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  • 1.
    Aaby, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ekblom, Jakob
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Hur blev det med hälsan?: En kvalitativ studie om elevers syn på hälsa i ämnet Idrott och hälsa i årskurs nio.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilken uppfattning elever i årskurs nio har om hälsa. Ämnet Idrott och hälsa bedrivs på olika sätt och syftet med studien är även att få en klarare bild över hur eleverna upplever att de arbetar med hälsa i undervisningen. Genom intervjuer vill vi höra elevernas tankar och erfarenheter om hälsa och vad de skulle vilja lära sig mer om. Vi vill även veta vad de tycker är viktigt för att kunna påverka sin framtida hälsa.

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    Självständigt arbete 2IDÄ06
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    Bilaga 1
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    Bilaga 2
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    Bilaga 3
  • 2.
    Aakre, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskans uppfattningar av lärande till yrkesprofession: -en fenomenografisk studie.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Anestesisjuksköterskan arbetar i en komplex vårdmiljö med självständigt ansvar för patientens anestesi under operation och förväntas bedöma och hantera komplexa vårdsituationer. Lärande till yrkesprofession sker delvis under utbildningen till specialistsjuksköterska inom anestesi och delvis inom ramen för det yrkeskollektiv som anestesisjuksköterskan arbetar. För att uppnå kompetens som anestesisjuksköterska krävs vissa komponenter i lärandet till yrkesprofession.

    Syfte: Att beskriva anestesisjuksköterskors uppfattningar av lärandet till yrkesprofession.

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ design med fenomenografisk forskningsansats.  Anestesisjuksköterskor från en operationsavdelning i sydöstra Sverige har intervjuats kring temat lärande till yrkesprofession. Intervjumaterialet har analyserats enligt fenomenografisk metod.

    Resultat: Fyra beskrivningskategorier som handlade om lärande till yrkesprofession identifierades. Att lära sig utföra anestesisjukvård, att lära sig tänka och agera som anestesisjuksköterska, att lära sig bemöta patienter och att lära sig samarbeta.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar att för att lära sig vårda en patient i en anestesikontext krävs vissa komponenter. Det är viktigt att vara medveten om dessa komponenter när studenter eller nyanställda skall lära sig yrkesprofessionen. Genom klinisk träning och teoretisk förankring kan anestesisjuksköterskan lära sig vårda komplexa sjukdomstillstånd där patientens säkerhet och integritet bibehålls.

  • 3.
    Aalto, Mervi Anneli
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Vill kunder handla receptfria läkemedel i dagligvaruhandeln?: - En enkätundersökning2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I Sverige har det statliga apoteketsmonopolet ifrågasatts en längre tid och regeringen utreder nu möjligheten att konkurrensutsätta läkemedelsförsäljningen. Det har även föreslagits i den statliga utredningen (SOU 2008:4 del 2) att ett begränsat sortiment av OTC läkemedel (over the counter = receptfria läkemedel) ska få säljas i dagligvaruhandeln utan farmaceutiskt kompetenskrav. Vid korrekt användning och tillgång till rätt rådgivning kan OTC läkemedel vara till en stor hjälp för den enskilde individen vid egenvård och därigenom också bidra till avlastning på sjukvårdens resursers. Vid felanvändning av OTC läkemedel (över/underdosering, fel indikationsområde etc.), kan de istället få motsatt effekt. Syftet med denna enkätstudie var därför att utforska om konsumenter av OTC läkemedel i Sverige önskar få tillgång till dessa läkemedel i t ex livsmedelsbutiker, där de inte har tillgång till personlig farmaceutisk rådgivning, vidare var avsikten att undersöka hur de i dagligvaruhandeln önskade få läkemedelsinformation. I februari 2008 gjordes en enkätstudie i Västervik som inkluderade 48 deltagare varav 29 kvinnor och 19 män. Studien visade att 71 % av deltagarna hade en positiv inställning till att köpa OTC läkemedel i livsmedelsbutiker, 58 % skulle skaffa information genom läkemedelsförpackning och bipacksedel i kombination med att de tidigare använt läkemedlet. Önskan om tillgång till personlig rådgivning på inköpsstället var störst i åldern ≤ 35 år, där 38 % ansåg sig vilja det. Slutsats av studien är att majoriteten vill kunna handla OTC läkemedel i dagligvaruhandeln och information skulle de få främst från läkemedelsförpackning/bipacksedel i kombination med erfarenheter från tidigare användning.

    2008:F5

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  • 4.
    Abada, Mariam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Vilka problem finns det med förfalskade läkemedel?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Världsmarknaden för läkemedlen beräknades år 2011 till 900 miljarder US$ enligt IMS-health. Marknaden för illegala läkemedel uppskattas vara värd mellan 75-200 miljarder dollar. I Sverige uppskattas den illegala läkemedelsmarknaden till motsvarande ≤0,5 %. Straffet för insmuggling av läkemedel till Sverige är böter eller max 2 års fängelse. Tullverket räknar med att man endast hittar 10 % av det som smugglas in. I andra länder kan straffet variera mellan böter (ekonomisk brottslighet i Afrika) till dödsstraff i Kina.

    I Utvecklingsländerna uppskattas 10-30 % av alla läkemedel som säljs vara förfalskade, jmf 1 % I-länderna. l. Förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel har många allvarliga konsekvenser på människor som exempelvis, utebliven effekt, toxiska reaktioner, förgiftningar, som kan i värsta fall leda till döden. Ett annat alvarligt problem är resistensutveckling, ökad spridning av smittsamammasjukdomar som exempel, tuberkulos och/ eller HIV/AIDS.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att besvara frågan: Vilka problem ger den ökande förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel i samhället. Undersökningen fokuserar på livstidsläkemedel, dvs ett läkemedel en person måste ta resten av sitt liv för behandling av sin kroniska sjukdom.

    För att komma till rätta med de problem, som förfalskade läkemedel, skapar krävs ett mer utvecklat samarbete mellan olika läkemedelsmyndigheter, läkemedelsföretag, internationella polisorganisationer, tull m.fl. Arbetet med att utveckla förpackningar som är svåra att förfalska bör intensifieras. Straffsatser bör kanske ses över. Det är viktigt att öka medvetandet bland allmänheten om risker med att köpa läkemedel utanför apotek (t ex via nätet).

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  • 5.
    Abbas, Mirna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Finns det ett samband mellan behandling av akne med läkemedlet isotretinoin och uppkomst av psykiatriska symptom samt självmord?: En litteraturstudie2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Acne or pimples is an inflammatory skin reaction that occurs when the sebaceous glands or hair follicles become inflamed. This skin reaction is seen as a rash on or under the skin and mainly involves the face. Acne is most common in adolescence but can affect people of all ages. Acne is considered a contributing factor to social isolation, low self-esteem, depression, and suicidal thoughts.

    During the 1950s, a new acne drug containing the active substance isotretinoin was developed. The drug began to be used in the early 1980s and is today the most effective drug in treating severe acne. Isotretinoin is a vitamin A acid derivative (13-cis-retonic-acid) that belongs to the drug group retinoids. Isotretinoin is intended for the treatment of severe scarring acne, as well as where the treatment of acne with other drugs such as antibiotics or topical treatment has not given the desired result. Isotretinoin is an effective drug in treating severe acne, but unfortunately also a drug that can cause troublesome and severe side effects. As isotretinoin crosses the blood-brain barrier, studies have been performed on whether there is a link between treatment with isotretinoin and mental reactions. There is a high incidence of psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation in people suffering from acne. It is difficult to distinguish whether the mental symptoms are drug-related or not.

    The purpose of this literature review was to investigate whether there may be an association between the treatment of acne with the drug isotretinoin and the onset of psychiatric symptoms as well as suicide. To find relevant articles for this work, a search was performed in the PubMed database through Linnaeus University's library, which resulted in six relevant studies. Different self-assessment scales evaluated depression, anxiety, and quality of life in selected studies. The results of the studies are unequivocal, where none of the studies showed a connection between the occurrence of psychiatric symptoms and suicidal thoughts when treating acne with the drug isotretinoin. On the contrary, it indicated an improvement in psychiatric conditions reflected in acne reduction. However, there is insufficient evidence that these results can rule out the emergence of psychiatric symptoms and suicidal thoughts during treatment.

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    Ex-arbete 2022
  • 6.
    Abdal Hadi, Jehan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hur skiljer sig traditionella från nyare generationer antipsykotika åt vad gäller biverkningen viktökning?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antipsykotiska läkemedel är basen för behandling av schizofreni, en psykisk sjukdom som uppträder redan hos unga människor. Symtomen vid schizofreni brukar delas in i positiva symtom (hallucinationer, vanföreställningar, paranoida tankar), negativa symtom (koncentrationssvårigheter, nedsatt språk- och tankeförmåga, minskat intresse för omgivningen, och initiativlöshet), samt kognitiva symtom (minnesproblem, problem med uppmärksamhet och koncentration).

