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  • 1.
    Abdul Hadi, Roza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Avvikelser i receptlistan: En intervjustudie med patienter på apotek2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Medications are used to treat, cure, or relieve symptoms of diseases, but there is a risk with the use of medications. Drug-related-problems are known to increase morbidity and mortality. Incorrect medical list and discrepancies in these lists can lead to drug-related problems as side effects, hospitalization, non-compliance, drug interactions and overtreated or undertreated patients. Discrepancies can be for example: more prescriptions than necessary, outdated prescriptions, i.e., medicines that will not be used, prescriptions with incorrect dosing and missing prescriptions i.e., medicines used by patients that cannot be seen in the medication list.

    Purpose:  The aim of this study was to investigate discrepancies in the Swedish prescription list "My saved prescriptions at the pharmacy". The secondary aim was to investigate how common it is to use this prescription list or the dosage label on the medicine packaging to know which medicines to use and which dosage.

    Methods: The data collection was performed by four pharmacy students at seven pharmacies in Sweden over a period of three weeks during Jan-Feb. 2021 where the prescription list was investigated together with patients to identify any discrepancies. The study included patients who was over 18 years old, spoke Swedish, had three or more prescribed drugs, and agreed to participate. 

    Results A total of 215 patients were interviewed, where 61% had one or more discrepancies in their medication list. A total of 1717 prescriptions were analyzed, of which 10% were double prescriptions (n = 167), 8% outdated prescriptions (n = 141) and 3% prescriptions with the wrong dosage (n = 42). When analyzing the primary sources of information used by patients to know which medicine to use, the printout of the list "my saved prescriptions at the pharmacy” dominated (n = 72).  Most used information source to know drug dosage was the dosage label on the medicine packaging (n = 112).

    Conclusions: It is important to have an updated and correct information in the medication list, to prevent drug-related-problems caused by discrepancies. It becomes even more important when we see that the medication list "My saved prescriptions at the pharmacy" and dosage label (containing the same information in the medication list), are the most used primary sources by patients to know which drug to use and in what dosage. Finally, results show a relationship between the number of prescribed drugs and the number of discrepancies that occur, and therefore we see more discrepancies in elderly patients who are usually ill and are being treated for several diseases. 

    There are opportunities for further research to study e.g., which drug-related-problems are caused by discrepancies in the medication list as well as the degree of danger in these problems. 

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  • 2.
    Abdul Rahim, Ranya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kommunikationsproblem på svenska apotek: Förekomst och orsak2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The word communication originates from the Latin word communicare that means to do something in common. When human beings communicate with each other, we share thoughts, emotions, values and actions. The foundation in communication is found within the interpersonal communication, which is the act of communication between two persons. All types of communications include of verbal and nonverbal acts of communication.

    The verbal communication consists of words either in speech or writing, the nonverbal act implies gestures, frequency of the tone and facial expressions.

    Within the pharmaceutical profession, good communication between the pharmacist and the customer is important and can affect the customer’s health and quality of life in both direct as well as indirect ways. In recent years, the pharmacist's role in the pharmacy has drastically changed. Nowadays the care of the customer has gained more significance than before. To improve customer health and quality of life it is important that the pharmacist acts to promote a good relationship with the customer and the foundation for this relationship should be built on good terms of communication.

    The purpose of this study was to study how common it is with communication errors between pharmacist and customer, and to demonstrate probable underlying causes. Secondary questions were, how is the drug advice the pharmacist provides affected by communication errors?

    Collection of data for the study was done with structured observation charts, where the customer and pharmacist were strictly observed. A total of 316 meetings were observed and the data collected referred to prescriptions. In more than one-third of the observed meetings, there were communication errors between the pharmacist and the customer. Communication errors that arose concerned lack of eye contact, language barriers, choice of questions, background noise from colleagues and customers and discussions from generic exchanges. To reduce future communication errors, the pharmacist's actions should be strengthened, such as eye contact, clear follow-up questions and improved feedback.

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  • 3.
    Abdulkadir, Sazan Abass
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wettermark, Bjoern
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Potential Drug-Related Problems in Pediatric Patients-Describing the Use of a Clinical Decision Support System at Pharmacies in Sweden2023In: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical support system Electronic Expert Support (EES) is available at all pharmacies in Sweden to examine electronic prescriptions when dispensing to prevent drug-related problems (DRPs). DRPs are common, and result in patient suffering and substantial costs for society. The aim of this research was to study the use of EES for the pediatric population (ages 0-12 years), by describing what types of alerts are generated for potential DRPs, how they are handled, and how the use of EES has changed over time. Data on the number and categories of EES analyses, alerts, and resolved alerts were provided by the Swedish eHealth Agency. The study shows that the use of EES has increased. The most common type of alert for a potential DRP among pediatric patients was regarding high doses in children (30.3% of all alerts generated). The most common type of alert for a potential DRP that was resolved among pediatrics was therapy duplication (4.6% of the alerts were resolved). The most common reason for closing an alert was dialogue with patient for verification of the treatment (66.3% of all closed alerts). Knowledge of which type of alerts are the most common may contribute to increased prescriber awareness of important potential DRPs.

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  • 4.
    Al Musawi, Ahmed
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Malin
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rämgård, Margareta
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Cheng, Yuanji
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Intervention for a correct medication list and medication use in older adults: a non-randomised feasibility study among inpatients and residents during care transitions2024In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMedication discrepancies in care transitions and medication non-adherence are problematic. Few interventions consider the entire process, from the hospital to the patient's medication use at home.AimIn preparation for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), this study aimed (1) to investigate the feasibility of recruitment and retention of patients, and data collection to reduce medication discrepancies at discharge and improve medication adherence, and (2) to explore the outcomes of the interventions.MethodParticipants were recruited from a hospital and a residential area. Hospital patients participated in a pharmacist-led intervention to establish a correct medication list upon discharge and a follow-up interview two weeks post-discharge. All participants received a person-centred adherence intervention for three to six months. Discrepancies in the medication lists, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ-S), and the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5) were assessed.ResultsOf 87 asked to participate, 35 were included, and 12 completed the study. Identifying discrepancies, discussing discrepancies with physicians, and performing follow-up interviews were possible. Conducting the adherence intervention was also possible using individual health plans for medication use. Among the seven hospital patients, 24 discrepancies were found. Discharging physicians agreed that all discrepancies were errors, but only ten were corrected in the discharge information. Ten participants decreased their total BMQ-S concern scores, and seven increased their total MARS-5 scores.ConclusionBased on this study, conducting the two RCTs separately may increase the inclusion rate. Data collection was feasible. Both interventions were feasible in many aspects but need to be optimised in upcoming RCTs.

  • 5.
    Ax, Fredrik
    et al.
    Apoteket AB.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Electronically transmitted prescriptions not picked up at pharmacies in Sweden2010In: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, ISSN 1551-7411, E-ISSN 1934-8150, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Electronic transmitted prescriptions (ETPs) became common after 1995 in Sweden; however, it is accompanied by a substantial increase in the number of prescriptions not picked up at pharmacies.

    Objective: To investigate the ‘‘no pick-up’’ rates of ETPs at pharmacies across type of drug and patient age and gender and the reasons patients’ report for no pick-up.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study examining no pick-up of ETPs transmitted during 3 months in 2002, and a mail survey of patients to determine the reasons for failure to pick-up in the county of Sormland, Sweden, with a population of 261,000, and 21 pharmacies. Chi-square tests were used for calculations of frequency differences among groups.

    Results: The overall no pick-up rate of ETPs was 2.5%; men had consistently higher rates than women. The highest rates were seen for adolescents and young adults. Rates were higher than average for antibiotics. About 60% of the answers indicated that prescriptions not picked up were duplicate prescriptions or not needed. ‘‘Unintentional nonadherence’’ was reported by one-fifth of patients.

    Conclusions: No pick-up rate in general was low (2.5%), but there were differences across patient age and sex, the rates being higher among adolescents and young adults. Duplicate prescriptions may explain a significant share of the abandoned prescriptions.

  • 6.
    Bardage, Carola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ring, Lena
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Health care professionals’ perspectives on automated multi-dose drug dispensing2014In: Pharmacy Practice, ISSN 1885-642X, E-ISSN 1886-3655, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the 1980s, manual repackaging of multi-dose medications from pharmacies in Sweden was successively substituted with automated multi-dose drug dispensing (MDD). There are few studies evaluating the consequences of automated MDD with regard to patient safety, and those that investigate this issue are not very extensive.

