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  • 1.
    Abdulrazaq, Erol
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Henrik, Persson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Syresättning av avloppsvatten: En undersökning av luftningsmetoder på reningsverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay has been done at the request of Marinfloc AB. It consists of various measurements and experiments investigating the sewage water treatment on a number of different plants. The measurements were executed in the part of the plants called secondary treatment. The objective with secondary treatment is to let micro-organisms remove dissolved and suspended biological and organic matter. The factors which were investigated were which methods are used to oxygenate the sewage water, what level of oxygen saturation is obtained with each method and the power consumption required oxygenating the sewage water. An experiment was carried out on Marinflocs’ own sewage treatment plant with the objective to determine if there is any time difference in oxygenating pure water versus unprocessed sewage water. The conclusion reached was that the four land-based sewage treatment plants that were investigated oxygenate by the same principle. The oxygenation is done by aeration from the bottom in respective aeration tank. The level of oxygen saturation was between 1, 8 – 5, 9 mg oxygen per liter sewage water in all plants. Marinflocs’ current sewage treatment plant uses another principle to oxygenate and its oxygen saturation was measured to a level of 12 mg/l. The experiment on Marinflocs’ own sewage treatment plant concluded that there is a time difference in oxygenating pure water versus unprocessed sewage water. The pure water gets oxygenated faster. 

  • 2.
    Corso, Carlos Renato
    et al.
    University of Estadual Paulista, Brazil.
    Almeida, Erica Janaína Rodrigues
    Santos, Graziely Cristina
    Morão, Luana Galvão
    Fabris, Guilherme
    Mitter, Eduardo Kovalski
    Bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of Aspergillus oryzae2012In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1490-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Azo dyes are extensively used for coloring textiles, paper, food, leather, drinks, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and inks. The textile industry consumes the largest amount of azo dyes, and it is estimated that approximately 10–15% of dyes used for coloring textiles may be lost in waste streams. Almost all azo dyes are synthetic and resist biodegradation, however, they can readily be reduced by a number of chemical and biological reducing systems. Biological treatment has advantages over physical and chemical methods due to lower costs and minimal environmental effect. This research focuses on the utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to remove some types of azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The fungus, physically induced in its paramorphogenic form (called ‘pellets’), was used in the dye biosorption studies with both non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae, at different pH values. The goals were the removal of dyes by biosorption and the decrease of their toxicity. The dyes used were Direct Red 23 and Direct Violet 51. Their spectral stability (325–700 nm) was analyzed at different pH values (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best biosorptive pH value and the toxicity limit, (which is given by the lethal concentration (LC100), were then determined. Each dye showed the same spectrum at different pH values. The best biosorptive pH was 2.50, for both non- autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae of A. oryzae. The toxicity level of the dyes was determined using the Trimmed Spearman–Karber Method, with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The Direct Violet 51 (LC100 400 mg · mL−1) was found to be the most toxic dye, followed by the Direct Red 23 (LC100 900 mg · mL−1). The toxicity bioassays for each dye have shown that it is possible to decrease the toxicity level to zero by adding a small quantity of biomass from A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form. The autoclaved biomass had a higher biosorptive capacity for the dye than the non-autoclaved biomass. The results show that bioremediation occurs with A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form, and it can be used as a biosorptive substrate for treatment of industrial waste water containing azo dyes.

  • 3.
    Egilsson, Snorri Jökull
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Cornelia, Magnås
    Uppströmsarbete i Bergaindustriområde, Kalmar: Spårning av utsläppskällor av koppar, zink, silver ochkadmium via avloppsanalys i ett industriområde2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avloppsreningsverket Kalmar vatten AB arbetar med att minska halter av kadmium, silver, koppar och zink som kommer in till verket. Berga industriområde i Kalmar uppskattas som en möjlig källa för metallutsläpp. I det här projektet undersöks avloppsvattnet i delar av Berga för att se om det finns utsläpp av förhöjda metallkoncentrationer. Provtagning utfördes i utvalda avloppsbrunnar under två veckor. Proverna analyserade både internt inom Linnéuniversitetet med ICP-OES samt externt hos Eurofins med ICP-MS.  Undersökningen visade att tre av fyra provpunkter hade förhöjda koncentrationer av minst en metall. Detta kräver vidare arbete av reningsverket för att identifiera enstaka företag som släpper ut förhöjda halter av metallerna.