    Antipsykotiska läkemedel delas in i typiska (den äldre generationen) och atypiska (den nyare generationen) antipsykotika. För båda grupperna antipsykotiska läkemedel finns det risk för biverkningar. De vanligaste biverkningarna vid behandling med den äldre generationen antipsykotika är extrapyramidala biverkningar. En biverkning som förefaller mer specifik för de nya atypiska preparaten är viktökning, vilken även kan orsaka utveckling av många allvarliga sjukdomstillstånd.

    Syftet med detta arbete var att jämföra typiska och atypiska antipsykotiska läkemedel med avseende på utveckling av viktökning.

    För att få svar på min frågeställning har en litteraturstudie av fem vetenskapliga artiklar genomförts. De vetenskapliga artiklarna har hittats genom databassökningar i PubMed, medan övriga fakta har hämtats från andra källor.

    Resultatet av de vetenskapliga artiklarna visar att det finns skillnader mellan traditionella och nyare generationer antipsykotika vad gäller tendens att orsaka viktökning. Med några undantag, är flera antipsykotiska läkemedel, som tillhör den nyare generationen, associerade med högre risk för utveckling av viktökning jämfört med den äldre generationen antipsykotika. Viktökning orsakas mest av klozapin, följt av olanzapin och risperidon. Quetiapin orsakar, i likhet med haloperidol, mindre viktökning.

    På grund av detta faktum, forskar man numera kring orsakerna till denna skillnad för att förbättra biverkningsprofilen hos framtida antipsykotika.

    2008:F2

  • 7.
    Abdo, Jasmin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Tidig insulinbehandling för typ II diabetiker2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Diabetes mellitus är en av de vanligaste endokrina sjukdomarna och de vanligaste formerna är typ I och typ II. Idag har ca 350 000 personer i Sverige diabetes och av dessa har 85-90% diabetes typ II. Typ II diabetes börjar med insulinresistens och så småningom blir det avtagande funktion av β- cellerna vilket leder till nedsatt insulinkänslighet och främsta orsakerna till typ II diabetes är övervikt och fetma. Det finns olika behandlingsrekommendationer för att behandla typ II diabetiker för att minska att sena komplikationer uppstår. Främst genom livsstilsförändringar som kost och fysisk aktivitet, men då dessa inte räcker till kan perorala läkemedel komma i efterhand och om inte det heller ger tillräcklig effekt kan insulinbehandling sättas in. Ca 50 % av typ II diabetiker får insulin efter 10 års sjukdom.

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka om det finns en god implikation av att sätta in insulin tidigare än det som redan är rekommenderat.

    Denna litteraturstudie är baserad på artiklar hämtade från databasen PubMed. Sammanlagt har fem randomiserade kontrollerade studier granskats.

    Resultaten visar att en HbA1c-sänkning med ca 1,5 - 2,0 % kan erhållas samt också en bibehållen β- cellfunktion vid insättning av insulin. Insulinbehandlingen bör sättas in så snart HbA1c går över 7,5 % istället för att vänta en viss tid. Den kan sättas in hos behandlingsnaiva personer med framträdande symtom eftersom insulin fortfarande sänker HbA1c och det finns inget som tyder på att insulin inte kan sättas in tidigare än det som är rekommenderat.

    Slutsatsen som dras är att stödja intensiv behandling som gör att HbA1c hålls på en så låg nivå det är möjligt och när målvärden för HbA1c inte kan hållas kan insulin med fördel sättas in hos typ II diabetiker som behandlats med perorala antidiabetika.

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  • 8.
    Abdo, Shindar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Skillnaden mellan ögonen av phenol red thread och Schirmers test2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien var att se om det är någon skillnad mellan ögonen när man utför testen Phenol röd tråd (PRTT) och Schirmers test, och därefter se om det visar någon skillnad mellan de två tester när man diagnostiserar om torra ögon.

    Metod: 30 personer deltog i studien. Innan mätningar fyllde försökpersoner i informationsamtycke och enkäten Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). De undersöktes med PRTT först och därefter utfördes Schirmers test. PRTT utfördes på 20 sekunder, det börjades alltid med höger öga, torka upp nedre fornix med en bomullspinne och till sist mättes den fuktiga delen. Schirmers test utfördes på 5 minuter. Testet består av en pappersremsa som placeras över undre ögonlocket. Resultatet kan läsas av remsan direkt.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att det inte fanns någon skillnad mellan ögonen och ingen signifikant skillnad mellan olika metoder. Studien visar att det inte fanns samband mellan någon av de två tester och OSDI symtomenkät.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen av denna studie var att det inte fanns någon skillnad mellan höger respektiv vänster öga när metoder Schirmers test och phenol röd tråd test utfördes. För tydligare resultat av de två tester krävs större urvalsgrupp.

  • 9.
    Abdoulkader, Souha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Undersökning av en ny agitationsmetod för trombocytframställning: En jämförelse mellan Trombomixer 307 och trombocytvagga (Helmer)2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet transfusion is a treatment to prevent or stop bleeding. Platelets for transfusion (platelet-concentrate) are produced by separating the blood into erythrocyte-unit, plasma, leukocyte-unit, and interim platelet-unit (IPU). The IPUs are then placed on an agitation method. Platelet-concentrate is prepared by pooling 4–6 IPUs with platelet additive solution (PAS). The purpose of this study was to examine Trombomixer 307 as new agitation method for producing platelet-concentrate, and compare it with the current agitation method, the platelet-rocker. It is also investigated whether the implantation of the Trombomixer 307 can reduce the number of aggregated IPUs. The study was performed by placing 100 IPUs on the platelet-rocker and 100 IPUs on the Trombomixer 307. Additionally, 56 platelet-concentrates were prepared (28 from the Trombomixer 307 and 28 from the platelet-rocker), which then examined through quality control of the platelet yield index sum (PYI value), volume, leukocyte particle concentration (LPK) and platelet particle concentration (TPK). The results showed that 31 out of the 100 IPUs from Trombomixer and 47 of the 100 IPUs from the platelet-rocker were aggregated. IPUs from the Trombomixer had a significantly lower number of aggreged IPUs compared to IPUs from the platelet rocker (p = 0.029). The results also showed that platelet-concentrate from Trombomixer had lower LPK and TPK, while Platelet-concentrate from platelet-rocker showed better correlation between PYI sum and TPK. In conclusion, Trombomixer 307 fulfills requirements as an agitation method to produce platelet-concentrates and reduces the percentage of aggregated IPUs. However, platelet-rocker leads to better quality of platelet-concentrate.

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  • 10.
    Abdul Hadi, Roza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Avvikelser i receptlistan: En intervjustudie med patienter på apotek2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Medications are used to treat, cure, or relieve symptoms of diseases, but there is a risk with the use of medications. Drug-related-problems are known to increase morbidity and mortality. Incorrect medical list and discrepancies in these lists can lead to drug-related problems as side effects, hospitalization, non-compliance, drug interactions and overtreated or undertreated patients. Discrepancies can be for example: more prescriptions than necessary, outdated prescriptions, i.e., medicines that will not be used, prescriptions with incorrect dosing and missing prescriptions i.e., medicines used by patients that cannot be seen in the medication list.

    Purpose:  The aim of this study was to investigate discrepancies in the Swedish prescription list "My saved prescriptions at the pharmacy". The secondary aim was to investigate how common it is to use this prescription list or the dosage label on the medicine packaging to know which medicines to use and which dosage.

    Methods: The data collection was performed by four pharmacy students at seven pharmacies in Sweden over a period of three weeks during Jan-Feb. 2021 where the prescription list was investigated together with patients to identify any discrepancies. The study included patients who was over 18 years old, spoke Swedish, had three or more prescribed drugs, and agreed to participate. 

    Results A total of 215 patients were interviewed, where 61% had one or more discrepancies in their medication list. A total of 1717 prescriptions were analyzed, of which 10% were double prescriptions (n = 167), 8% outdated prescriptions (n = 141) and 3% prescriptions with the wrong dosage (n = 42). When analyzing the primary sources of information used by patients to know which medicine to use, the printout of the list "my saved prescriptions at the pharmacy” dominated (n = 72).  Most used information source to know drug dosage was the dosage label on the medicine packaging (n = 112).

    Conclusions: It is important to have an updated and correct information in the medication list, to prevent drug-related-problems caused by discrepancies. It becomes even more important when we see that the medication list "My saved prescriptions at the pharmacy" and dosage label (containing the same information in the medication list), are the most used primary sources by patients to know which drug to use and in what dosage. Finally, results show a relationship between the number of prescribed drugs and the number of discrepancies that occur, and therefore we see more discrepancies in elderly patients who are usually ill and are being treated for several diseases. 

    There are opportunities for further research to study e.g., which drug-related-problems are caused by discrepancies in the medication list as well as the degree of danger in these problems. 

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  • 11.
    Abdul Rahim, Ranya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kommunikationsproblem på svenska apotek: Förekomst och orsak2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The word communication originates from the Latin word communicare that means to do something in common. When human beings communicate with each other, we share thoughts, emotions, values and actions. The foundation in communication is found within the interpersonal communication, which is the act of communication between two persons. All types of communications include of verbal and nonverbal acts of communication.