    Objectives: To investigate Swedish health care professionals’ perceived experience of automated MDD and its effects on patient adherence and patient safety.

    Methods: Three questionnaire forms, one for physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses/nursing assistants, were developed based on reviews of the literature and pilot testing of the questions in the intended target groups. The target groups were health professionals prescribing or administrating MDD to patients. A sample (every sixth municipality) was drawn from the sampling frame of Swedish municipalities, resulting in 40 municipalities, about 14% of all municipalities in Sweden. Email addresses of general practitioners were obtained from county councils, while the municipalities assisted in getting contact details for nurses, assistant nurses and nursing assistants. A total of 915 questionnaires were distributed electronically to physicians, 515 to nurses, and 4,118 to assistant nurses/nursing assistants. The data were collected in September and October 2012.

    Results: The response rate among physicians, nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants was 31%, 43% and 23%, respectively. The professionals reported that automated MDD reduces duplication of medication, contributes to correct dosages, helps patients take their medication at the right time, and reduces confusion among patients. Fifteen per cent of the physicians and about onethird of the nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants reported that generic substitution makes it more difficult for the patient to identify the various medicines available in the sachets. The physicians did, however, note that prescribing medicine to patients with automated MDD is complicated and can be a risk for patient safety. Both physicians and nurses requested more information on and training in automated MDD. They also asked for more medication reviews.

    Conclusions: The professionals generally had a positive attitude to automated MDD with regard to improved medication adherence, but said they believed that the electronic prescribing system posed a safety risk for patients.

  • 7.
    Bardage, Carola
    et al.
    Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala / Uppsala Univ.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala.
    Ring, Lena
    Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala / Uppsala Univ.
    Health-Care Professionals' Perspectives on Multi-Dose Dispensed Medicines2013In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 22, p. 251-251Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Berg, Christer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Dosages involving split tablets - common but unnecessary?2010In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, ISSN 1759-8885, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 137-141Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 9.
    Berg, Christer
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Haupt, Dan
    Department of Health Sciences, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Prescriptions on split tablets: a common drug related problem - but unnecessary?2007In: ESCP 7th Spring Conference on Clinical Pharmacy 16-19 May 2007, Edinburgh: Tackling Inequalities in the Delivery of Pharmaceutical Care, 2007, p. 1-16Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Healthcare professionals' perceptions of a web-based application for using the new National Medication List in Sweden2023In: Digital Health, E-ISSN 2055-2076, Vol. 9, article id 20552076231171966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveDuring the first stage of implementing the National Medication List in Sweden, a web-based application called Forskrivningskollen (FK) was launched. FK includes information about a patient's prescribed and dispensed medications, and it works as a backup system until the healthcare electronic health record (EHR) systems are fully integrated. The aim of this study was to examine the healthcare professionals' experiences and perceptions of FK. MethodsThe study applied a mixed methods approach, with statistics about the use of FK and a survey with open and closed questions. The respondents (n = 288) were healthcare professionals who were users or potential users of FK. ResultsOverall there was little knowledge about FK and uncertainty regarding working routines and the regulations connected to the application. Lack of interoperability with the EHRs made FK time-consuming to use. Respondents said that the information in FK was not updated, and they were concerned that using FK could lead to a false sense of security about the accuracy of the list. Most clinical pharmacists thought FK added benefit to their clinical work, while as a group, physicians were more ambivalent about FK's benefit. ConclusionsThe concerns of healthcare professionals give important insights for future implementation of shared medication lists. Working routines and regulations linked to FK need to be clarified. In Sweden, the potential value of a national shared medication list will probably not be realized until it is fully integrated into the EHR in a way that supports healthcare professionals' desired ways of working.

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  • 11.
    Bladh, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Säkerhet vid val av apotek: Enkätundersökning om kunskap och uppfattningar om symboler för godkänt apotek2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the degree project is to examine individual’s knowledge about symbols for approved pharmacy and how such a marking and other factors affect their choice of pharmacy from a safety perspective.

    Introduction: In a survey made by the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) from 2008, 51 illegal websites targeting Swedish pharmacy customers were found. These websites illegally sold prescription pharmaceuticals without the requirement of a prescription from their customers. Shopping on illegal internet pharmacies can have great risks like contaminated drugs, lack of information about the drugs or that the drugs never gets delivered. To lower the risk that pharmacy customers accidently buys medications from the illegal online pharmacies, two symbols have been created for Swedish pharmacy customers, one by the MPA (figure 1) and one by the European Commission (figure 2). The idea is that the customer is supposed to click on one of the symbols on an online pharmacy’s website which is linked to a list for approved online pharmacies at the website of the MPA. If the customer finds the name and web address of the pharmacy on that list, the customer will know that the pharmacy is approved. But if the name and address isn’t found on the list, the pharmacy can be illegal, and the customer should avoid from shopping from the pharmacy.

    Material and methods: An electronic questionnaire with 10 question (Appendix A) was created in regard of the aim and sent out via the social platform “Facebook” through the students Facebook account. The survey included questions about which factors, from a security perspective, that influence the respondents to choose an online pharmacy and the respondents’ knowledge about the two symbols for controlling if an online pharmacy is approved. The results were analysed at a group level so that no individuals could be identified.

    Results and Discussion: The survey showed that a majority of the respondents had seen the Swedish symbol for approved pharmacy (figure 1) from the MPA (n=44, 59 %). However, a majority did not know what it means (n=57 or 77 %). Regarding the EU-symbol for approved pharmacy (figure 2), it turned out that most of the respondents had not seen it (n=58, 78 %) and even more didn’t know what it means (n=62, 84 %). The respondents in the study controlled pharmacies in different ways, for example making their own assessment if an online pharmacy seems safe (n=21, 51 %) or that they choose an online pharmacy that they have seen on some sort of commercial (n=17, 41 %) (Table II). For some it wasn’t something they thought about (n=10, 24 %) (Table II).

    Conclusions: The conclusion is that most of the respondents had seen the Swedish symbol for approved pharmacy but did not know what it means. Few respondents had seen the EU-symbol for approved pharmacy and even fewer knew what it means. The most common factors influencing the respondents’ choice of a pharmacy, from a security perspective, was by making their own assessment if the online pharmacy seems safe or choose a pharmacy which they have seen from a commercial. For some of the respondents, it wasn’t something they considered when choosing pharmacy.

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    Säkerhet vid val av apotek
  • 12.
    Bo, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    UiT Arctic Univ Tromso, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Kjell H. H.
    UiT Arctic Univ Tromso, Norway.
    Risor, Torsten
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Norway;Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lehnbom, Elin C.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. UiT Arctic Univ Tromso, Norway.
    'Illuminating determinants of implementation of non-dispensing pharmacist services in home care: a qualitative interview study'2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesMedication errors are leading causes of hospitalization and death in western countries and WHO encourages health care providers to implement non-dispensing pharmacist services in primary care to improve medication work. However, these services struggle to provide any impact on clinical outcomes. We wanted to explore health care professionals' views on medication work to illuminate determinants of the implementation success. The research was designed to inform and adapt implementation strategies for non-dispensing pharmacist services.DesignSemi-structured interview study with nine healthcare professionals.SettingFour Norwegian home care wards.SubjectsNine healthcare professionals working at different wards within one home care unit.Main outcome measuresDeterminants of implementation outcomes.ResultsContextual determinants of the implementation process were mainly related to characteristics of the setting such as poorly designed information systems, work overload, and chaotic work environments. The identified barriers question the innovation's appropriateness related to the setting's needs but also provide possibilities for tailoring pharmacist services to local medication work issues. The observable positive effects and the perceived advantage of the pharmacist services are likely to facilitate the implementation process.ConclusionOur study provided information on contextual elements that influence the implementation process of non-dispensing pharmacist services. Awareness of these factors can help develop strategies to help the organization succeed in in achieving program outcomes.

  • 13.
    Bondesson, Åsa
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Lunds Universitet.
    Höglund, Peter
    Lunds Universitet.
    A structured questionnaire to assess patient compliance and beliefs about medicines taking into account the ordered categorical structure of data2009In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 713-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to describe and evaluate the structured medication questionnaire and to improve data handling of results from the Morisky four-item scale for patient compliance and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire-specific (BMQ-specific). METHODS: A questionnaire was developed with the purpose of being used when identifying medication errors and assessing patient compliance to and beliefs about medicines. RESULTS: A majority of the respondents (62%; CI 45-77%) had at least one medication error. Assuming that all items are equally important in the Morisky four-item scale we presented four alternative ways to create a unidimensional global scale. A two-dimensional global scale was also constructed. The results from the BMQ-specific were presented in different ways, all taking into account that the scale has ordered verbal categories: at the level addressing each specific question, at the sub-scales 'concern' and 'necessity' level and at the global level. CONCLUSIONS: The structured medication questionnaire can be used in daily practice as a tool to identify drug-related problems. The choice of how to use and present data from those scales in research depends on patient characteristics and how discriminating one would like the scales to be.