  • 4.
    Einarsson, Thorhallur
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Carlstedt, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Barlastvattenkonventionen: Hur svenska tankrederier har hanterat konventionens krav2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic invasive species have spread around the world in ships’ ballast water tanks with dire consequences. To regulate this spreading, the International Maritime Organization implemented the Ballast Water Management Convention which forces ships to, within a certain time frame, install approved ballast water treatment systems. The implimentation of the Convention has been complex and shipping companies have had to face challenges of choosing suitable treatment systems for their ships and trading areas. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives from Swedish tanker shipping companies to examine how the Convention has affected them. On what grounds different treatment techniques were chosen was also examined, as well as if installed treatment systems have met expectations. Results from the study show that companies have suffered economical impacts, have had difficulties handling the implementation of the Convention as well as difficulties finding reliable treatment systems. Furthermore, one respondent referred to a report submitted by Saudi Arabia where extensive ballast water sampling had been conducted on ships calling their ports. The report showed that a considerable amount of ships with approved ballast water treatment systems did not meet the required levels of organisms in the treated ballast water. The interviews confirm the report’s description of the treatment systems’ fundamental flaws.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Smith, Morten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Characterisation of grey wastewater2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Xenobiotic organic compounds in grey wastewater: a matter of concern?2001In: Frontiers in urban water management: deadlock or hope?: Proceedings to the Symposium Marseilles, France, 18-20 June 2001, Paris: Unesco, 2001, p. 84-91Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Biotreatment of actual textile wastewater in a continuous biofilter and the associated bacterial and fungal microflora.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile processes use many different chemicals, most of which ends up in wastewater. Coloring of clothes is a particularly troublesome process since both azo and anthraquinone dyes are recalcitrant to degradation, causing environmental concerns. Hence, there is a great need to investigate and develop safe and applicable systems to the water demanding industry, such as textile mills in developing countries.

    In the present study biodegradation of actual textile wastewater (containing azo and anthraquinone dyes) was evaluated in biofilters. Indigenous decolourants from rice husks were used in bioreactors and the degradation was analyzed with spectrophotometer and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to monitor metabolites, especially in the form of aromatic amines. Chemical characteristics of the water were and bacterial and fungal community composition was monitored by denaturing gradient gel glectrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA and ITS gene fragments.

    The indigenous microflora consistently performed over 90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. The molecular fingerprinting revealed the presence of bacteria such as Clostridium, Pseudomonadales, Xenophilus, Paenibacillus, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas, all known to carry genes for azoreductases.  Furthermore, results showed that fungi were present in the biofilter, and were predominant in the aerobic reactors.

    Collectively, these results indicate that the developed biofilter with rice husks support a mixed microbial community of both bacteria and fungi, with key features contributing to an efficient and reliable degradation performance of actual textile wastewater.

  • 8.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Lindh, Markus V.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Microbial biotreatment of actual textile wastewater in a continuous sequential rice husk biofilter and the microbial community involved2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0170562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments.

  • 9.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Sorption of PAHs to humic acid- and iron(III)carbonate particles by using passive dosing vials for investigating the transport of organic contamination in stormwater runoff2013In: Interdisciplinary Discourse on Current Environmental Challenges, Krakow: SETAC , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, the growing urbanisation a nd increasing anthropogenic activities in urban areas have turned urban stormwater runoff int o a surface water quality contamination problem. The concerns of urban stormwater runoff as a source of contamination in the receiving surface water (lakes, rivers or sea) have been raised by researchers throughout the world (e.g. Broman et. al., 1987, and Xanthopoulos et. al., 1990), and have in Europe gained increased interest in relation to the implementatio n of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC). Particles (often defined as >0.45 μm) has been foun d to facilitate transport of organic contaminants and metals in stormwater runoff system s, but little is known about the role of the colloidal fraction including nano-sized particl es (0.001-1 μm). Based on the large specific surface area of colloids and nanosized particles, t heir abundance, and knowledge about their facilitated transport of persistent organic polluti on in natural waters, they are likely to diminish the efficiency of engineered treatment sys tems unless appropriately accounted for. In this work organic and inorganic nanosized partic les were investigated for their ability to sorb polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) in an aqueous solution. These particles were used as indicators for stormwater particles which a re diverse in size and composition. For controlling the sorption onto the particles, passiv e doing vials were used (Birch et. al., 2010). Using passive dosing vials gives the possible to co ntrol freely dissolved analyte by equilibrium partitioning from a preloaded silicone membrane. It has been found that the presence of humic acid particles (80 nm) leads to an increasing amount of two PAHs (fluoranthene and phenanthrene) in the suspension. For iron(III)carbo nate particles (22 nm) sorption experiments are ongoing. Based on these results and a literature review, the importance of including particulate fractions for surface water q uality assessment in relation to the WFD will be discussed.