    The verbal communication consists of words either in speech or writing, the nonverbal act implies gestures, frequency of the tone and facial expressions.

    Within the pharmaceutical profession, good communication between the pharmacist and the customer is important and can affect the customer’s health and quality of life in both direct as well as indirect ways. In recent years, the pharmacist's role in the pharmacy has drastically changed. Nowadays the care of the customer has gained more significance than before. To improve customer health and quality of life it is important that the pharmacist acts to promote a good relationship with the customer and the foundation for this relationship should be built on good terms of communication.

    The purpose of this study was to study how common it is with communication errors between pharmacist and customer, and to demonstrate probable underlying causes. Secondary questions were, how is the drug advice the pharmacist provides affected by communication errors?

    Collection of data for the study was done with structured observation charts, where the customer and pharmacist were strictly observed. A total of 316 meetings were observed and the data collected referred to prescriptions. In more than one-third of the observed meetings, there were communication errors between the pharmacist and the customer. Communication errors that arose concerned lack of eye contact, language barriers, choice of questions, background noise from colleagues and customers and discussions from generic exchanges. To reduce future communication errors, the pharmacist's actions should be strengthened, such as eye contact, clear follow-up questions and improved feedback.

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  • 12.
    Abdulhadi, Nadia M. Noor
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst ; Minist Hlth, Oman.
    Al-Shafaee, Mohammed Ali
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Oman.
    Wahlström, Rolf
    Karolinska Inst ; Uppsala University.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Doctors' and nurses' views on patient care for type 2 diabetes: an interview study in primary health care in Oman2013In: Primary Health Care Research and Development, ISSN 1463-4236, E-ISSN 1477-1128, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 258-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aimed at exploring the experiences of primary health-care providers of their encounters with patients with type 2 diabetes, and their preferences and suggestions for future improvement of diabetes care. Background: Barriers to good diabetes care could be related to problems from health-care providers' side, patients' side or the healthcare system of the country. Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes has become a huge challenge in Oman, where the prevalence has increased to high levels. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 health-care professionals, 19 doctors and seven nurses, who worked in primary health care in Oman. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Findings: Organizational barriers and barriers related to patients and healthcare providers were identified. These included workload and lack of teamwork approach. Poor patients' management adherence and influence of culture on their attitudes towards illness were identified. From the providers' side, language barriers, providers' frustration and aggressive attitudes towards the patients were reflected. Decreasing the workload, availability of competent teams with diabetes specialist nurses and continuity of care were suggested. Furthermore, changing professional behaviours towards a more patient-centred approach and need for health education to the patients, especially on self-management, were addressed. Appropriate training for health-care providers in communication skills with emphasis on self-care education and individualization of care according to each patient's needs are important for improvement of diabetes care in Oman.

  • 13.
    Abdulhusen, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Binokulärseende hos elitidrottare: En studie om djupseende, ackommodationsfacilitet och vergensfacilitet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på om elitidrottare som spelar en bollsport har bättre djupseende, bättre förmåga att kunna ändra fokus mellan olika avstånd och mer uthålliga ögonmuskler än personer som inte spelar någon bollsport alls.

    Metod: Mätningarna utfördes på femton innebandyspelare som spelar på elitnivå och femton personer som inte spelar någon bollsport. Medelåldern var 22 år i båda grupperna. Först fick varje försöksperson svara på en enkät, sedan mättes visus upp monokulärt och binokulärt på 3 m med en logMAR visustavla. Efter det mättes djupseendet med Randot stereotest på 40 cm och sedan mättes försökspersonens förmåga att kunna ändra fokus mellan olika avstånd. Detta gjordes på 40 cm med en flipper med styrkorna ±2,00D. Sista mätningen var att få ett mått på hur uthålliga försökspersonens ögonmuskler var, detta gjordes på 40 cm med en flipper av styrkorna 3Δ Bas In/ 12Δ Bas Ut.

    Resultat: Medelvärdet på djupseendet i respektive grupp visade ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan de båda grupperna (p=0,70). Det fanns en signifikant skillnad på medelvärdet mellan de båda grupperna när det gäller förmågan att kunna ändra fokus mellan olika avstånd (p=0,02). Medelvärdet på uthålligheten av ögonmusklerna visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan de båda grupperna (p=0,08).

    Slutsats: Studien visade att innebandyspelare på elitnivå har bättre förmåga att ändra fokus mellan olika avstånd. Studien visade även att innebandypelare på elitnivå inte har mer uthålliga ögonmuskler eller bättre djupseende än de som inte spelar någon bollsport alls.

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  • 14.
    Abdulkadir, Sazan Abass
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wettermark, Bjoern
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Potential Drug-Related Problems in Pediatric Patients-Describing the Use of a Clinical Decision Support System at Pharmacies in Sweden2023In: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical support system Electronic Expert Support (EES) is available at all pharmacies in Sweden to examine electronic prescriptions when dispensing to prevent drug-related problems (DRPs). DRPs are common, and result in patient suffering and substantial costs for society. The aim of this research was to study the use of EES for the pediatric population (ages 0-12 years), by describing what types of alerts are generated for potential DRPs, how they are handled, and how the use of EES has changed over time. Data on the number and categories of EES analyses, alerts, and resolved alerts were provided by the Swedish eHealth Agency. The study shows that the use of EES has increased. The most common type of alert for a potential DRP among pediatric patients was regarding high doses in children (30.3% of all alerts generated). The most common type of alert for a potential DRP that was resolved among pediatrics was therapy duplication (4.6% of the alerts were resolved). The most common reason for closing an alert was dialogue with patient for verification of the treatment (66.3% of all closed alerts). Knowledge of which type of alerts are the most common may contribute to increased prescriber awareness of important potential DRPs.

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  • 15.
    Abdulrahim, Mohammed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars erfarenheter av att vårda barn med medfött hjärtfel: En Litteraturstudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Föräldrar till barn med medfött hjärtfel hamnar ofta i en utmanande livssituation där de lever med stress, ovetskap om hur de ska vårda sitt barn och undrar om barnet kommer överleva. Samtidigt saknas en sammanställning som mer exakt visar vilka upplevelser föräldrarna har och hur sjuksköterskor ska kunna anpassa sin vård till föräldrarnas speciella livssituation.

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva föräldrars erfarenheter av att vårda barn med medfött hjärtfel.

    Metoden genomfördes genom en litteraturstudie som baserades på nio artiklar med kvalitativ ansats och analyserades genom tematisering.

    Resultatet presenteras genom temana plötslig chock och stress, omställningar i vardagslivet och behov av samvaro och kommunikation. Föräldrarna upplevde plötslig chock och stress efter diagnos, där de kände sig osäkra över barnets möjligheter att överleva. Föräldrarna upplevde omställningar i vardagslivet eftersom de fick en ny föräldraroll och behövde hitta nya rutiner för att besöka sjukhus och vårda barnet i hemmet. Föräldrarnas behov av samvaro och kommunikation förändrades, där de behövde hitta ömsesidig förståelse med sjukvårdspersonal och andra familjer i samma livssituation. 

    Slutsats(er): En slutsats blev att sjuksköterskor behöver förstå den chock och stress som föräldrarna kan uppleva. Genom att sjuksköterskor skapar rutiner för chock- och stresshantering direkt efter diagnos kan föräldrarnas känsla av trygghet och förståelse för sin nya livssituation öka.

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  • 16.
    Abdulsalam Muhammednouri, Hevi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kan Entresto ersätta ACE-hämmare vid hjärtsvikt och är den behandlingen optimal med avseende på farmakogenetiken?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around 200,000–250,000 people suffer from heart failure in Sweden. Heart failure is a condition of impaired heart pumping capacity. The condition results in reduced quality of life, high morbidity and mortality and there have been many attempts to find suitable drug targets to minimize these consequences. Neurohormonal compensatory mechanisms, such as renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, aim to restore blood pressure to normal levels again but in the long-term it also increases the stress on the heart. The hormone angiotensin II gets activated through this mechanism and is the reason behind the increased stress. Therefore, the hormone has been an important drug target for ACE inhibitors (ACEI) and AT1 blockers (ARB) to prevent antihypertensive effects. The enzyme neprilysin is another drug target whose inhibition is accomplished by using neprilysin inhibitors. Entresto® is a new medication that contains a neprilysin inhibitor and an ARB. The neprilysin inhibitory component, sacubitril, is activated by carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) but mutations in the gene encoding CES1 may cause a non-therapeutic effect. Additionally, patients with wild-type CES1 may risk unacceptable side effects such as rhabdomyolysis and Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study is to investigate whether replacement of ACE inhibitors with Entresto is optimal in heart failure with regard to pharmacogenetics.

    This study is organized as a literature study in which five scientific articles (I-V) were analyzed and selected from PubMed database and through Linnaeus University's search engine, OneSearch. The studies show that Entresto is superior to enalapril in reducing the risk for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. However, the effects of Entresto is dependent on a functioning CES1 gene because mutations like G143E cause a non-therapeutic effect. Enalapril has shown to be independent of such mutations.