  • 14.
    Castensson, Staffan
    et al.
    Forskning och Utveckling, Apoteket AB.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Forskning och Utveckling, Apoteket AB.
    Pharmaceutical Waste: The Patient Role2010In: Green and Sustainable Pharmacy / [ed] Kümmerer, Klaus; Hempel, Maximilian, Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York: Springer, 2010, 1, p. 179-200Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Occurrence of prescriptions for noncurrent - changed or terminated -treatment and prescription duplicates in electronic medical records and the Swedish national prescription repository2010In: The 14th European Symposium on Patient Adherence, COMpliance and Persistence, LODZ, POLAND 17-18.09.2010, Lodz.Polen, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient adherence to prescribed treatment for chronic conditions has been estimated to be on average about 50% [1] and drug related problems may cause as much as 30% of acute admittances to hospital care [2]. Discrepancies between medical records and patients’ actual current medication are common [3-5].

     

    The objective of the present study was to compare current prescribed treatment stated by patients with the printouts from the electronic medical record (EMR) and the Swedish national prescription repository (NPR) with regard to (1) prescriptions for noncurrent (previously changed or terminated) treatment, (2) prescription duplicates and (3) missing prescriptions.

     

    Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients over 18 years of age with 5 or more prescriptions stored in the NPR or the EMR, with follow-up visit at a health care centre or visiting a pharmacy, were invited to the study. Patients giving written informed consent to participate were interviewed. The stated prescribed current, ongoing treatment was compared with printouts of prescribed medication from the EMR and of the stored prescriptions in the NPR.

     

    Main Outcome Measures: Proportions of prescriptions for (a) noncurrent treatment (changed or terminated), (b) prescription duplicates and (c) missing prescriptions in the EMR and the NPR.

     

    Results: 216 patients with altogether 2515 prescriptions were included. In total, 71% were unique prescriptions for current ongoing treatment, 17% were prescriptions for noncurrent treatment (changed or terminated therapy) and 11% were prescription duplicates. Of 2195 prescriptions in the EMR, 75% were unique prescriptions for current treatment, 13% were noncurrent, 11% were prescription duplicates and 8% of the current prescriptions were missing. Of 1904 prescriptions in the NPR, 75% were unique prescriptions for current ongoing medication, 13% were noncurrent prescriptions, 11% were prescription duplicates and 20% of the current prescriptions were missing. The EMR and the NPR contained ≥1 noncurrent prescription or duplicate for 76% and 69% of patients.

     

    Conclusion: Prescriptions for noncurrent treatment and prescription duplicates as well as missing prescriptions are common in both EMR and the Swedish NPR. Consequently, claims data based on data of prescribed medicines in the EMR or the stored prescriptions in NPR contain many errors. Adherence estimates measured as “claims data” for prescriptions in the EMR and NPR may deviate significantly from true figures.

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  • 16.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Medical Products Agency / Läkemedelsverket.
    Patients' "self-reconciliation" of the medication list compared with medication verification with pharmacist2013In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 505-505Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Reasons why medicines are returned to Swedish pharmacies unused.2006In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 352-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the reasons and their relative importance why medicines are returned to Swedish pharmacies unused. SETTING: A random sample of the pharmacies in Sweden. METHOD: Interviews using a semi-structured interview form with pharmacy customers returning unused medicines to the pharmacy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Reasons given by patients/relatives/carers for returning unused medicines to the pharmacy. RESULTS: The four main reasons for returning unused medicines to the pharmacy were: (1) the medicines were too old, (2) the user had died, (3) there was no need for the medicine anymore, and (4) therapy changes. These reasons made up 75% of all reported reasons. CONCLUSION: Hoarding or over-supply of prescribed medicines may explain a large part of the volume of medicines that remain unused. Actions aiming to reduce waste of prescribed medicines ought to focus on those patients who contribute to a substantial part of all unused medicines.

  • 18.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Al-Fakhri, Marwa
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Andersson, Clara
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Babic, Dina
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Lubarsky, Nadja
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Ly, Helen
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Comparison of prescription data in the electronic medical record, stored prescriptions in the Swedish national prescription repository and the current prescribed treatment stated by patients2010In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 32, p. 678-679Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty percent of the prescriptions in the EMR and one fourth of all prescriptions in the NPR were either non-current treatment or prescription duplicates. The present data show that printouts of the prescriptions in both the EMR and the NPR contain many errors. Printouts may be confusing and if patients are not fully aware of their prescribed present treatment, medical errors may occur. The problem may be aggravated by generic substitution

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  • 19.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brosius, Helen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Yngvesson, M
    Differences between the data in the electronic medical record, the prescriptions stored in the Swedish national prescription repository and and the patient’s knowledge of the present treatment2010In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 679-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective Patient adherence to prescribed treatmentfor chronic conditions has been estimated to be on average about 50%(1), drug related problems may cause as much as 30% of acuteadmittances to hospital care (2), and the costs have been estimated tobe of the same magnitude as the direct costs for pharmaceutical drugs.A reason for lack of adherence to the treatment and medication errorsmay be that patients with many drugs, especially when changes in thetreatment have occurred, may have knowledge gaps on the drugsrepresenting the actual prescribed treatment.

    E-prescribing, from the physicians’ electronic medical record(EMR) directly to the pharmacies, constitute[75% of all prescriptionsin Sweden and [70% of patients in Sweden store theirprescriptions electronically at the national prescription repository(NPR), accessible from any pharmacy in Sweden. Any new e-prescriptionwill automatically be stored in the NPR.However, the NPR may contain both prescriptions for the present,actual treatment, prescription duplicates, and prescriptions for previous,terminated or changed treatment. For patients with manymedications and/or many changes in the treatment it is obvious thatthe risk for medication errors is increased.The objective of the present study was to compare the prescribedtreatment in the EMR, the prescriptions in the NPR, and patient’sknowledge of her/his present prescribed treatment.Design Compare prescribed treatment in the EMR with the prescriptionsin the NPR, and patients knowledge of her/his presentprescribed treatment with regard to prescriptions; prescribed drug,strength; formula and dosing.Setting Ten HCCs in four cities in Sweden, February 2010.Main outcome measures Differences between the computerisedpatients health care journal record and the prescriptions in the NPR,and patients view of her/his actual present prescribed treatment withregard to prescriptions; prescribed drug, strength; formula and dosing.Results The results are available in March 2010.Conclusions Conclusion.

    References1. Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. WHO,2003.2. Fryckstedt J, Asker-Hagelberg C. Drug-related problems commonat the medical acute care clinic—the cause of admission foralmost one-third of patients. [Läkemedelsrelaterade problemvanliga på medicinakuten - Orsak till inläggning hos nästan vartredje patient, enligt kvalitetsuppföljning] Läkartidningen 2008;105(12–13): 894–898.

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  • 20.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brosius, Helen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Yngvesson, Maria
    Discrepancies between the electronic medical record, the prescriptions in the Swedish national prescription repository and the current medication reported by patients.2011In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1177-1183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To study discrepancies between (i) the prescribed current treatment stated by patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) compared with patients with other chronic diseases, (ii) the data in the medication list (ML) in the electronic medical record and (iii) the data in the prescription list (PL) on the prescriptions stored in the national prescription repository in Sweden, to determine current, noncurrent, duplicate and missing prescriptions.

    Methods At one healthcare centre, a random sample of patients 18 years and older with a diagnosis of CHF, diabetes mellitus (DM) or osteoarthritis (OA) provided written informed consent to participate. Participants were interviewed by telephone on the prescribed current treatment.

    Results Of 161 invited patients (61 CHF, 50 DM and 50 OA), 66 patients were included. More than 80% of the patients had at least one discrepancy, a noncurrent, a duplicate or a missing prescription, in the ML and PL. The overall congruence for unique prescriptions on current treatment between the ML and the PL was only 55%. Patients with CHF had overall more discrepancies and patients with DM fewer discrepancies in the ML.

    Conclusions Prescriptions for noncurrent treatment, duplicates and missing prescriptions are common in both the ML in the electronic medical record and the list on prescriptions stored in the Swedish National Prescription Repository. Patients with CHF had more discrepancies in the ML. The risk for medication errors in primary care due to incorrect information on prescribed treatment may be substantial.