  • 10.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Removal of stormwater particulates by disc filter technology2013In: Presented at the 8th International Conference on Planning and Technologies for Sustainable Urban Water Management, Lyon, France, June 23-27, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend in the Danish society is toward disconnection of stormwater from the combined sewers and, where needed, local treatment using the best available technologies (BAT). The aim here was to assess a fast filtration technology for removal of particulate matter in stormwater with an emphasis on colloidal and nanosized particles. During the project period it rained 8.5 % of the time and the average daily rainfall was 2.9 mm/day. Based on three individual storm events it was found that 95 % of the particles were <10 µm. The nanosized particles (0.01-1.2 µm) were found to be anionic charged and in the size-range of 100 nm. The physical treatment of particle filtration at 10 µm was inadequate to remove the small particles identified in this project. Coagulation with a cationic coagulant and subsequently flocculation is suggested as process improvements technologies.

  • 11.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mørch-Madsen, Andreas
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nano- and microparticles and associated pollutants in stormwater runoff: effects of disc filtration with and without flocculant addition2014In: Specialist Conference. Advances in particle science and separation: from mm to nm scale and beyond: proceedings, IWA Publishing , 2014, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Danish municipalities work towards separating stormwater and sewage. But stormwater runoff may be heavily polluted and therefore it is needed to find Best Available Technologies (BAT) to source separate and treat stormwater before discharge into surface waters. The aim here was to determine the sizes of particles found in stormwater from roads and to evaluate the use of a cationic organic flocculant to increase the size of the particles and thereby increase the removal efficiency of a 10 μm disc filter. The samples were collected in connection with a project testing a pilot scale disc filter for treating stormwater runoff. The micro-sized particles were found to be mainly 2.1-19 μm in diameter and nano-sized particles were also observed (86-228 nm). Although the flocculant increased the observed volume of the micro-sized particles by 46%, the majority of the particles where still < 10 μm. Partial removal of particle-associate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was confirmed.

  • 12.
    Nygren, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Slättengren, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Analys och jämförelse av två pilotanläggningar med olika sammansättning av membran: Vid rening av processvatten från industri2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vattentillgången på Öland har under en lång tid varit mycket ansträngd och har kommit till en punkt då det inte längre är hållbart. För att nå en mer långsiktig lösning planerar Mörbylånga kommun med hjälp av Norconsult att bygga ett vattenreningsverk. Detta kommer att rena bräckt vatten ifrån Kalmarsund samt processvatten ifrån Guldfågeln AB, som tillsammans kommer att fungera som ett komplement till det redan befintliga sötvattnet.

    Två pilotanläggningar som renar processvatten ifrån en industri, genom ultrafilter kombinerat med omvänd osmos, har utvärderats. En metod för att sammanställa de kostsamma driftparametrarna elförbrukning, förbrukning av kemikalier samt underhållsarbete vid drift och membranens inköpskostnad genom en LCC har tagits fram. Denna metod ger en ungefärlig totalkostnad per kubikmeter av det renade vattnet. Även vattenkvaliteten på ingående råvatten, vattnet mellan membranen samt det utgående vattnet har analyserats. Detta för att undersöka att processerna fungerar som den ska, samt ge en indikation på vilka mineraler som kommer att behöva tillsättas i efterhand.