    Theoretically, inhibition of neprilysin may cause accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), which associates with Alzheimer's disease. Study IV, with the purpose to investigate the effect of Entresto on Aβ isoforms, showed no significant change in Aβ concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. However, further studies with longer duration were suggested. On the other hand, study V shows that a combination of Entresto and statins increases the plasma concentration of statins. That in turn would increase the risk of a development of rhabdomyolysis. The conclusion is that it is not optimal to replace enalapril with Entresto in heart failure with regard to pharmacogenetics.

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  • 17.
    Abelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Petersen, Christina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Physical stress triggers in simulated emergency care situations2021In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To practise emergency care situations during the education can be stressful. The aim of this study is to identify factors that cause stress in simulated emergency care.

    Design

    A descriptive observational study.

    Methods

    Video recordings (N = 26) subjected to observation with written field notes in turn subjected to interpretive qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    To assess the patient's condition and decide what measures to take trigger stress reactions. If the students failed to connect the correct and relevant information in the conversation with the physician, the students showed signs of stress. Also, to calculate medication dosages stress the students.

  • 18.
    Abiib, Amina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Probiotika som behandling vid IBS2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with an unclear etiology and pathophysiology. IBS is a common disorder in the Western population and is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain/ discomfort, bloating, flatulence, diarrhea and/ or constipation. There is currently no cure for IBS, but the interest in probiotics as an option of treatment has recently increased. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, provide a health benefit on the host, and are believed to have a symptomatic effect in IBS. Probiotics have therefore been of interest for the treatment in IBS.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether probiotics have a therapeutic effect and if it could be used as a treatment for IBS.

    Method: Five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were reviewed that examined the therapeutic effect of different probiotics in the IBS-patients. Articles were obtained through searches in the medical database PubMed, during the month of February 2016.

    Results: Four of the five studies showed a significant improvement of symptoms especially in abdominal pain/ discomfort. The best results were seen in a study that investigated the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. Three of the five studies showed a significant improvement in quality of life (QOL) of the subjects in the study. One of the five studies which examined the effect of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, there was no significant difference between E.coli (probiotics) and placebo.

    Conclusion: There is reasonable evidence that treatment with certain probiotics might provide improvement in symptoms of abdominal pain/ discomfort, and increase patients quality of life based on the five studies. Further studies are required to determine the most effective probiotic, dose and duration of IBS-treatment.

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  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Daria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Miller, Sofi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    MRSA – EN FÖLJETONG UTAN SLUT: Effekter av olika åtgärder i smittskyddsarbete mot MRSA 2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Multiresistenta bakterier, däribland MRSA, är idag ett globalt samhällsproblem. Infektioner förorsakade av MRSA skapar ett onödigt lidande för patienter med utdragen vårdtid som i värsta fall kan resultera i ökad dödlighet. Enligt Smittskyddsinstitutet (2010) drabbades 1479 patienter förra året i Sverige. Med få verksamma antibiotika måste andra åtgärder tillämpas, så som basala hygienrutiner, screening, isoleringsvård och utökad städning av sjukhusmiljön. Det är dock viktigt att utvärdera åtgärdernas effekter för att kunna utföra smittskyddsarbete på bästa möjliga sätt.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka effekterna av olika åtgärder i smittskyddsarbetet mot MRSA.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med kvantitativ ansats baserad på tio vetenskapliga original artiklar. Analysen gjordes enligt Forsberg och Wengströms (2008) riktlinjer för meta-analys.

    Resultat: Studien visar att MRSA förekommer i kliniska miljöer samt förutom hos patienten även hos vårdpersonal. Förebyggande åtgärder som bland annat noggrann städning, basala hygienrutiner och screening hade varierande effekt och reducerade MRSA- förekomsten bäst i kombination. I vissa fall kunde brister i vårdpersonalens följsamhet (compliance) av hygienrutiner ses.

    Slutsats: För att reducera MRSA- förekomst och spridning är det viktigt att implementera de åtgärder som finns idag och som visat sig har effekt. För att genomföra detta krävs det att vårdpersonalens följsamhet blir bättre.

     

     

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  • 20.
    Abrahamsson Emelie, Salomonsson Elsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse och föreställningar av mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relarion kommer mer frekvent i kontakt med sjukvården än andra kvinnor. Flera kvinnor som söker vård för sina skador identifieras aldrig som offer för våld i nära relation. Detta beror på att flera sjuksköterskor saknar utbildning i att identifiera att våld förekommer. Det finns en osäkerhet hos sjuksköterskan i mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor som gör att mötet med vården av kvinnan påverkas.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa sjuksköterskans upplevelse och föreställningar av mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor inom hälso-och sjukvården.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie där sex kvalitativa artiklar och två kvantitativa artiklar har granskats, analyserats och kategoriserats.

    Resultat: Det fanns en tydlig emotionell påverkan hos sjuksköterskor under och efter mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor. En påverkan som ibland var så stor att det påverkade deras privatliv. Det visade sig även finnas ett stort utbildningsbehov att förbättra vården för våldsutsatta kvinnor och få sjuksköterskor att känna sig tryggare i rollen som vårdare för dessa kvinnor.

    Slutsats: Det visade sig finnas ett ökat utbildningsbehov för sjuksköterskor i hur de ska bemöta och vårda kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer. Det fanns även ett behov av att bearbeta de känslor sjuksköterskan upplevde i mötet med kvinnorna. 

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  • 21.
    Abrahamsson, Janna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmgren, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En strimma hopp i mörkret: En litteraturstudie om lidande och välbefinnande i samband med depression2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    En strimma hopp i mörkret
  • 22.
    Abrahamsson, M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Törnqvist, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sterner, Bertil
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöstrand, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Changes of visual function and visual ability in daily life following cataract surgery2009In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a prospective study of 56 patients aged 70 to 79 years undergoing cataract surgery, in order to determine the impact of surgery on subjective and objective measurements of visual ability. In 46 cases we could obtain all necessary data. Binocular visual acuity, near vision and contrast sensitivity improved due to surgery. Self-assessed ability to perform visually related tasks was examined in form of a questionnaire. The results show that there was no simple relationship between objective measurements and perceived visual ability. An impairment in preoperative visual acuity cannot be related to a specific loss of visual ability. In order to increase the quality of cataract surgery more subtly, subjective aspects of vision must be taken into consideration when operation is decided upon and in the evaluation of the results.

  • 23.
    Abrahim, Mehammedsrage
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    SELF-CARE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES: A Systematic Literature Review on Factors Contributing to Self-Care among Type 2Diabetes Mellitus Patients.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-care is a multi-dimensional concept and has different definitions. Amongthe definitions, Orem’s definition of self-care is more consistent. Orem (1995) argues that,self-care is a personal activity to take care and maintain of own self health and illness andprevention of disease related complications.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to investigate the factors that contribute to self-care behavioramong patients with Type 2 DM as argued in the literature.

    Method: data was collected from the following electronic databases: CINAHL, PubMed,LibHub, SweMed and Google Scholar-to find full texts. Data was analyzed through CriticalAppraisal Skill Programme. To ensure validity and reliability the author were blinded toreduce study bias and articles were selected according their quality.

    Result: 31 relevant studies were included in the review, among the major findings of the studywere; Age, Social support/network, high income level, high educational attainment and longType 2 DM diagnosis history had a positive predictor in Type 2 DM patients self-carecontributing factors.

    Conclusion: To improve a Type 2 DM patients self-care activities the present study concludedthat Demographic, Socio-Economic and Social support factors are among the positivecontributors in patients of Type 2 DM successful Self-Care activities.

    Key words; Blood glucose self-monitoring, self-administration, Self-care, self-medication,Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Master's Theses
  • 24.
    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz
    et al.
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Carcache, Peter J Blanco
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Matthew, Susan
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J
    Ohio State University, USA.
    New acyclic bis phenylpropanoid and neolignans, from Myristica fragrans Houtt., exhibiting PARP-1 and NF-κB inhibitory effects.2016In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 202, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bioassay-guided fractionation of the aril of Myristica fragrans (mace spice) yielded five phenolic compounds, one new acyclic bis phenylpropanoid (1) and four previously known phenolic compounds: compounds (1) (S) 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-(3-methoxy-5-(prop-1-yl) phenyl)-propan-1-ol, (2) benzenemethanol; α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propen-1-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-1-acetate, (3) odoratisol A, phenol, 4-[(2S,3S)-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-propenyl-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxy, (4) 1,3-benzodioxate-5-methanol,α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenoxy]ethyl]-acetate, (5) licarin C; benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl). An NMR tube Mosher ester reaction was used in an approach to characterize and determine the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new isolated chiral alcohol (1). The PARP-1 inhibitory activity was evaluated for compound (1) (IC50=3.04μM), compound (2) (IC50=0.001μM), compound (4) (IC50=22.07μM) and compound (5) (IC50=3.11μM). Furthermore, the isolated secondary metabolites were tested for NF-κB and K-Ras inhibitory activities. When tested in the p65 assay, compounds (2) and (4) displayed potent NF-κB inhibition (IC50=1.5 nM and 3.4nM, respectively).