  • 21.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mattsson, Johanna
    Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Patients’ knowledge of prescriptions stored in the Swedishnational prescription repository—prescription duplicates,double medications and changed treatment2010In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 688-689Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prescriptions for non-current treatment that previously has been changed or terminated and prescription duplicates are common in the Swedish NPR. The risk for medication errors in the open care setting may be substantial.

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  • 22.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Oskarsson, Vivianne
    Sundberg, Barbro
    Gustafsson, Veronica
    Lundberg, Therese
    Impact of postal and telephone reminders to patients not claiming their e-prescriptions”2006In: 35th European Symposium on Clinical Pharmacy: The Role of Communication in Patient Safety and Pharmacotherapy Effectiveness 18 – 21 October 2006, Vienna, Austria, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Oskarsson, Vivianne
    Luleå University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Barbro
    Luleå University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Veronica
    Luleå University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Bo
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo.
    Impact of postal and telephone reminders on pick-up rates of unclaimed e-prescriptions.2008In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 503-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a reminder (i.e., a mailed letter or short telephone call) from the pharmacy to patients, compared with no reminder in a control group, on the pick-up rates of unclaimed e-prescriptions. METHOD: Patients, with e-prescriptions transmitted to four large community pharmacies in two counties in northern Sweden and remaining unclaimed after 4 weekdays, were randomised to one of two intervention groups (a mailed reminder or a short telephonic reminder) or a control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of patients' pick-up of their e-prescriptions at follow-up after about 1, 2 and 3 weeks. RESULTS: Altogether, 320 patients with e-prescriptions, transmitted from March 21 through April 6 and not picked-up or dispensed, were identified and randomised to the study. There were no statistically significant differences in overall pick-up rates between the groups or with respect to gender. However, pick-up rates increased with increasing age. Higher pick-up rates were observed for two subgroups (but only in the mailed reminder group compared with controls)--for cardiovascular drugs to men and for respiratory drugs to adolescents and young adults. CONCLUSION: A reminder (i.e., a mailed letter or short telephone call) from the pharmacy to the patient had no statistically significant effect on overall pick-up rates of unclaimed e-prescriptions compared with no reminders.

  • 24.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University West, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Sweden;Region Östergötland 3, Sweden.
    Öhnström, Gisela
    Linköping University, Sweden;Region Östergötland 3, Sweden.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Impact of personality on adherence to and beliefs about ADHD medication, and perceptions of ADHD in adolescents2020In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-10, article id 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication can prevent serious consequences, possibly with lifelong effects. Numerous factors have been observed that influence adherent behaviour, but the impact of personality traits has been inadequately explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between personality traits and adherence to ADHD medication, beliefs about the medication, and perceptions of ADHD. Method Adolescents (n = 99) on ADHD medication were administered: Health-Relevant Personality Traits Five-Factor Inventory, Medication Adherence Report Scale, Beliefs about Medicines Specific and Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaires. Results The personality trait Antagonism correlated with adherence behaviour (r = - 0.198, p = 0.005) and perceived personal control of ADHD (r = - 0.269, p = 0.007). Negative Affectivity correlated with beliefs regarding necessity (r = 0.319, p = 0.001), concerns (r = 0.344, p = 0.001), and experienced side effects of medication (r = 0.495, p = 0.001), alongside perceptions regarding duration (r = 0.272, p = 0.007), identity (r = 0.388, p < 0.001), being emotionally affected (r = 0.374, p < 0.01), personal control (r = - 0.287, p = 0.004) and concerns about ADHD (r = 0.465, p < 0.001). Impulsivity correlated with perceived consequences (r = - 0.226, p = 0.0255) and personal control of ADHD (r = - 0.379, p < 0.001). Hedonic Capacity correlated with concerns about medication (r = - 0.218, p = 0.0316) and perceived identification with ADHD (r = - 0.203, p = 0.045). Conclusion Personality traits are related to adherence, beliefs about ADHD medicines and perceptions of ADHD. Antagonism is associated with adherence, especially intentional non-adherence, while Negative Affectivity correlates with numerous perceptions of ADHD and beliefs about medications. Personality assessments could be useful in the care and treatment of adolescents with ADHD.

  • 25.
    Frisk, Pia
    et al.
    Hälsa och Farmaci, Apoteket AB.
    Carlsten, Anders
    Forskning och Utveckling, Apoteket AB.
    Rydberg, Tony
    Hälsa och Farmaci, Apoteket AB.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Patients' experiences with generic substitution-a Swedish pharmacy survey2010In: Pharmacy World & Science, ISSN 0928-1231, E-ISSN 1573-739X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 681-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective Generic substitution for reimbursed drugs was introduced in Sweden 1 of October 2002. Concerns have been expressed that generic substitution may compromise patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate how Swedish drug consumers experience generic substitution, more than 5 year after implementation. 

    Design Survey study with an electronic questionnaire, offered to 1551 pharmacy customers/patients presenting with a prescription on one of the 2688 drugs included. The selected drugs constituted 75% of the total volume of dispensed drugs subjected to generic substitution in August 2007.

    Setting Fifty-eight Swedish community pharmacies. 

    Main outcome measures Positive experiences with generic substitution; problems and their degree of seriousness; and the reported incidence of medication errors. Consumers’ suggestions of improvements to the generic substitution system were also captured.

     Results Of 1551 respondents (602 male, 949 female), 35% (n = 536) reported one or more positive experiences, the most common being the lower drug price. Sixty percent (n= 932) claimed they had not experienced any problems. Forty percent reported at least one problem related to substitution. Seven percent (n=109) reported medication errors attributed to generic substitution. Twenty-two percent (n=342) of the respondents offered suggestions for improvement. The most common suggestions were to revise the criteria for assessing interchangeability between brand-name and generic alternatives and to abolish substitution.

    Conclusions A majority of respondents do not experience any problems related to generic substitution. A sizeable minority experience problems, partly resulting in medication errors. Over- and undermedication, lack of compliance, and intake of wrong drug or of both the original and the generic were the problems most often reported. Future system changes should consider the importance of revised criteria for generic and brand name interchangeability.

  • 26.
    Hall, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    ARIA-E vid behandling av Alzheimers sjukdom med monoklonala antikroppar2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that initially manifests itself primarily as impaired short-term memory and impaired language ability. The course of the disease is mainly due to an atrophy in the brain that can be attributed to the protein amyloid B and tau. Monoclonal antibodies that target Alzheimer's disease often have a high rate of cerebral edema, where proteinaceous fluid leaks into the extracellular space of the brain and creates edema. Some of the most common symptoms for amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA-E) are headache, dizziness, and blurred vision. In a few cases, patients with ARIA-E need to be hospitalized for observation, but most show a decline in ARIA-E within one to two months. Objective: To investigate the frequency of ARIA-E in clinical studies of monoclonal antibodies to patients with Alzhiemer's disease and to investigate the role of the ApoE4 allele in the development of ARIA-E. Method: Literature review of five RCT studies based on four different monoclonal antibodies. PubMed was used to search for the RCT-studies. Results: ARIA-E varies between different types of antibodies. ARIA-E usually occurs early in treatment when the degree of amyloid b is highest in the brain. Most cases are asymptomatic and treatment resumes within 1-2 months. Conclusion: Aria-E frequency correlates strongly with dose strength as well as APOE4 -status and most of the incidences are asymptomatic. With the right titration and individually selected drugs as well as individual dosages a safe care can be established for patients with Alzheimer's disease. If treatment is initiated at an early stage, the risk of side effects is reduced and more neurons can be saved from atrophy. The combination of several different types of medicine will further reduce the risk of ARIA-E.

