in the Energy Port. To obtain answers from the above mentioned purpose, interviews were conducted with three ship owners and five ship officers, and this was combined with a literature summary which consists of the regulatory framework that places specific requirements and recommendations for the fire prevention equipment that will be on board tankers. The interviews were conducted to include the shipping industry's expectations of the Port of Gothenburg’s emergency procedures during cargo operations. The result shows that the majority of respondents expected that the Port of Gothenburg should have firefighting equipment on their docks that can extinguish fires onboard the ship’s deck. They also expected that the port's emergency response plans should be well rehearsed and should also quickly come into force during an emergency.

  • 14.
    Grönvall, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rydmarker, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    En studie kring rapportering av near-misses.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Göransson, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Olsson, Madeleine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rekryteringsprocess av maskinbefäl: en kvantitativ studie om hur tjänsterna ombord tillsätts2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här arbetet var att kartlägga rekryteringsprocessen i svenska rederier och bemanningsbolag av maskinbefäl. För att ta reda på detta skickades det ut ett antal enkäter till personalrekryterarna i respektive rederi/bemanningsbolag. Studien är en kvantitativ undersökning för att få in ett så stort underlag som möjligt och därefter kunna få fram ett trovärdigt resultat. Resultatet blev att rekryteringsprocessen har påverkats av utflaggningen av fartygen och då framför allt för juniorbefälen. Det som personalrekryterarna ansåg som mest betydelsefullt vid nyrekrytering av maskinbefäl är rekommendationer från redan anställda i rederiet/bemanningsbolaget och fullständig sjöingenjörsexamen. Arbetsförmedlingens tjänster användes i mindre grad på grund av det dåliga urvalet och inte heller available position-sidan på rederiernas/bemanningsbolagens hemsida vid rekrytering av nya maskinbefäl.

  • 16.
    Hillberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Holmberg, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Metanol som marint bränsle: Alkohol som en lösning, inte ett problem2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the start of industrialization humans have affected the climate balance by burning fossil fuels. Exhaust gas emissions caused by the international shipping cannot be attributed to any particular nation because of its global and complex business. The International Maritime Organisation has therefore undertaken the responsibility to reduce the environmental impact of shipping. The introduction of new environmental goals has resulted in stricter global and national regulations that force the shipping industry to make significant adjustments in a short period of time. As a solution to meet future requirements for exhaust gas emissions several alternative fuels have been discussed. Operating vessels on methanol results in low exhaust gas emissions and is therefore considered to have the potential to become a sustainable fuel for the shipping industry. The aim of this study was to investigate what shipping companies, machine manufacturers and classification societies considers about methanol as an alternative fuel. Initially, a literature study was implemented which formed the basis of the interview questions. The result shows that methanol is considered to have great potential compared with other alternative fuels. Since methanol can be produced from excess energy and transportation can be done with existing infrastructure methanol is considered both environmentally friendly and economically viable. Nevertheless, the highly fluctuating methanol price can causes shipping companies to hesitate in the financing of developments that is necessary for the realization of methanol operation on board vessels.

  • 17.
    Hjälte, Robert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nordstrand, John
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    -BLB- M/S Calmare Nyckel: Ballast-, Läns- & Brandsystemet på M/S Calmare Nyckel2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is produced to document the existing installation regarding the ballast, bilge and fire system aboard the vessel M/S Calmare Nyckel. According to the specifications of the assignment a proposal regarding improvements will also be presented. The suggestions are mainly based on data from a supplier of valve components and the demands put up by the classification society. The improvements are considered with reduced risk and increased safety in mind. The main differences in the new proposals are the separation of the bilge system from the other two systems, that the most vital functions can be remote-controlled by pneumatics and that all components are marked according to industry standard.