  • 25.
    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz
    et al.
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Curley, Robert W
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Fatima, Nighat
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan;University of Hawaii at Hilo, USA.
    Ahmed, Safia
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan.
    Chang, Leng Chee
    University of Hawaii at Hilo, USA.
    De Blanco, Esperanza J Carcache
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Differential Effect of Wortmannolone Derivatives on MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.2017In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 1617-1623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The survival rate of women diagnosed with triple-negative breast-cancer (TNBC) remains low. Hence, this study aimed at the chemical and biological optimization of furanosteroid derivatives for the treatment of this type of malignancy using TNBC cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-synthetic analogs of wortmannolone (1-6) that negatively affected the aberrant pathways in tumor cells were evaluated in hormone-independent breast cancer cells using western blot and cell-cycle analysis.

    RESULTS: Wortmannolone derivatization generated NF-ĸB inhibitors as new lead structures for further development. Compound (3) was found to be the most significantly active lead.

    CONCLUSION: Structure-activity analysis in the present study showed that acetylation of the hydroxyl groups and substitution on C3 and C17 of wortmannolone enhanced biological activity. Alpha-substitution of the acetyl group in C3 on ring A (compound 3) resulted in ROS inducing effect; however, presence of an acetyl group in β-position of C3 displayed the highest NF-ĸB p65 inhibitory activity (0.60 μM).

  • 26.
    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Ohio State Univ, USA.
    Ezzone, Nathan
    Ohio State Univ, USA.
    Rakotondraibe, L. Harinantenaina
    Ohio State Univ, USA.
    De Blanco, Esperanza J. Carcache
    Ohio State Univ, USA.
    Activity in MCF-7 Estrogen-sensitive Breast Cancer Cells of Capsicodendrin from Cinnamosma fragrans2021In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 5935-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: Effect of capsicodendrin on the NF-KB pathway was studied in MCF-7 cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The transcription factor assay was used to screen for NF-KB activity. The effect on IKK beta, ICAM-1, and caspase-7 were studied using western blot. Caspase-1 was studied using Promega Caspase-Glo (R) assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. The potentiometric dye JC-1 was used to assess mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m) and the cell cycle was examined using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Results: NF-kappa B p65 inhibitory effect was IC50=8.6 mu M and cytotoxic activity was IC50=7.5 mu M. The upstream IKK and the downstream ICAM-1 were down-regulated. Sub G1-phase population increased to 81% after 12 h of treatment with capsicodendrin (10 mu M) and there was no loss of Delta psi M. Conclusion: Increased levels of intracellular ROS promoted activity of caspase-1 and induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. Capsicodendrin may be a future anticancer agent that prevents the progression of metastatic breast cancer.

  • 27.
    Adamik, Barbara
    et al.
    Wrocław Medical University, Poland.
    Bawiec, Marek
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology,Poland.
    Bezborodov, Viktor
    Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Biecek, Przemyslaw
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Bock, Wolfgang
    Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Bodych, Marcin
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Burgard, Jan Pablo
    Trier University, Germany.
    Krueger, Tyll
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Migalska, Agata
    MOCOS International research group, Poland.
    Mocos, I. R. G.
    MOCOS International research group, Poland.
    Ozanski, Thomasz
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Pabjan, Barbara
    University of Wroc law, Poland.
    Rosinska, Magdalena
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene, Poland.
    Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene, Poland.
    Sobczyk, Piotr
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Szczurek, Ewa
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Estimation of the Severeness Rate, Death Rate, Household Attack Rate and the Total Number of COVID-19 Cases Based on 16 115 Polish Surveillance Records2020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Estimating the actual number of COVID-19 infections is crucial for steering through the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. It is, however, notoriously difficult, as many cases have no or only mild symptoms. Surveillance data for in-household secondary infections offers unbiased samples for COVID-19 prevalence estimation.

    Methods: We analyse 16 115 Polish surveillance records to obtain key figures of the COVID-19 pandemic. We propose conservative upper and lower bound estimators for the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Further, we estimate age-dependent bounds on the severe case rate, death rate, and the in-household attack rate.

    Results: By maximum likelihood estimates, the total number of COVID-19 cases in Poland as of July 22nd, 2020, is at most around 13 times larger and at least 1.6 times larger than the recorded number. The lower bound on the severeness rate ranges between 0.2% for the 0–39 year-old to 5.7% for older than 80, while the upper bound is between 2.6% and 34.1%. The lower bound on the death rate is between 0.04% for the age group 40–59 to 1.34% for the oldest. Overall, the severeness and death rates grow exponentially with age. The in-household attack ratio is 8.18% for the youngest group and 16.88% for the oldest.

    Conclusions: The proposed approach derives highly relevant figures on the COVID-19 pandemic from routine surveillance data, under assumption that household members of detected infected are tested and all severe cases are diagnosed.

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  • 28.
    Adams, Marc A.
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Ding, Ding
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Sallis, James F.
    University of California, USA.
    Bowles, Heather R.
    National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Ainsworth, Barbara E.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bull, Fiona C.
    The University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Carr, Harriette
    Ministry of Health, New Zealand.
    Craig, Cora L.
    School of Public Health, Canada.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Fernando Gomez, Luis
    Hagstromer, Maria
    Klasson-Heggebo, Lena
    Inoue, Shigeru
    Lefevre, Johan
    Macfarlane, Duncan J.
    Matsudo, Sandra
    Matsudo, Victor
    McLean, Grant
    Murase, Norio
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Tomten, Heidi
    Volbekiene, Vida
    Bauman, Adrian
    Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes related to physical activity across 11 countries: a latent class analysis2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 10, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neighborhood environment studies of physical activity (PA) have been mainly single-country focused. The International Prevalence Study (IPS) presented a rare opportunity to examine neighborhood features across countries. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) detect international neighborhood typologies based on participants' response patterns to an environment survey and 2) to estimate associations between neighborhood environment patterns and PA. Methods: A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted on pooled IPS adults (N=11,541) aged 18 to 64 years old (mean=37.5 +/- 12.8 yrs; 55.6% women) from 11 countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U. S. This subset used the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES) that briefly assessed 7 attributes within 10-15 minutes walk of participants' residences, including residential density, access to shops/services, recreational facilities, public transit facilities, presence of sidewalks and bike paths, and personal safety. LCA derived meaningful subgroups from participants' response patterns to PANES items, and participants were assigned to neighborhood types. The validated short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) measured likelihood of meeting the 150 minutes/week PA guideline. To validate derived classes, meeting the guideline either by walking or total PA was regressed on neighborhood types using a weighted generalized linear regression model, adjusting for gender, age and country. Results: A 5-subgroup solution fitted the dataset and was interpretable. Neighborhood types were labeled, "Overall Activity Supportive (52% of sample)", "High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities (16%)", "Safe with Active Transport Facilities (12%)", "Transit and Shops Dense with Few Amenities (15%)", and "Safe but Activity Unsupportive (5%)". Country representation differed by type (e. g., U. S. disproportionally represented "Safe but Activity Unsupportive"). Compared to the Safe but Activity Unsupportive, two types showed greater odds of meeting PA guideline for walking outcome (High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities, OR=2.26 (95% CI 1.18-4.31); Overall Activity Supportive, OR=1.90 (95% CI 1.13-3.21). Significant but smaller odds ratios were also found for total PA. Conclusions: Meaningful neighborhood patterns generalized across countries and explained practical differences in PA. These observational results support WHO/UN recommendations for programs and policies targeted to improve features of the neighborhood environment for PA.

  • 29.
    Adel Ali, Sura
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kan manuell analys av Csv-EPK ersättas med automatiserad analys på Sysmex XN-1000?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of erythrocyte count in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-EPC) is used to exclude various intracranial hemorrhage, especially subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH means a bleeding between the pia mater and arachnoidea which occurs due to rupture of an aneurysm in the subarachnoid space. Manual counting of erythrocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid with Bürkers chamber and microscopy has been the gold standard for the past decades, but the manual method is time consuming and requires great experience. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if manual analysis of  CSF-EPC with counting chamber, and light microscopy can be replaced by automated analysis of CSF-EPC with Hematology Analyzer XN-1000 (Sysmex). Fortyeight cerebrospinal fluid samples with various concentrations of erythrocytes ware prepared by diluting known concentration of erythrocytes in cell-free CSF. Prepared CSF-samples with added erythrocytes were analyzed first on the XN-1000. Thereafter, manual counting of erythrocytes was performed using Bürkers counting chamber. A linear regression was established to describe the correlation between the automated analysis of the CSF-EPC and manual analysis of the CSF-EPC. Imprecision in the analysis of the CSF-EPC on the XN-1000 (Sysmex) was assessed by within-run imprecision. A very good correlation (r = 0.999) was found between the XN-1000 and manual counting. For results in the lower range, 100 - 5000 (106/L), correlation was also good (r = 0.997). The coefficient of variation was 19,8 % at CSF-EPC of 370 x 106/L and 3.1 % at CSF-EPC of 25 950 x 106/L. The sensitivity for analysis of CSF-EPC on XN-1000 was 370 x 106/L. The conclusion is that the analysis of Csv-EPC on XN-1000 can be used for clinical diagnostics of CSF- samples. However, it should be noted that XN-1000 has poor sensitivity for low CSF-EPC values < 370 x 106/L. To ensure high diagnostic quality even in CSF-samples with low erythrocyte counts are recommended a reference limit of < 500 x 106/L as a practical cut off for supplemental microscopic counting in routine healthcare laboratories.