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  • 27.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    eMedication – improving medication management using information technology2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Medication is an essential part of health care and enables the prevention andtreatment of many conditions. However, medication errors and drug-relatedproblems (DRP) are frequent and cause suffering for patients and substantial costsfor society. eMedication, defined as information technology (IT) in themedication management process, has the potential to increase quality, efficiencyand safety but can also cause new problems and risks.In this thesis, we have studied the employment of IT in different steps of themedication management process with a focus on the user's perspective. Sweden isone of the leading countries when it comes to ePrescribing, i.e. prescriptionstransferred and stored electronically. We found that ePrescribing is well acceptedand appreciated by pharmacists (Study I) and patients (Study II), but that therewas a need for improvement in several aspects. When the pharmacy market inSweden was re-regulated, four new dispensing systems were developed andimplemented. Soon after the implementation, we found weaknesses related toreliability, functionality, and usability, which could affect patient safety (StudyIII). In the last decade, several county councils in Sweden have implementedshared medication lists within the respective region. We found that physiciansperceived that a regionally shared medication list generally was more complete butoften not accurate (Study IV). Electronic expert support (EES) is a decisionsupport system which analyses patients´ electronically-stored prescriptions in orderto detect potential DRP, i.e. drug-drug interactions, therapy duplication, highdose, and inappropriate drugs for geriatric or pediatric patients. We found thatEES detected potential DRP in most patients with multi-dose drug dispensing inSweden (Study V), and that the majority of alerts were regarded as clinicallyrelevant (Study VI).For an improved eMedication, we need a holistic approach that combinestechnology, users, and organization in implementation and evaluation. The thesissuggests a need for improved sharing of information and support for decisionmaking, coordination, and education, as well as clarification of responsibilitiesamong involved actors in order to employ appropriate IT. We suggestcollaborative strategic work and that the relevant authorities establish guidelinesand requirements for IT in the medication management process.

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  • 28.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Patienternas och personalens upplevelser av läkemedelsprocessen och förväntningar på Nationella läkemedelslistan: Rapport till E-hälsomyndigheten2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är på gång att införa ett nytt register, Nationella läkemedelslistan (NLL), baserat på en lag som trädde i kraft 1 maj 2021. Målet är att NLL ska ge hälso- och sjukvård, apotek och patienter tillgång till samma information om förskrivna och uthämtade läkemedel. Förväntningarna är att NLL ska bidra till förbättrad patientsäkerhet, men en sådan stor förändring innebär också en risk för okända negativa effekter.

    Syftet med projektet var att undersöka upplevelser av läkemedelsprocessen och förväntningar på NLL från de tre perspektiven vård, apotek och individ innan den nya lagen trädde i kraft. Ett av projektets delmål var att ta fram en modell för detta som möjliggör att studera förändringar över tid. Våren 2020 genomfördes 33 intervjuer med läkare, sjuksköterskor, farmaceuter på apotek och kliniska farmaceuter, patienter och anhöriga runt om i Sverige. April 2021 genomfördes enkäter som besvarades av 809 informanter från samma kategorier som intervjuerna.

    Det är tydligt att det finns betydande problem med informationshanteringen i läkemedelsprocessen som ger utmaningar för personal i vården, på apotek och patienter och skapar osäkerhet och merarbete för att veta vilka läkemedel som är aktuella. Detta innebär patientsäkerhetsrisker och är negativt ur ett samhällsperspektiv. Undersökningen visar också ett tydligt behov av en gemensam nationell läkemedelslista. Förväntningarna på NLL är höga och många hoppas att den nya lagen ska innebära ökad patientsäkerhet och att många av de upplevda problemen ska bli bättre. Resultaten visar samtidigt på en stor oro, farhågor och upplevda hinder samt delvis orealistiska förväntningar i förhållande till det som är på väg att implementeras. Dessutom upplevde många att de saknat information, har en otydlig bild om vad som ska förändras och när, eller inte känner till NLL sedan tidigare.

    De flesta förhoppningarna som beskrivs från alla parter bygger till största del på att vårdens arbetssätt anpassas, att förskrivarna kan hålla listan aktuell, ta ansvar för helheten och ta hänsyn till andra ordinationer, samt hantera ändringar i behandling så att informationen följer med till listan. Detta i sin tur kräver att vårdpersonalen kan arbeta i system som ger dem bra stöd för detta arbete, att det är tydligt hur det ska arbeta och inte krävs manuell informationsöverföring. Arbetet med NLL är en förutsättning för att lösa många av de problem som upplevs i läkemedelsprocessen och har således potentialen att förbättra patientsäkerhet. Olösta frågor som skapar oro i vården är till exempel hur informationen från NLL som bygger på recept ska kunna återföras i journalsystemen på ett bra sätt då informatiken där bygger på ordinationer som innehåller andra informationsmängder och en annorlunda logik. Det är viktigt att fastställa en konkret och gemensam bild av önskat arbetssätt kring NLL med patientsäkerheten i fokus, och hur integration ska ske så att det på ett tydligt och enkelt sätt stödjer detta arbetssätt och ser till att viktig information inte går förlorad. Här behövs bland annat en konstruktiv dialog mellan E‑hälsomyndigheten och vården kring möjligheter med NLL utifrån nuvarande lagstiftning och förutsättningar. 

    Sist men inte minst vill vi lyfta vikten av forskning och uppföljning kopplat till informationshanteringen i läkemedelsprocessen och arbetet med NLL. Effekter blir ofta andra och fler än väntat. Komplexitet, stora utmaningar och läkemedelslistans betydelse för patientsäkerheten gör att det är extra viktigt att kunna följa införandet av NLL och identifiera både positiva och negativa effekter samt hinder för implementering. I rapporten presenteras en modell för uppföljning av effekter mätt som användarnas upplevelser samt ett förslag till en bredare modell som även innefattar en kombination med andra kvantitativa mått som är relevanta i sammanhanget. 

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    Slutrapport NLL
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    Bilaga 1 Intervjuguider rapport NLL
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    Bilaga 2 Enkäter rapport NLL
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    Bilaga 3 Nya frågor Nationell patientenkät rapport NLL
  • 29.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Bergmo, Trine S.
    Norwegian Centre for E-health Research, Norway.
    Bülow, Cille
    Bispebjerg University Hospital, Denmark.
    Clausen, Stine S.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Manskow, Unn Sollid
    Norwegian Centre for E-health Research, Norway.
    Timonen, Johanna
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Jøsendal, Anette Vik
    Norwegian Centre for E-health Research, Norway.
    Nationally Shared Medication Lists-Describing Systems in the Nordic Countries2023In: Caring is Sharing – Exploiting the Value in Data for Health and Innovation / [ed] Hagglund M., Blusi M., Bonacina S., Nilsson L., Madsen I.C., Pelayo S., Moen A., Benis A., Lindskold L., Gallos P., IOS Press, 2023, Vol. 302, p. 207-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of shared medication lists (SMLs) in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) with a focus on the type of information the list is based on. This is a structured comparison conducted in stages using an expert group, grey papers, unpublished materials, web pages, as well as scientific papers. Denmark and Finland have implemented their solutions for an SML and Norway and Sweden are working on the implementation of their solution. Denmark and Norway have or are aiming at a list based on medication orders, while Finland and Sweden have lists based on prescriptions.

  • 30.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Implementation of a shared medication list: physicians’ views on availability, accuracy and confidentiality2014In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 933-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Physicians, patients and others involved need to have accurate information on patients’ current drug prescriptions available, and have that information protected from unauthorized access. During the past decade, many counties in Sweden have implemented regionally shared medication lists within health care. Objective The aim of this study was to describe physicians’ views on changes in accuracy, availability and confidentiality in the transition from local medication lists to a regionally shared medication list. Setting Health care units in four different counties of Sweden after the transition from local medication lists to a regionally shared medication list. The shared medication list was an integrated part of the electronic health record system in the respective counties, but the system and implementation process varied. Methods Physicians (n = 7) with experience of transition from local medication lists to a regionally shared medication list were interviewed in a semi-structured manner. Main outcome measure: Physicians’ views on changes in information risks, focusing on accuracy, availability and confidentiality. Results The transition from local medication lists to a shared medication list increased the availability of information: from being time consuming or not possible to access from other care givers to most information being available in one place. A regionally shared medication list was perceived as having the potential to provide a greater accuracy of information, but not always: the shared medication list was perceived as more complete but with more non-current drugs. On the other hand, a shared medication list implied an increased risk of violating patient privacy, placing greater demands on IT security in order to protect the confidentiality of information. Conclusion Physicians perceived a regionally shared medication list to increase the availability of information about current prescriptions and potentially the accuracy but may decrease the confidentiality of information. To implement a shared medication list, we recommend providing clear description of responsibilities and routines for normal activities as well as back-up routines, consider IT-security and data protection early, involve patients to improve the accuracy of the list as well as to monitor and evaluate the implementation.