  • 18.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rydholm, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ecodriving - hot eller möjlighet: En kvalitativ studie om intresset för ecodriving till sjöss2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are economical, safetylike and environmental benefits of applying eco-driving. Previous research has shown that cars, trains and aviation have made significant savings economically and environmentaly speaking, but how does that transcend into the maritime business? With this question as a background, the aim with this thesis is to examine the interest of ecodriving among Swedish shipowners and authorities. The data in this thesis is derived from qualitative interviews with employees in executive land-based positions. The result shows that several of the shipowners and authorities are in the starting pits or are already conducting one or more eco-driving methods in their operations. The result also shows that there is a variety of prerequisites and perceptions of what eco-driving is and what is could become in the future among the respondents. When questions about automatization in relation to eco-driving are brought up, the result is ambiguous.

  • 19.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Moldanová, Jana
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    God innemiljö på svenska fartyg: Kartläggning av innemiljön och förslag på förbättringsåtgärder2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljön ombord på fartyg är viktig för besättningens välbefinnande hälsa ocharbetseffektivitet. Inomhusluftens kvalitet och termisk komfort är viktiga delar avinnemiljön som inte har studerats så mycket på fartyg. Vid långa resor som vararveckor eller månader och kan passera flera klimatzoner finns inget sätt att byta miljöoch ingen utväg från fartyget, och då blir god innemiljön extra viktig eftersom denutgör både arbetsmiljö och boendemiljö (innemiljö). Syftet med denna studie var attkartlägga hur innemiljön på svenska fartyg ser ut, föreslå en enkel övervakningsmetodikför innemiljö samt föreslå förbättringsåtgärder där det behövs.Inom projektet har mätningar gjorts på nio fartyg under elva mätomgångar; ettfartyg undersöktes både vinter och sommar och ett annat fartyg före och efter byte avbränsle. Temperatur och relativ luftfuktighet som beskriver inneklimat, halterna avgasformiga luftföroreningarna koldioxid, kväveoxider, svaveldioxid, flyktiga organiskaämnen, polycykliska aromatiska kolväten, formaldehyd och partiklar (PM10, PM2.5 ochnanopartiklar) mättes i både maskinutrymmen och innemiljöer med diffusiva (passiva)provtagare och direktvisande instrument.Innemiljö och luftkvalitet på de undersökta fartygen var överlag god. Halter avluftföroreningar var under och mycket under både de hygieniska gränsvärdena förarbetsmiljö och rekommenderade riktvärden för god innemiljö. Även om det inteförekom hälsofarliga halter av luftföroreningarna, förekom stora skillnaderna i halterbåde inom och mellan fartyg. Principalkomponentanalys utpekade typ av bränsle somfrämsta indikator för luftkvalitet i maskinutrymmen samt bränslet och fartygensframdrivningssätt för andra innemiljöer på fartyget. Inom projektet har ”Indoor AirPollution Index” för fartyg utvecklats och använts för att rangordna fartygen medavseende på kvalitet av innemiljö.För att ytterligare höja kvaliteten på fartygens innemiljö, arbets- och boendemiljöhar följande förslag på tekniska och organisatoriska åtgärder för befintliga fartyg ochvid nybyggnation identifierats. För befintliga fartyg gäller framförallt kontroll ochunderhåll av ventilationssystem, ordning och reda särskilt i maskinutrymmen samt vidbehov användning av lämplig skyddsutrustning. Vid planering och design av nya fartygbör främst fartygets framdrivningssätt med tillhörande bränsle beaktas, eftersomanvändning av bränslen med bättre kvalitet än tjockolja också innebär förbättringar försåväl luftkvalitet som arbetsmiljö. Andra viktiga aspekter för upprätthållande av godinnemiljö är ventilationsanordning där man effektivt separerar avluftningar frånmaskinutrymmen från friskluftsintag till andra inneutrymmen samt utformning avarbetsplatser och innemiljöer med särskilt tonvikt på ett separat rengöringsrum imaskinutrymmen.