     

     

     

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    Sura Adel Ali
  • 30.
    Adelsjö, Igor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Medication communication with older adults experiencing chronic illness and polypharmacy2023Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Populations in many high-income countries are ageing, with an ever-increasing proportion of the population aged 65 years or older. Despite increasingly better health in older people, susceptibility to chronic illness increase with age. As life expectancy increases, the length of time people can live with chronic illness increases correspondingly, mainly due to improved medication treatments. Decreased number of hospital beds per capita and length of stay in hospital has gained primary care an increasing role in the healthcare system, with higher demands on patients and their knowledge and abilities to manage medications and self-management.

    Aim: The overarching aim of this thesis was to explore how medication regimens are communicated in primary care consultations and in written discharge letters.

    Methods: In Study I, passive participant observations of primary care consultations were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using content analysis. Study II had a convergent mixed methods design. An assessment matrix, constructed based on previous research, was used to assess and quantify discharge letter content. The quantified discharge letter content, questionnaires and register data were used to calculate correlations between discharge letter content and readmission rate as well as self-rated quality of care transition. Finally, associations between discharge letter content and time to readmission were calculated both univariable and multivariable. In addition to discharge letter content, several other potential independent variables were included in the multivariable analysis.

    Results: Both studies show that physicians were prone to give information about medications and blood-samples or other examinations performed in advance to the consultation (Study I) or during the hospital admission (Study II). The physicians were, however, less prone to inform patients about self-management and lifestyle changes, symptoms to be aware of, and what to do in case they would appear. Communication was occasionally hindered by misunderstandings, e.g., when vague expressions or words with ambiguous meaning was used. Ambiguities e.g., arose due to dialectal disparity. Although physicians mainly communicated in plain language with patients, medication names imposed a significant problem for patients and in communication about medications. Discharge letter content was not associated to readmissions, the only significant predictor variables for time to readmission were previous admission the past 180 days and birth outside the Nordic countries. Discharge letters with more content were, on the other hand, correlated to worse self-estimated quality of care transition from hospital to home (Study II).

    Conclusions: Physicians informed patients about tests and examinations performed in the past time, and comprehensive information was provided about medications, both during consultations and in discharge letters. However, information about symptoms to be aware of and measures to take in case they would appear was scarce in consultations and discharge letters. In conversations where lifestyle changes were raised, the topic was quickly dropped without recommendations or offering support if the patient showed unconcern. Lifestyle changes in relation to chronic illness and medications were rarely discussed. Improved lifestyle as a means of reducing the need for medications was not discussed or informed about in discharge letters. Discharge letter content did not have any impact on readmissions.

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  • 31.
    Adelsjö, Igor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lehnbom, Elin C.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Hellström, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Flink, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The impact of discharge letter content on unplanned hospital readmissions within 30 and 90 days in patients with chronic illnessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To determine the impact of discharge letter content on unplanned hospital readmissions within 30 and 90 days, and to identify correlations between discharge letter content and quality of care transitions among patients with chronic illness.

    Design: A convergent mixed methods design.

    Methods: Discharge letters from 154 patients recruited to a randomised controlled trial were coded using an assessment matrix and deductive content analysis. The assessment matrix was based on a literature review performed to identify key elements in discharge letters that facilitate a safe care transition to home. The coded key elements were transformed into a quantitative variable of 'discharge letter score'. Bivariate correlations between discharge letter score and quality of care transition as well as unplanned readmissions within 30 and 90 days were calculated. Lastly, a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate associations between discharge letter score and time to readmission.

    Results: All discharge letters contained at least five of eleven key elements. In less than four percent, all eleven key elements were present. Neither discharge letter score nor single key elements correlated with 30-day or 90-day readmission rate. Discharge letter score was not associated with time to readmission when adjusted for a range of patient characteristics and self-rated quality of care transitions.

    Conclusion: Discharge letter score is not correlated with either 30-day or 90-day readmission rate or with time to readmission at 90 days, when patient characteristics are adjusted for.

    Implications for the profession and patient care: Written discharge summaries are not enough to facilitate safe care transitions and self-management after discharge. A person-centred approach, providing written and verbal information to patients, encouraging patient involvement soon after discharge, may be needed to avoid readmission.

  • 32.
    Adelsjö, Igor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lehnbom, Elin C.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Communication about medication management during patient–physician consultations in primary care: a participant observation study2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e062148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To explore communication about medication management during annual consultations in primary care. Design: passive participant observations of primary care consultations.

    Setting Two primary care centres in southern Sweden.

    Participants Consultations between 18 patients (over the age of 60 years) with chronic diseases and 10 general practitioners (GPs) were observed, audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using content analysis.

    Results Four categories emerged: communication barriers, striving for a shared understanding of medication management, evaluation of the current medication treatment and the plan ahead and behavioural changes in relation to medication management. Misunderstandings in communication, failure to report changes in the medication treatment and use of generic substitutes complicated mutual understanding and agreement on continued treatment. The need for behavioural changes to reduce the need for medication treatment was recognised but should be explored further.

    Conclusion Several pitfalls, including miscommunication and inaccurate medication lists, for safe medication management were identified. The purpose of annual consultations should be clarified, individual treatment plans could be used more actively during primary care consultations and efforts are needed to improve verbal communication and information continuity.No data are available.

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  • 33.
    Adetayo-odepidan, Mojeed
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Electronic Health Record Systems: A study of privacy in the region Kronoberg of Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study gives a brief description of paper-based record and the adoption of ICT, which brought the introduction of Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) in Sweden, the challenges facing EHR in the health care sector around the world and what immigrants and newcomers who just arrived in Sweden knows about the privacy,  rights and the policies that protect their privacy and data system, these could cause them not having enough confidence in electronic health record system, they could also be worried about their information been exposed or disclosed by their healthcare providers, this call for the confidentiality, security and privacy of EHR System. The aim of this study is to explore immigrants and newcomers as users of electronic health record system by setting interview questions and focus group to help the researcher to understand their knowledge of what they know about the privacy of EHRS and what they know about the policies health care providers follow to protect patient’s privacy and data. It is very important for them to know their rights and the rights that protect their privacy and data from been shared or disclosed.

     

    The study also talked about the existing implications facing EHRs, comparison of both systems was shown in table 1 of this study. The necessity for a proper protection of patient data was discussed and recommendation was made towards having a great and a working electronic health record system. 

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  • 34.
    Adevåg Guagliano, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelse av preoperativ oro: En litteraturstudie2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Bakgrund: Patienter som vårdas i samband med operation lider ofta av någon grad av preoperativ oro. Att uppleva oro beskrivs vara ett obehagligt och känslomässigt tillstånd som avger en negativ ansträngning och stress på kroppen. Oron påverkar patienterna både psykiskt och fysiskt. Det finns ett värde för operationssjuksköterskan att få en fördjupad förståelse för patientens upplevelse av preoperativ oro. Operationssjuksköterskan har en utmaning i sitt möte med patienten att skapa en säker vårdmiljö både gällande den tekniska säkerheten och den icke-tekniska för att förebygga vårdskador samtidigt som patienten behöver vårdas med värdighet. Syfte: Beskriva patienters upplevelse av preoperativ oro i samband med en operation. Metod: Studien är utförd som en strukturerad litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats enligt Bettany-Saltikov och McSherry (2016). Resultat: Studien resulterade i två teman med två kategorier till respektive tema under sig. Temat begränsad tillgång till livet efter operation har kategorierna negativa händelser i samband med operation och det förändrade livet efter operationen under sig. Temat maktlöshet inför det främmande har kategorierna att inte kunna påverka och att vara patient i en okänd miljö under sig. Slutsats: Patienternas upplevelse av oro visar sig olika beroende på deras individuella specifika livssituation. Deras oro har ofta kopplingar till erfarenheter som livet erbjudit. Sambandet mellan oro och relationerna till vårdpersonal i den preoperativa perioden visar vilken betydelse bemötandet har i relation till patienternas upplevelse. Operationssjuksköterskan, och övrig vårdpersonal, kan påverka patientens möjlighet till trygghet och minskning av lidande genom ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt i sina möten.

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  • 35.
    Adevåg Guagliano, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelse av delaktighet i vård i livets slut: En systematisk litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care is performed throughout the continuum of care, from home care to specialized care in an institution. Palliative care is buildt on a holistic approach that is secured through patient-centered care where the patient's participation is central.

    Objective: Highlighting adult patients' experiences of participation when they are cared for in late stage palliative care.

    Method: The study is a systematic literature review mainly based on the methodology described by Forsberg and Wengström (2013).