  • 31.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Swedish eHealth Agency, Sweden.
    The use of a decision support system in Swedish pharmacies to identify potential drug-related problems: effects of a national intervention focused on reviewing elderly patients’ prescriptions2020In: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1-20, article id 118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In pharmacies in Sweden, a clinical decision support system called Electronic Expert Support (EES) is available to analyse patients’ prescriptions for potential drug-related problems. A nationwide intervention was performed in 2018 among all Swedish pharmacy chains to increase the use of EES among patients 75 years or older. The aim of this research was to study the use of EES in connection with the national intervention in order to describe any effects of the intervention, to understand how pharmacists use EES and to identify any barriers and facilitators for the use of EES by pharmacists for elderly patients. Data on the number and categories of EES analyses, alerts, resolved alerts and active pharmacies was provided by the Swedish eHealth Agency. The effects of the intervention were analysed using interrupted time series regression. A web-based questionnaire comprising 20 questions was sent to 1500 pharmacists randomly selected from all pharmacies in Sweden. The study shows that pharmacists use and appreciate EES and that the national intervention had a clear effect during the week of the intervention and seems to have contributed to a faster increase in pharmacists’ use of EES during the year to follow. The study also identified several issues or barriers for using EES.

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  • 32.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    The NEPI Foundation, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Challenges with Medication Management and the National Medication List in Sweden: An Interview Study from a Human, Organizational, and Technology Perspective2023In: Caring is Sharing – Exploiting the Value in Data for Health and Innovation / [ed] Hagglund M., Blusi M., Bonacina S., Nilsson L., Madsen I.C., Pelayo S., Moen A., Benis A., Lindskold L., Gallos P., IOS Press, 2023, Vol. 302, p. 287-291Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is in the process of implementing the National Medication List (NLL). The aim of this study was to explore the challenges with the medication management process, as well as expectation for NLL, from a human, organizational, and technology perspective. This study included interviews with prescribers, nurses, pharmacists, patients, and their relatives and was conducted during March to June 2020, before the implementation of NLL. Challenges were (1) feeling lost with several different medication lists, (2) spending time searching for information, (3) being frustrated at parallel information systems, (4) patients being the carriers of information, and (5) the feeling of being responsible in an indistinct process. The expectations for NLL in Sweden were high, but there were several fears.

  • 33.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Lidström, Bodil
    Swedish EHlth Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Eiermann, Birgit
    Karolinska Inst ; Swedish EHlth Agcy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Potential drug related problems detected by electronic expert support system in patients with multi-dose drug dispensing.2014In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 943-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Drug related problems (DRPs) are frequent and cause suffering for patients and substantial costs for society. Multi-dose drug dispensing (MDDD) is a service by which patients receive their medication packed in bags with one unit for each dose occasion. The clinical decision support system (CDSS) electronic expert support (EES) analyses patients’ prescriptions in the Swedish national e-prescription repository and provides alerts if potential DRPs are detected, i.e. drug–drug interactions, duplicate therapy, drug-disease contraindications, high dose, gender warnings, geriatric, and paediatric alerts. Objective To analyse potential DRPs in patients with MDDD, detected by means of EES. Setting A register study of all electronically stored prescriptions for patients with MDDD in Sweden (n = 180,059) March 5–June 5, 2013. Method Drug use and potential DRPs detected in the study population during the 3 month study period by EES were analysed. The potential DRPs were analysed in relation to patients’ age, gender, number of drugs, and type of medication. Main outcome measure Prevalence of potential DRPs measured as EES alerts. Results The study population was on average 75.8 years of age (±17.5, range 1–110) and had 10.0 different medications (±4.7, range 1–53). EES alerted for potential DRPs in 76 % of the population with a mean of 2.2 alerts per patient (±2.4, range 0–27). The older patients received a lower number of alerts compared to younger patients despite having a higher number of drugs. The most frequent alert categories were drug–drug interactions (37 % of all alerts), duplicate therapy (30 %), and geriatric warnings for high dose or inappropriate drugs (23 %). Psycholeptics, psychoanaleptics, antithrombotic agents, anti-epileptics, renin-angiotensin system agents, and analgesics represented 71 % of all drugs involved in alerts. Conclusions EES detected potential DRPs in the majority of patients with MDDD. The number of potential DRPs was associated with the number of drugs, age, gender, and type of medication. A CDSS such as EES might be a useful tool for physicians and pharmacists to assist in the important task of monitoring patients with MDDD for potential DRPs.

  • 34.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Mzil, Leila
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eiermann, Birgit
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Inera AB, Sweden.
    Discrepancies in patients' medication lists from pharmacies in Sweden: an interview study before the implementation of the Swedish National Medication List2023In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 45, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Discrepancies in medication lists are common and can contribute to drug-related problems. This study was performed before the implementation of the National Medication List in Sweden, an intervention expected to improve the accuracy of medication lists. Aim The aim of the study was to examine the number and type of discrepancies in the medication list from pharmacies in Sweden. The secondary aim was to describe the information sources Swedish patients used as their medication lists and how confident they were with the information. Method Structured interviews were conducted with patients at 13 community pharmacies in Sweden during the period October 5, 2020, to April 16, 2021. The printed medication list was reviewed together with the patient to identify any discrepancies and missing information. Results A total of 327 patients were included in the study (response rate 51%). The printed medication list from pharmacies was the most common information source for patients to know which medications to use. Two thirds (n = 215) of the patients had at least one discrepancy among their prescriptions and 32% (n = 106) were missing at least one prescription medication. Among all prescriptions (n = 2567) 10% (n = 264) were non-current prescriptions, 9% (n = 238) were duplicates and 3% (n = 88) had the wrong dose. The proportion of prescriptions with discrepancies differed between drug-groups. Conclusion The discrepancies described in this study can have serious consequences, and results provide a baseline for studies after the implementation of the National Medication List.

  • 35.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Villius Zetterholm, My
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Patients’ views on information about medications: a pharmacy-based survey focusing on their information sources and experiences of pharmacists using a clinical decision support system2022In: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research (ISHIMR 2020): Kalmar, 17-18 September 2020 / [ed] Peter Bath, Päivi Jokela and Laura Sbaffi, Linnaeus University Press , 2022, Vol. 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe patients’ views on information regarding their medication with focus on their experiences with community pharmacists’ use of the clinical decision support system EES (electronic expert support system). This study was performed as a survey among patients who were collecting prescription medication at seven Swedish community pharmacies, with 281 respondents (response rate of 68%). Results show that patients receive information regarding their medication from many different sources, with differences related to age and gender. In general, most patients seemed satisfied with the information they had about their medicines, and with the information they got from pharmacists. The study also show that knowledge about how pharmacists work to improve medication safety and how they use EES is low. However, results indicate that many patients have high trust in pharmacists, expect them to check for potential drug related problems and are positive to pharmacists using EES more.

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  • 36.
    Havnes, Kjerstin
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Lehnbom, Elin C.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Walter, Scott R.
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    Garcia, Beate H.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Kjell H.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Time distribution for pharmacists conducting a randomized controlled trial - An observational time and motion study2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 4, article id e0250898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    An expected future increase in older adults will demand changes in health care delivery, making development, implementation and evaluation of new health care models essential. The rationale for political decision-making concerning the implementation and application of interventions in health care should include cost estimations, specifically those involving clinical interventions. To provide such data knowledge of time spent on the intervention is imperative. Time and motion methodology is suitable to quantify health care personnel’s time distribution.

    Aim

    To investigate the time distribution for pharmacists conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) implementing a clinical intervention.

    Materials and methods

    The setting was an RCT with a 5-step pharmacist-intervention in collaboration with the interdisciplinary team in a geriatric ward. Two pharmacists were involved in the trial during the observation period. Pharmacist activities, classified as RCT-tasks (intervention or administrative), non-RCT tasks and social/breaks, were recorded applying the Work Observation Method By Activity Timing methodology, enabling recording of predefined work tasks as well as interruptions and multitasking. One observer collected data over eight weeks.

    Results

    In total, 109.1 hours were observed resulting in 110.2 hours total task time, including multitasking. RCT tasks comprised 85.4% of the total observed time, and nearly 60% of the RCT time was spent on intervention tasks. Medication reviews was the most time consuming task, accounting for 32% of the observed time. The clinical pharmacists spent 14% of the intervention time communicating verbally, mainly with patients and healthcare professionals.

    Conclusion

    During the RCT, the clinical pharmacists spent about half their time performing the actual intervention. Consequently, costs for providing such a clinical pharmacist service should reflect actual time spent; otherwise, we may risk overestimating theoretical costs.

  • 37.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Clinical pharmacy services within a multiprofessional healthcare team2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of drug treatment is to reduce morbidity and mortality, and to improve health-related quality of life. However, there are frequent problems associated with drug treatment, especially among the elderly. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the impact of clinical pharmacy services within a multiprofessional healthcare team on quality and safety of patients’ drug therapy, and to study the frequency and nature of medication history errors on admission to hospital.