  • 20.
    Lindberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Johansson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Joélius, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    LNG - Framtidens fartygsbränsle: Vad är det som hämmar utvecklingen av LNG-drift i Sverige?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping today faces stricter environmental requirements for pollution from vessels. Shipping companies have started to look for alternative fuel to achieve better environmental outcome. The Baltic Sea today is a major trading area for shipping . On 1 of January 2015 a new set of brand new and stricter regulation is getting implemented and these regulations are called SECA. Vessel running on LNG as an alternative fuel is today discussed extensively within the Swedish Maritime forum where emissions of NOx, sulfur and particles are less recipients than in heavy fuel oil (HFO). One of todays problems with a LNG distribution in Sweden are that the infrastructure is incomplete and outdated. This report has been built upon qualitative interviews with important actors within the Swedish maritime forum and also what impedes the development of the LNG’s infrastructure. The outcome of the interviews showed that the development has been slowed down because none within the Swedish martime forum have dared to take the first step. The ports does not want to develop terminals when there is no market demand and the shipping companies does not want to build vessel that runs on LNG when there is no market for distribution. Swedish governments involvement has been very weak, almost non-existing. There are also gaps in the Swedish regulations and restrictions of LNG cargo handling. This is aslo one of the factors that the development of LNG has been impeded. 

  • 21.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Quasi-steady state simulation of an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery in a passenger vessel2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, no Special Issue Part 2, p. 1324-1335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present the quasi-steady state simulation of a regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC)integrated in a passenger vessel, over a standard round trip. The study case is the M/S Birka Stockholmcruise ship, which covers a daily route between Stockholm (Sweden) and Mariehamn (Finland).Experimental data of the exhaust gas temperatures, engine loads, and electricity demand on board werelogged over a period of four weeks. These data where used as inputs for a simulation model of an ORC forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gases. A quasi-steady state simulation was carried out on an offdesignmodel, based on optimized design conditions, to estimate the average net power production ofthe ship over a round trip. The maximum net power production of the ORC during the round trip wasestimated to supply approximately 22% of the total power demand on board. The results showed apotential for ORC as a solution for the maritime transport sector to accomplish the new and morerestrictive regulations on emissions, and to reduce the total fuel consumption.

  • 22.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Study of the on-route operation of a waste heat recoverysystem in a passenger vessel2015In: Clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future / [ed] Yan, J; Shamim, T; Chou, SK; Li, H, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 75, p. 1646-1653Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste heat recovery systems for power generation are gaining interest among the marine transport sector as asolution to accomplish the upcoming more restrictive regulations on emissions and to reduce the total fuelconsumption. In this paper we evaluate how a waste heat recovery system based on a regenerative organic Rankinecycle (rORC) could improve the performance of a passenger vessel. The case study is based on the M/S BirkaStockholm cruise ship, which covers a daily route between Stockholm (Sweden) and Mariehamn (Finland).Experimental data on exhaust gas temperatures, fuel consumption and electricity demand on board were logged for aperiod of four weeks. Based on the optimal fluid and configuration obtained in a previous work, an off-design modelof a rORC working with benzene was used to estimate the power production at the different load conditions during aport-to-port trip of the vessel. The power generation curve of the rORC over time was compared to that of theelectricity demand of the ship. Results showed that the rORC could provide up to 16% of the total power demand.However, this value should be corrected if the auxiliary engines load is reduced as a consequence of the partialcoverage of the electricity demand by the ORC.

  • 23.
    Mårelius, Nicklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    RTK-teknikens användningsområden2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether RTK - technology (Real Time Kinematic) in the future may be used for piloting in Sweden, on board vessels with limited depth of water under the keel. The squat effect cured vessels when they passing over an area of shallow waters in a fairway or a channel. To reduce the squat effect it can be done to increase the speed or change the trim of the vessel. The study has been designed along a qualitative method, which is about one chooses to process and analyze their information by verbal analysis methods. This has been carried out by interviewing a number of selected pilots that are both familiar and less familiar with the technology. In this way, highlighted various aspects of the technology and whether there are other areas that pilots can use this equipment in their daily work. In the implementation of the essay was elected a systematic literature. It was conducted a global search to obtain information about where the accident occurred of the squat effect and which countries that have been tested this technology onboard. The result of the RTK-technology is that pilots and ship's officers have the opportunity to find out how the vessel is moving and when it is exposed of the squat effect. The RTK-technology are able to provide information how the vessel move with an accuracy of 3-4 centimeters at every stage and get a more exact speed even in sideways. It is also possible to obtain a three-dimensional image of the vessel. The results confirm that there is a need and an interest for further testing with the RTK-technology. The results also showed that the technology is useful for the pilots and how it can useful for them in their daily work.