    Results: The theme opportunities and obstacles in the experience of their participation emerged, with four categories below: the management of their disease situation, overwhelming new living situations, be seen as an individual and not to be seen as an                                    individual. It was discovered that patients in the late stage palliative phase found opportunities to participate in their care by gathering knowledge about their disease and their future. This knowledge created understanding, giving them the tools to manage and participate in their care. An obstacle to patients’ participation appeared to be when the patients experienced neglect by health professionals.

    Conclusion: Adult patients' experiences of participation when they are cared for in late stage palliative care cannot be described as a single phenomenon, but needs to be described by an integrated approach of the patient. The unique patient forms a dynamic whole, and needs to be treated as the unique individual he/she is.

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  • 36.
    Adey, Emmy
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmberg, Moa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med sjukdomen endometrios: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Endometrios är en sjukdom som drabbar var tionde kvinna i fertil ålder, vilket gör sjukdomen till en av de vanligaste gynekologiska sjukdomarna som drabbar kvinnor världen över. Trots detta är forskningen kring sjukdomen bristfällig och begränsad, vilket föranleder fördröjd diagnostisering och bristande behandlingsmetoder. Detta utgör ett problem då endometrios är en sjukdom som i de flesta fall föranleder svåra symtom samt följdproblem som infertilitet och depression. Syfte: Att beskriva kvinnors upplevelse av att leva med sjukdomen endometrios. Metod: Kvalitativ litteraturöversikt med en induktiv ansats. Resultat: Studiens resultat mynnade ut i tre huvudteman; Livet i smärtans skugga, Striden för erkännande och gehör samt Min kvinnliga identitet är försvagad och åtta subteman; Smärtans fysiska avtryck, Smärtans psykiska avtryck, Smärtan styr kalendern, Kamp mellan smärta och plikt, Kamp för rätt diagnos, Kamp för förståelse från omgivningen, Hinder för reproduktiv hälsa och slutligen Förändrad självbild - att tappa sig själv. Alla dessa framkom efter en sammanställning av kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med sjukdomen endometrios. Slutsats: Hela kvinnornas liv påverkades negativt till följd av sjukdomen och dess följdproblem. För att detta ska kunna förändras krävs det utökad kunskap inom såväl hälso- och sjukvården som i samhället som ytterligare forskning.

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    Att leva med sjukdomen endometrios - en kvalitativ litteraturöversikt
  • 37.
    Adler, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Är det säkert att byta från originalläkemedlet för inflixmab, Remicade®, till CT-P13 och är CT-P13 ekvivalent med Remicade® med avseende på effekt, säkerhet, immunogenicitet och farmakokinetik?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biologic drugs are effective against numerous diseases but they are very expensive. The European Medicines Agency approved sales of biosimilars in 2006. Biosimilars are copies of already approved biologic drugs, but they are not considered to be exact copies like generic drugs are. Only living organisms can produce substances with the complexity of biologic drugs. Differences in pH, enviroment, and the purification process during the production of biologic drugs can affect the structure of the final product. Differences in the production processes can affect properties like the glycosylation pattern of the molecules which in turn can influence the effect of the drug. This is the reason biosimilars are not considered as exact copies of the original drug. The patent for Remicade® a TNF inhibitor expired in 2015 which led to the introduction of the first biosimilar for monoclonal antibodies (CT-P13) on the European market. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety profile, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics equivalence between CT-P13 and the original drug for infliximab, Remicade®. And to investigate if it was safe to switch from Remicade to CT-P13.

     

    The articles for the study were collected from PubMed, a medical and bioscientific database, and five studies were chosen for further analysis. The articles were not limited to a specific indication for infliximab, so the studies included patients with rhematoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The short-term equivalence between Remicade® and CT-P13 was analysed in the studies but more studies including long-term equivalence are needed. Based on the primary endpoints in the studies it seems to be safe to switch from Remicade® to CT-P13 and short-term equivalence seems to exist between CT-P13 and Remicade® considering the efficacy, safety profile, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics equivalence in patients with RA, AS and IBD.

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  • 38.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Operationssjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta patientsäkert intraoperativt för att skydda patienten mot vårdskador: En systematisk litteraturstudie2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Operationssjuksköterskor utför en mängd olika uppgifter för att resultatet av patientens operation eller behandling ska bli så bra som möjligt. Trots detta fortsätter patienterna att lida skada av vården och hela 10 procent av alla patienter som opereras beräknas vara drabbade. Den vanligaste vårdskadan är vårdrelaterade infektioner och inkluderar postoperativa sårinfektioner, som också är den vanligaste komplikationen efter ett kirurgiskt ingrepp. Sjukvårdsskador leder till stort lidande för patienten och höga kostnader för sjukvården och samhället.

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  • 39.
    Adolfsson, Isabelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Roth, Madusha
    Erfarenheter av att vårda palliativa patienter i hemsjukvården: – Sjuksköterskeperspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att vårda en döende människa är komplicerat och sjuksköterskan bör ha ett professionellt förhållningssätt samt ett holistiskt synsätt. Att vårda palliativa patienter kan vara både den svåraste och den mest privilegierade uppgiften som en sjuksköterska kan genomföra. Syfte: Att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda palliativa patienter i hemsjukvården. Metod: Litteraturstudie baserat på 11 vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ design. Artiklarna hämtades från databaserna Cinahl och PubMed. Resultat: Fem huvudkategorier; Vårdrelationen mellan sjuksköterska, patient och anhöriga, Teamarbete, Vårdmiljö, Emotionella utmaningar, Etiska utmaningar. Slutsats: För att en sjuksköterska ska utvecklas i sitt arbete är det viktigt att reflektera över de egna värderingarna och medvetandegöra dessa. Sjuksköterskan bör ge patienten och anhöriga stöd genom att samtala och vara närvarande. Resultaten visade att det var av stor betydelse att samarbetet från kollegor fungerade, då teamarbetet är en central del i det palliativa vårdandet. 

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  • 40.
    Adolfsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Neureuther, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Se mig för den jag är - Jag är också en människa: Hur självskadebeteende påverkar kvinnans livsvärld - en studie gjord på bloggar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakrund:I Sverige har självskadebeteende hos kvinnor i åldrarna 15-24 år ökat avsevärt sedan 90-talet fram till 2007. Självskadebeteende definieras med att medvetet skada sin egen kropp. Det kan upplevas som ångestlindrande men många har också i avsikt att ta sitt eget liv. Syfte: Syftet är att belysa unga kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med självskadebeteende. Metod: Studien har gjorts med en kvalitativ ansats med ett livsvärldsperspektiv och baseras på fem bloggar. Bloggarna analyserades med hjälp av Graneheim och Lundman innehållsanalys (2004). Resultat: Ur resultatet framkom fem kategorier som beskriver de unga kvinnornas känslor av att leva med ett självskadebeteende. De fem kategorierna är att uppleva ångest, trygghet, uppgivenhet och smärta, samt att i efterhand begrunda sin situation. Slutsats: Ur reslutatet framkom att de vanligaste förekommande känslorna i samband med självskadebeteende är ångest, smärta, ensamhet och uppgivenhet. Kvinnorna beskriver att de vill göra den psykiska smärtan fysisk. Självskadebeteende kan även ses som ett beroende. Som sjuksköterska är det viktigt att ta del av kvinnans livsvärld för att kunna möte henne på bästa sätt.

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    Se mig för den jag är- jag är också en människa
  • 41.
    Adolfsson, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strande, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att bli utsatt för våld av någon man älskar: Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relationer2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: 60% av världens kvinnor utsätts någon gång under sitt liv för könsbaserat våld. Den stora utbredningen av våld resulterar i att våldsutsatta kvinnor får ett minskat välbefinnande och påverkas negativt psykiskt, fysiskt och socialt. För att sjuksköterskan ska kunna förmedla god rådgivning och stöd i mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor är det sjuksköterskans ansvar att beakta dessa kvinnors upplevelser. 

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relationer.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som litteraturstudie med 7 kvalitativa respektive 1 kvantitativ vetenskaplig artikel från databaserna CINAHL och Psycinfo. Integrativ analys genomfördes utifrån artiklarnas resultat.

    Resultat: Resultatet presenteras i två huvudkategorier: Identifiera våld och Utbildning respektive fem underkategorier våldets innebörd, våga fråga, hindrande faktorer, brist på utbildning och behov av kunskap.

    Slutsats: Anledningen till att frågan om våldsutsatthet i nära relationer inte ställs av sjuksköterskan, beror till stor del på brist i utbildningen och att sjuksköterskan inte vet hur man ska gå tillväga med svaret. Faktorer som tidsbrist och att inte våga fråga om våldsutsatthet påverkade också identifieringen av våldsutsatta kvinnor. 