    Methods: A model for clinical pharmacy services within a multiprofessional healthcare team (the Lund Integrated Medicines Management model, LIMM) was introduced in three hospital wards. On admission of patients to hospital, clinical pharmacists conducted medication reconciliation (i.e. identified the most accurate list of a patient’s current medications) to identify any errors in the hospital medication list. To identify, solve and prevent any other drug-related problems, the clinical pharmacists interviewed patients and performed medication reviews and monitoring of drug therapy. Drug-related problems were discussed within the multiprofessional team and the physicians adjusted the drug therapy as appropriate.

    Results: On admission to hospital, drug-related problems, such as low adherence to drug therapy and concerns about treatment, were identified. Different statistical approaches to present results from ordinal data on adherence and beliefs about medicines were suggested. Approximately half of the patients were affected by errors in the medication history at admission to hospital; patients who had many prescription drugs had a higher risk for errors. Medication reconciliation and review reduced the number of inappropriate medications and reduced drug-related hospital revisits. No impact on all-cause hospital revisits was demonstrated.

    Conclusion: Patients admitted to hospital are at high risk for being affected by medication history errors and there is a high potential to improve their drug therapy. By reducing medication history errors and improving medication appropriateness, clinical pharmacy services within a multiprofessional healthcare team improve the quality and safety of patients’ drug therapy. The impact of routine implementation of medication reconciliation and review on healthcare visits will need further evaluation; the results from this thesis suggest that drug-related hospital revisits could be reduced.

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  • 38.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bondesson, Åsa
    Hoglund, Peter
    Eriksson, Peter
    Errors in medication history at hospital admission: prevalence and predicting factors2012In: BMC Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 1472-6904, Vol. 12, p. Article ID: 9-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An accurate medication list at hospital admission is essential for the evaluation and further treatment of patients. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency, type and predictors of errors in medication history, and to evaluate the extent to which standard care corrects these errors.

    Methods:A descriptive study was carried out in two medical wards in a Swedish hospital using Lund Integrated Medicines Management (LIMM)-based medication reconciliation. A clinical pharmacist identified each patient's most accurate pre-admission medication list by conducting a medication reconciliation process shortly after admission. This list was then compared with the patient's medication list in the hospital medical records. Addition or withdrawal of a drug or changes to the dose or dosage form in the hospital medication list were considered medication discrepancies. Medication discrepancies for which no clinical reason could be identified (unintentional changes) were considered medication history errors.

    Results: The final study population comprised 670 of 818 eligible patients. At least one medication history error was identified by pharmacists conducting medication reconciliations for 313 of these patients (47%; 95% CI 43-51%). The most common medication error was an omitted drug, followed by a wrong dose. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a higher number of drugs at admission (odds ratio [OR] per 1 drug increase = 1.10; 95% CI 1.06 - 1.14; p<0.0001) and the patient living in their own home without any care services (OR1.58; 95% CI 1.02 - 2.45; p = 0.042) were predictors for medication history errors at admission. The results further indicated that standard care by non-pharmacist ward staff had partly corrected the errors in affected patients by four days after admission, but a considerable proportion of the errors made in the initial medication history at admission remained undetected by standard care (OR for medication errors detected by pharmacists' medication reconciliation carried out on days 4 - 11 compared to days 0 - 1 = 0.52; 95% CI 0.30 - 0.91; p = 0.021).

    Conclusions: Clinical pharmacists conducting LIMM-based medication reconciliations have a high potential for correcting errors in medication history for all patients. In an older Swedish population, those prescribed many drugs seem to benefit most from admission medication reconciliation.

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  • 39.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bondesson, Åsa
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Höglund, Peter
    Lund University, Lund.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Impact of the Lund Integrated Medicines Management model on medication appropriateness2011In: 39th ESCP European symposium on clinical pharmacy & 13th SFPC congress: clinical pharmacy at the front line of innovations. 21–23 October 2010, Lyon, France, Springer, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Inappropriate prescribing among elderly patients may increase the risk for drug-related problems. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the Lund Integrated Medicines Management (LIMM) model on medication appropriateness in hospitalised patients. Materials & Methods A prospective controlled study of 210 elderly patients, from three internal medicine wards in a Swedish hospital. We compared patients receiving Medication Reviews, including Admission Medication Reconciliation, according to the LIMM-model, with patients receiving standard care. The LIMMmodel was implemented at one ward at a time between January 2007 and March 2008. We chose four dates for inclusion of patients during this period, one date before implementation and three dates about one month after implementation on the first, second and third ward, respectively. All patients who were staying at any of the wards on  these dates were eligible for inclusion. The main outcome measure was the change, from admission to discharge, in the number of drugs with at least one inappropriate rating, according to the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). The MAI consists of 10 criteria: indication, effectiveness, dosage, correct directions, practical directions, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, duplication, duration and expense. For intervention patients, the MAI assessment at discharge was performed in two steps. Step 1, which was a blinded assessment based on information in the patient’s medical record, was used in the main analysis. In step 2, the drugs were reassessed (unblinded), by adding information from the pharmacists’ Medication Review Forms that had not been documented in the medical records. Results The control and intervention group were similar regarding baseline demographic data. The mean number of drugs with at least one inappropriate rating decreased from 3.0 at admission to 1.5 at discharge in the intervention group, and from 2.8 to 1.7 in the control group. This represented a 51% (95% CI, 43-58%) decrease in the intervention group (step 1 assessment), compared to a 39% (95% CI, 30-48%) decrease in the control group (p = 0.0446, Poisson regression). In the assessment step 2, the MAI rating was changed from ‘inappropriate’ to ‘appropriate’ in 23% of the drugs (27/117). The mean decrease per patient between step 1 and 2 in number of drugs with at least one inappropriate rating was 0.38 (95% CI 0.22–0.54). In both control and intervention patients the most common MAI problems involved ‘expense’, ‘indication’ and ‘duration’. Discussion & Conclusion This study showed that medication appropriateness at discharge from hospital improved in patients receiving Medication Reviews and Reconciliation, according to the LIMM-model. In order to take full advantage of the work done by the clinical pharmacists, the information documented in the Medication Review Forms should also be documented in the medical records.

  • 40.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bondesson, Åsa
    Höglund, Peter
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Predictors for medication history errors at admission2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Bondesson, Åsa
    Skåne County Council, Sweden.
    Prospective observational study of medication reviews in internal medicine wards: evaluation of drug-related problems2021In: European journal of hospital pharmacy. Science and practice, ISSN 2047-9956, E-ISSN 2047-9964, Vol. 28, no e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Lund Integrated Medicines Management model offers a systematic approach for individualising and optimising patient drug treatment. Clinical, economical and humanistic outcomes have been shown as well as results from the medication reconciliation process. There is a need also to describe the medication review process.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and types of drug-related problems (DRPs) identified during medication reviews and to evaluate the actions of the pharmacists and the physicians regarding the identified DRPs.

    METHOD: Structured medication reviews were conducted by a multi-professional team on top of standard care for 719 patients in two internal medicine wards in a Swedish University Hospital. The medication reviews were studied retrospectively to classify DRPs and actions taken.

    RESULTS: A total of 573 (80%) of patients had at least one actual DRP; an average of three DRPs per patient and in total 2164. Wrong drug and adverse drug reaction were the most common types of DRPs. The most frequent medication groups involved in DRPs were drugs for the cardiovascular system and the nervous system and the most frequent substances were warfarin, digoxin, furosemide and paracetamol. The 10 most common medications accounted for 27% of the actual DRPs. Of the identified DRPs, a total of 1740 (80%) were acted on. The three most common types of adjustments made were withdrawal of drug therapy, change of drug therapy and initiation of drug therapy. When the pharmacist suggested an adjustment, the physician implemented 88% (1037/1174) of the recommendations.

    CONCLUSION: DRPs are common among elderly patients who are admitted to hospital. Systematic identification of high-risk medications and common DRP types enables targeting of prioritised patients for medication reviews.

  • 42.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Esporlas, Lily
    Deierborg, Eva
    Holmdahl, Lydia
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Höglund, Peter
    Eriksson, Tommy
    The impact of an integrated clinical pharmacy service on drug-related hospital contacts.2010In: ESCP–GSASA 38th symposium on clinical pharmacy 30 years of clinical pharmacy; a bright future ahead, 3rd–6th November 2009, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Höglund, P
    Bondesson, Å
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, T
    Clinical implementation of systematic medication reconciliation and review as part of the Lund Integrated Medicines Management model – impact on all cause emergency department revisits2012In: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, ISSN 0269-4727, E-ISSN 1365-2710, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 686-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is known and objective: Interventions involving medication reconciliation and review by clinical pharmacists can reduce drug-related problems and improve therapeutic outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of routine admission medication reconciliation and inpatient medication review on emergency department (ED) revisits after discharge. Secondary outcomes included the combined rate of post-discharge hospital revisits or death.