  • 24.
    Neset, Nick
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lundgren, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kväveoxidreducering med avgasåterföring eller selektiv katalytisk reduktion: En jämförande fallstudie med fokus på ekonomi och emissioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study examines how two marine systems used for reduction of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases, EGR and SCR, performs in terms of emissions and economic impact.

    A commonly used two-stroke diesel engine was chosen to be, in theory, equipped with each system. By using a calculation program, CEAS, calculations based on different running conditions were possible and thereby obtain relevant data.

    With the given consumption of chemicals for each system and the consumption of fuel, costs were able to be calculated after price data was retrieved. With IMO’s tier III regulation as the limit, the inhibited amount of released NOX could be calculated. By using data of produced amounts of exhaust gases, with and without the systems, an estimate could be made on how the systems affect the ship emissions. Calculations were based on an approximation of a vessels lifespan, 20 years. Furthermore, the economic cost for each system was added with the purchase price of each system.

    Conclusions that could be drawn from the study were, amongst other things, that SCR was the system with the lowest operational cost. EGR does, besides being able to manage the Tier III-requirement, also manage to reduce some other environmental hazardous substances. The study implies that EGR is the better system when viewed in terms of emissions and SCR is the better system when viewed in terms of economy.

  • 25.
    Nord, Mihai
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Dyhr, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Risker med trackpilot: En riskanalys av Sjöfartshögskolans trackpilot i navigationssimulatorn2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ombord på dagens moderna fartyg finns det oftast en autopilot med trackpilot - funktion. Den behöver information från många olika sensorer för att kunna framföra fartyget utefter en förprogrammerad rutt. Om en av sensorerna inte ger rätt information kan det hända att trackpiloten gör en felbedömning av t.ex. kurs att styra. Ombord på fartyg med DP - system finns det färdiga FMEA - dokument för användaren där man kan läsa vilken åtgärd som kan behövas för att bibehålla DP - klassen. Någon sådan manual har vi inte stött på ombord på vanliga fartyg. Därför ville vi undersöka riskerna med trackpilot och om en FMEA - riskanalys skulle kunna vara användbart för ett trackpilot - system. Vi utförde en FMEA - riskanalys för trackpilot -systemet som finns i Sjöfartshögskolans simulator. De slutsatser som vi kan dra är att, det med hjälp av, en FMEA - riskanalys ger användaren en god inblick i hur olika fel påverkar trackpilot:en.

  • 26.
    Orlowitz, Esben
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Operational Modal Analysis for Dynamic Characterization of a Ro-Lo Ship2014In: Journal of Ship Research, ISSN 0022-4502, E-ISSN 1542-0604, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 216-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic characteristics of ship structures are becoming more important as the flexibility of modern ships increases, for example, to predict reliable design life. This requires an accurate dynamic model of the structure, which, because of complex vibration environment and complex boundary conditions, can only be validated by measurements. In the present paper the use of operational modal analysis (OMA) for dynamic characterization of a ship structure based on experimental data, from a full-scale measurement of a 210-m long Ro-Lo ship during sea trial, is presented. The measurements contain three different data sets obtained under different operating conditions of the ship: 10 knots cruising speed, 18 knots cruising speed, and at anchor. Natural frequencies, modal damping ratios, and mode shapes have been successfully estimated for the first 10 global modes. Damping ratios for the current ship were found within the range 0.9%‐1.9% and natural frequencies were found to range from 0.8 to 4.1 Hz for the first 10 global modes of the ship at design speed (18 knots). The three different operating conditions showed, in addition, a speed dependency of the natural frequencies and damping ratios. The natural frequencies were found to be lower for the 18-knots condition compared with the two other conditions, most significantly for the vertical bending modes. Also, for the vertical bending modes, the damping ratios increased by 28%‐288% when the speed increased from 10 to 18 knots. Other modes were not found to have the same strong speed dependency.