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  • 42.
    Adolfsson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Anthelmintika mot hästens inälvsparasiter: en studie av effekt, resistensförekomst och försäljning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 43. Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Roos, Harald
    Lunds universitet.
    Östenberg, Anna
    Lunds universitet.
    Speciella aspekter på damfotboll1998In: Fotbollsmedicin, Solna: Svenska fotbollförbundet , 1998, 1, p. 435-450Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Adolfsson, Sophie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wernholm, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mastektomins påverkan på kvinnors livskvalitet: En systematisk litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige drabbas ungefär 20 kvinnor av bröstcancer varje dag och nästan hälften har genomgått en mastektomi. En av sjuksköterskans uppgifter är att ge stöd för att förbättra kvinnans livskvalitet, då kvinnan ska uppleva ett gott liv med harmoni i sig själv och sin omgivning.Studien förankrades i Katie Erikssons lidandeteori.

     

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva hur en mastektomi till följd av bröstcancer kan påverka kvinnors livskvalitet.

     

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie med induktiv ansats har använts. Datainsamlingen resulterade i 17 artiklar som sedan kvalitetsgranskades. Totalt ingick 14 artiklar. En manifest innehållsanalys genomfördes.

     

    Resultat: Resultatet utgörs av fyra huvudkategorier: Operationens fysiska och psykiska konsekvenser, Förändrade relationer, Inverkan av det kosmetiska resultatet med tre tillhörande underkategorier samt Acceptansens betydelse. En mastektomi leder till både fysiska och psykiska påfrestningar som påverkar livskvaliteten. Förmågan att skapa relationer försämrades. Många kvinnor upplevde bröstförlusten som påfrestande genom att kroppsuppfattningen, kvinnligheten och sexualiteten påverkades negativt. Äldre kvinnor accepterade förlusten lättare.

     

    Slutsats: Kvinnor som genomgått en mastektomi upplevde sämre livskvalitet där förlorandet av bröstet spelar stor roll. De drabbas emotionellt och förlusten har betydelse för livskvaliteten. Resultatet kan ge en ökad förståelse för sjuksköterskor som i sin tur kan vara ett stöd för att lindra lidande.

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  • 45.
    Adolfsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Isomettä, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med symtomgivande endometrios: En systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING:

    Bakgrund: Endometrios är en sjukdom som drabbar 10% av livmoderbärande kvinnor över hela världen. Att lida av endometrios kan innebära symtom som kraftig bäckensmärta, kraftiga blödningar, dyspareuni och infertilitet.

    Syfte: Beskriva kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med symtomgivande endometrios.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie har använts. 10 artiklar valdes ut, kvalitetsgranskades och analyserades.

    Resultat: I resultatet framkom olika kategorier som beskriver kvinnornas olika erfarenheter av att leva med endometrios. Det handlade om erfarenheter av fysiska symtom, erfarenheter av möten i vården, emotionella erfarenheter och erfarenheter av sociala relationer.

    Slutsats: Studien visade att endometrios påverkade kvinnorna fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt. Kvinnornas liv påverkades av sjukdomen på många sätt och gjorde att de kände sig begränsade i vardagen. Den långa tiden för att få en diagnos fastställd orsakade vårdlidande. Kvinnorna möttes av misstro från vården där symtomen avfärdades som kvinnoproblem. Kvinnornas känslor växlade under sjukdomstiden, allt mellan hopp och förtvivlan inför framtiden.

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  • 46.
    Adolfsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Michaela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barnvaccinationer: BHV-sjuksköterskans kommunikation och information till föräldrar. 2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The childhood vaccination program is the most successful medical response to public health. Despite this, there have always been negative voices about vaccination. Information about childhood vaccinations is spread quickly and easily through media and information channels, such as Facebook and YouTube. This information is not always critically reviewed and suspected sideeffects may then be overestimated. Evidence shows that there is a variety of reasons why some parents have doubt about childhood vaccination. Child Health nurse's task is to meet all parents with respect and give correct information so the parents have a decision basis for vaccination.

    A lack of communication between the Child Health nurse and the parents can contribute to increased concern, which may lead to the parents choosing to abstain from vaccination.

    Aim: The aim was to describe Child Health nurse's experiences of communicating with parents before childhood vaccinations.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews with nine Child Health nurses. The study has been analyzed using a qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The result showed that all participants in the study felt that most parents had a positive attitude towards childhood vaccination. The study showed that the Child Health nurses felt that they provided a good and distinct information to the parents. At the same time, participants believed that the dissemination of information could be improved. It showed that there are differences in when Child Health nurses present information to the parents. The participants in the study felt safe in the meeting with parents and about communication of information prior to vaccination.

    Conclusion: The study showed that Child Health nurses felt secure about communication, both with information before vaccination and in meeting hesitent parents. Child Health nurses described that they had good and distinct information within the organization.

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  • 47.
    Adowan, Mohmad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Verifiering av metoden för PCT-analys på Alinity i-serie Abbot2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a precursor protein of the hormone calcitonin and is encoded by the gene Calcitonin-1. In the Blekinge Regional, P-PCT is only analyzed in Karlskrona. The analysis is performed in the department of clinical chemistry on the Alinity i-series instrument. PCT indicates bacterial infections and therefore, it is important to have a backup method for the analysis when the instrument in the city of Karlskrona is out of order. The aim of this work was to verify the analysis method of P-PCT on the instrument Alinity i-series in the city of Karlshamn. Analysis method verification means to confirm and prove that the method meets the specified requirements. Verification was performed by analyzing 35 samples with different concentration of PCT on the master instrument in Karlskrona and on “Alinity 1” and “Alinity 2” in Karlshamn. The method was compared by studying correlation coefficient and bias. The precision was measured only on “Alinity 1” which would be the master instrument in Karlshamn. Precision was measured by analyzing 25 replicates at two control levels and then was 5 replicates of each control level analyzed over 5 days. The correlation was good and no significant bias between results from Karlskrona and “Alinity 1” and between results from “Alinity 1” and “Alinity 2”. Precision on “Alinity 1” meets the requirements. The conclusion was that verification of PCT on master instrument “Alinity 1” and slave instrument “Alinity 2” was approved and the backup method for the PCT analysis in Karlshamn was verified.

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  • 48.
    Adowan, Ola
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Flödescytometrisk utvärdering av inbindning mellan transferrinsreceptor 1 och rekombinanta proteiner uttryckta på cellytan i Saccharomyces cerevisiae genom ”yeast surface display”2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Adriansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Snäll, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Digitaliserad vård i hemmet: En kvalitativ studie av hur äldre patienter med hjärtsvikt och deras anhöriga upplever självmonitorering med ny digital teknik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden has one of the highest proportions of older people in the world. More people live longer with chronic diseases, which increases the demand for care. The proportion of people with heart failure is increasing. Digital technology can become an important link between patient, relative and healthcare. Increased use of digital technology in healthcare can help patients with chronic illness and lead to a better quality of life. Self-monitoring in the home provides a quick indication of deterioration and leads to less emergency visits and admissions as well as reduced healthcare costs.

    Aim: The aim was to describe the experience of self-monitoring in the home based on the elderly patient with heart failure and the relative's perspective.

    Method: A qualitative study with inductive design was chosen to answer the study's purpose and problem area. Data was obtained through semi-structured interviews, and analysed using qualitative analysis according to Malterud's systematic text condensation.

    Results: Seven elderly patients with heart failure and six relatives participated in the study.  Participants self-monitored in the home using a mobile device. The analysis resulted in three categories. Aspects of security and insecurity related to self-monitoring, self-monitoring provides support for self-care and self-monitoring a support to become a partner in care but also a responsibility.

    Conclusion: Health care is facing major challenges with an increasing ageing population where more people live longer with chronic diseases. The patient needs to become more involved and need to take greater responsibility for their own care. The results of the study indicate that elderly patients with heart failure and their relatives through self-monitoring in the home experience security, are described to gain an increased knowledge of their disease and treatment and take greater responsibility for their health by performing advanced self-care at home.

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  • 50.
    Aeinehband, Shahin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindblom, Rickard P. F.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Al Nimer, Faiez
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Vijayaraghavan, Swetha
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Khademi, Mohsen
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Olsson, Tomas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Darreh-Shori, Taher
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Complement Component C3 and Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Are Associated with Neurodegeneration and Clinical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0122048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysregulation of the complement system is evident in many CNS diseases but mechanisms regulating complement activation in the CNS remain unclear. In a recent large rat genomewide expression profiling and linkage analysis we found co-regulation of complement C3 immediately downstream of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an enzyme hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh), a classical neurotransmitter with immunoregulatory effects. We here determined levels of neurofilament-light (NFL), a marker for ongoing nerve injury, C3 and activity of the two main ACh hydrolyzing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with MS (n = 48) and non-inflammatory controls (n = 18). C3 levels were elevated in MS patients compared to controls and correlated both to disability and NFL. C3 levels were not induced by relapses, but were increased in patients with >= 9 cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and in patients with progressive disease. BuChE activity did not differ at the group level, but was correlated to both C3 and NFL levels in individual samples. In conclusion, we show that CSF C3 correlates both to a marker for ongoing nerve injury and degree of disease disability. Moreover, our results also suggest a potential link between intrathecal cholinergic activity and complement activation. These results motivate further efforts directed at elucidating the regulation and effector functions of the complement system in MS, and its relation to cholinergic tone.

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