    Pilot B blir ca fem kronor dyrare per kubikmeter jämfört med Pilot A. De totala kostnaderna, 9.70 – 10.79 kr/m3 för Pilot A och 15.19 – 15.28 kr/m3 för Pilot B, kan jämföras med den nuvarande kostnaden för en kubikmeter vatten i Mörbylånga, 15 kr/m3, samt den kostnad kommunen betalade sommaren 2016 för att frakta vatten i tankbilar, 70 kr/m3.

  • 13.
    Rothén, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Utredning av kväveutsläpp i vatten från färgprocessen hos Vida paper2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet har utförts för pappers och massabruket Vida paper i Lessebo, där de under lång period har haft problem med höga halter av kväve i deras avloppsvatten.

    Vida paper tillverkar bland annat papper i olika färgskalor, och enligt spekulationer från företaget ska de varierande halterna av kväve bero på de olika färgerna som tillverkas, vilket är det som ska undersökas i arbetet. Det finns för närvarande 15 färger, från 6 olika leverantörer, som idag producerar ca 100 nyanser på pappersbruket.

    Kväveprover har tagits på 51 av de 100 nyanserna, av dem har 11 stycken avvikit med höga halter av kväve. Efter analyser av vad de 11 avvikande kväveproverna innehåller för färger har det visat sig att 8 stycken av dem innehåller färgen Levacell Echtgelb 2RF.

    Slutsatsen är att efter analyser från kväveprover och leverantörer konstateras att Levacell Echtgelb 2RF, färg nr. 5, är den färg som innehåller mest kväve. För att reducera kvävehalten hänvisas Vida paper att se över Levacell Echtgelb 2RF och överväga att hitta en annan liknande färg med mindre kvävehalt.

  • 14.
    Samuelsson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Denitrifikationsmöjligheter hos lakvattnet på Bredemads avfallsdeponi i Ljungby2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I examensarbetet har möjlig denitrifikationshastighet för lakvattnet på Bredemads avfallsdeponi i Ljungby undersökts. Denitrifikationshastigheten har tagits fram i satsvisa och kontinuerliga försök där Reppos 40T och Brenntaplus VP1 har jämförts som externa kolkällor. De satsvisa försöken har genomförts i temperaturerna 15 °C, 20 °C och 22,5 °C och de kontinuerliga försöken har genomförts med reningsmetoden ”Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor” (MBBR) med bärare som hade en skyddad yta på 500 m2/m3.

    Denitrifikationshastigheten i g/(dygn•m2) med Reppos 40T var 0,45 och med Brenntaplus VP1 1,05. I reaktorn med Reppos 40T var fyllnadsgraden 48 % och denitrifikationshastigheten 4,5 g/(h•m3). I reaktorn med Brenntaplus VP1 var fyllnadsgraden 41 % och denitrifikationshastigheten 9,1 g/(h•m3). 

  • 15.
    Sørud, Mai
    et al.
    Krüger Veolia Water Technologies, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Katrine
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Skau Damskier, Sophie
    Nordvand A/S, Denmark.
    Torpenholt Jørgensen, Alex
    Krüger Veolia Water Technologies, Denmark.
    Fjendbo Petersen, Mette
    Krüger Veolia Water Technologies, Denmark.
    Kofoed Rasmussen, Lone
    Gladsaxe kommune, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    DEMFIL - treatment of stormwater for recreational use2013In: Proceedings of the 13th Nordic Wastewater Conference, Malmö: Svenskt Vatten , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decoupling of stormwater (road runoff) in a residential area has been implemented in order to reduce flooding and to increase the hydraulic capacity of a lake with a high recreational value. The object here was to evaluate a disc filter technology in combination with a green polymer for flocculation for its feasibility of particle removal. Secondary, the particulate pollution in the separate road runoff should be assessed.The road runoff was found not to be highly contaminated with particle pollution, here measured as turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS). The particles were generally small (< 10 μm) and negatively charged. The disc filtration was hampered during the winter season and by the large fraction of small particles, but supplementing it with flocculation increased the removal efficiencies. The inlet particle concentrations (mg/L) affected the removal efficiencies, and events with inlet concentrations < 10 mg TSS/L or FNU had no statistically significant removal of the particle pollution whereas the events with the highest concentrations yielded among the highest removal efficiencies. The green polymer is as efficient as previously tested commercial coagulant/ flocculent and the disc technology is promising but need to be further tested with higher hydraulic loadings.

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