  • 27.
    Parada Quinteros, Roberto Carlos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Linneuniversitetet.
    Vajda, Robert Kristian Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Linneuniversitetet.
    Dimbarriär: En studie rörande vattenbaserat brandskydd2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study has been made to research the development in fire safety and fire fighting on seagoing vessels. In that the fire fighting team can be alleviated and assisted by a Water Mist Barriers help against the fire hazards.

    Fires are often caused by accidents or machine failures onboard vessels, in some of this cases there is enough time to act quickly and in other cases the crew is notified by the fire detecting system. In the scenarios where the fire has been given time to progress, or is caused to burn in a highly flammable substance, it becomes very difficult to gain control over the conflagration at any rapid pace. This decreases the time for the crew to assemble and prepare for a fire fighting action.

    It is for this kind of situations that a Water Mist Barrier can be used as a protection. Its purpose is to gain time for the crew to regroup and perform a decisive countermeasure. Quick advances towards the fire, hazard observation, placing of the Water Mist Barrier and then withdraw to regroup for new orders of action.

    Another fire hazardous scenario can transpire on a passenger cruise, where passengers need to be evacuated between hazardous areas that can be heated or filled with smoke. In such an occurrence the Water Mist Barriers water curtain would create a separation between the passenger and the hazard, which would block the radiation heat and create a path for the passengers to be evacuated by.

    The Water Mist Barrier should be a tool to ease the fire extinguishing work, its water curtain would provide with a shield and its main purpose is to improve the response time for a quick and planed fire hazard response on seagoing vessels.

  • 28.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Wallerstein, Fanny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    IMO:s barlastkonventions konsekvenser för sjöfarten inom Östersjön2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The task discussed the consequences within the ship’s operation (economical costs and technology) companies will be affected with when IMO’s Ballast Water Convention enters into force and ballast water has to be treated before entrance to the Baltic Sea. The purpose with the task was to find out which consequences companies will be forced with when IMO’s Ballast Water Convention enters into force. The result compares the difference between law and recommendation because HELCOM’s recommendations are based on IMO’s Ballast Water Convention’s laws. A qualitative method has been used, such as an open interview form, where four different companies were interviewed. The purpose with the interviews was to see if the companies followed HELCOM’s recommendations and which consequences it would lead to and would be necessary when the Ballast Water Convention enters into force. The results showed that the costs would be extensive when installation takes place and it will require technical arrangements. The task also shows that the purchase cost only makes a small part of the vessel’s investment and ballast water treatment systems are almost totally maintenance-free.

  • 29.
    Svedin, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Johansson, Rebecca
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kumlin, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lathund Kranar: Undervisningsmaterial för delkurs TRI2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is not adequate lesson basis for the course in maintenance technology, module TR I interms of lifting devices. This in combination with the accident reports which can be found inINSJÖ has led us to compile teaching materials in the form of images and text. To establish areal need exists, a qualitative study is conducted. Interviews with chief officers whopreviously studied at the 4-year Master Programme in Nautical Science in Kalmar under thecurrent curriculum was conducted by telephone. The results of these interviews showed that aneed existed and we could proceed with the compilation of teaching materials. The results ofthe examination and discussion with the teacher of the course gave an idea of which parts ofthe subject that would be delved into deeper in the crib. For the instructional materials weused mainly laws and regulations as evidence base. After consultation with the teacher wedecided that the crib will be complemented by a power point presentation which the teacherswill be able to use in the classroom.

  • 30.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Performance influencing factors in maritime operations2012In: Human Element in Container Shipping / [ed] Burkhard Lemper, Thomas Pawlik, Susanne Neumann, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, p. 87-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping industry is run by people and for people. Thus, the main element in shipping is the «human element» – the mariners at all levels. Since the human element aboard vessels – being in and coping with a very special environment – is the crucial point of every transport chain, it is important to take a closer look at maritime human resource management issues which are scarcely tackled in scientific literature. This book deals with topics such as the criminalization of seafarers, piracy as part of shipping companies’ risk management, corporate social responsibility and human error in shipping.

1 - 30 of 30
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