    Methods: This prospective, controlled study included all patients hospitalised in three internal medicine wards in a university hospital, between January 1 2006 and May 31 2008. Medication reconciliation on admission and inpatient medication review, conducted by clinical pharmacists in a multiprofessional team, were implemented in these wards at different times during 2007 and 2008 (intervention periods). A discharge medication reconciliation was undertaken in all the study wards, during both control and intervention periods. Patients were included in the intervention group (n=1216) if they attended a ward with medication reconciliation and review, whether they had received the intervention or not. Control patients (n=2758) attended the wards before implementation of the intervention. 

    Results: No impact of medication reconciliation and reviews on ED revisits (hazard ratio [HR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-1.04) or event-free survival (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.88-1.04) was demonstrated. In the intervention group, 594 patients (48.8%) visited the ED, compared to 1416 (51.3%) control patients. In total, 716 intervention (58.9%) and 1688 (61.2%) control patients experienced any event (ED visit, hospitalisation or death). Because the time to a subsequent ED visit was longer for the control as well as the intervention groups in 2007 than in 2006 (p<0.05), we re-examined this cohort of patients; the proportion of patients revisiting the ED was similar in both groups in 2007 (p=0.608).

    What is new and conclusion: Routine implementation of medication reconciliation and reviews on admission and during the hospital stay did not appear to have any impact on ED revisits, rehospitalisations or mortality over six months' follow-up.  

  • 44.
    Hellström, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Council.
    Throfast, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    General beliefs about medicines among independent elderly adults in Sweden: data from an RCT2017In: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 223-224, article id PH009Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hermansson, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ranstam, Jonas
    NKO, Lund University Hospital, Lund.
    Zilling, Thomas
    Department of Surgery, Varberg Hospital, Sweden.
    Decreasing incidence of peptic ulcer complications after the introduction of the proton pump inhibitors, a study of the Swedish population from 1974-2002.2009In: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 9, no April, p. Article number: 25-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite a decreasing incidence of peptic ulcer disease, most previous studies report a stabile incidence of ulcer complications. We wanted to investigate the incidence of peptic ulcer complications in Sweden before and after the introduction of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in 1988 and compare these data to the sales of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).

    METHODS: All cases of gastric and duodenal ulcer complications diagnosed in Sweden from 1974 to 2002 were identified using the National hospital discharge register. Information on sales of ASA/NSAID was obtained from the National prescription survey. RESULTS: When comparing the time-periods before and after 1988 we found a significantly lower incidence of peptic ulcer complications during the later period for both sexes (p < 0.001). Incidence rates varied from 1.5 to 7.8/100000 inhabitants/year regarding perforated peptic ulcers and from 5.2 to 40.2 regarding peptic ulcer bleeding. The number of sold daily dosages of prescribed NSAID/ASA tripled from 1975 to 2002. The number of prescribed sales to women was higher than to males. Sales of low-dose ASA also increased. The total volume of NSAID and ASA, i.e. over the counter sale and sold on prescription, increased by 28% during the same period.

    CONCLUSION: When comparing the periods before and after the introduction of the proton pump inhibitors we found a significant decrease in the incidence of peptic ulcer complications in the Swedish population after 1988 when PPI were introduced on the market. The cause of this decrease is most likely multifactorial, including smoking habits, NSAID consumption, prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the introduction of PPI. Sales of prescribed NSAID/ASA increased, especially in middle-aged and elderly women. This fact seems to have had little effect on the incidence of peptic ulcer complications.

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  • 46.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Pharmaceutical care in coronary heart disease2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In coronary heart disease (CHD), pharmaceutical care implies that health care professionals cooperate with the patient to optimize drug therapy primarily for secondary prevention. Low adherence and discontinuation of drugs are common among patients with CHD, and this is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The achievement of guidelines-recommended treatment goals for risk factors is disappointingly low in secondary prevention.

    Aim: To study clinical and patient related aspects of pharmaceutical care for secondary prevention in patients with CHD.

    Method: A pharmacist used medication review and motivational interviewing to impact patients’ beliefs about medicines and adherence in a pilot study. This intervention was further developed and tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 316 patients with verified CHD who were planned for follow-up at the cardiology clinic in Kalmar. The primary study outcome was the proportion ofpatients who reached the treatment goal for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)cholesterol. Patients’ adherence to cholesterol-lowering drugs according to a combination of refilled prescriptions and self-report was the key secondary outcome. In the RCT, pharmacists individualized both the dose and the content of thesupport based on the patient’s need. A process evaluation was planned alongside the trial to investigate implementation and mechanisms of impact such as pharmacists’ actions and effects on patients’ medication beliefs. In a separate qualitative study, we interviewed patients with CHD who had used their medicines for at least 12 months.

    Results: At 15 months follow-up of the RCT, the primary outcome measure did not differ between groups. The intervention improved patient adherence to cholesterol-lowering medicines; 88% vs 77% of the patients were adherent, possibly because the intervention lowered patients’ concerns about medicines. In 84% of the intervention patients at least one actual drug-related problem (DRP) was identified, and for 90% of those DRPs actions were taken to resolve the problems. Analyses of the interviews with patients revealed that patients´ experiences with medicines varied greatly - from trivial to troublesome – and these were classified into one of seven categories: a sense of security, unproblematic, learning to live with it, taking responsibility for it, somewhat uncertain, troublesome, or distressing.

    Conclusion: Pharmaceutical care improved the patients’ use of medicines in CHD but did not increase treatment goal achievement for LDL-cholesterol. Overall, the findings of this thesis emphasize that when support in managing medications is offered to patients, it should encompass various aspects of medicine-taking: safety, knowledge, beliefs, practical handling, impact on day-to-day life, and the patient’s medication experience.

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  • 47.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Effects of a pharmaceutical care intervention on clinical outcomes and patient adherence in coronary heart disease - the MIMeRiC randomized controlled trial2021In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the treatment of coronary heart disease, secondary prevention goals are still often unmet and pooradherence to prescribed drugs has been suggested as one of the reasons. We aimed to investigate whether pharmaceutical care by a pharmacist at the cardiology clinic trained in motivational interviewing improves clinical outcomesand patient adherence.

    Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, outcomes-blinded trial designed to compare pharmaceutical care follow-up with standard care. After standard follow-up at the cardiology clinic, patients in the interventiongroup were seen by a clinical pharmacist two to fve times as required over seven months. Pharmacists were trainedto use motivational interviewing in the consultations and they tailored their support to each patient’s clinical needsand beliefs about medicines. The primary study end-point was the proportion of patients who reached the treatmentgoal for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 12 months after discharge. The key secondary outcome was patientadherence to lipid-lowering therapy at 15 months after discharge, and other secondary outcomes were the efectson patient adherence to other preventive drugs, systolic blood pressure, disease-specifc quality of life, and healthcareuse.

    Results: 316 patients were included. The proportion of patients who reached the target for low-density lipoproteincholesterol were 37.0% in the intervention group and 44.2% in the control group (P=.263). More intervention thancontrol patients were adherent to cholesterol-lowering drugs (88 vs 77%; P=.033) and aspirin (97 vs 91%; P=.036)but not to beta-blocking agents or renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors.

    Conclusions: Our intervention had no positive efects on risk factors for CHD, but it increased patient adherence.Further investigation of the intervention process is needed to explore the diference in results between patient adherence and medication efects. Longer follow-up of healthcare use and mortality will determine if the increased adherence per se eventually will have a meaningful efect on patient health

  • 48.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University, Sweden;Norwegian University of Sciences and Technology, Norway.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary Heart Disease (MIMeRiC): Intervention Development and Protocol for the Process Evaluation2018In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-12, article id e21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trials of complex interventions are often criticized for being difficult to interpret because the effects of apparently similar interventions vary across studies dependent on context, targeted groups, and the delivery of the intervention. The Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary heart disease (MIMeRiC) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention aimed at improving pharmacological secondary prevention. Guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions have recently highlighted the need for better reporting of the development of interventions, including descriptions of how the intervention is assumed to work, how this theory informed the process evaluation, and how the process evaluation relates to the outcome evaluation.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to describe how the intervention was designed and developed. The aim of the process evaluation is to better understand how and why the intervention in the MIMeRiC trial was effective or not effective.

    METHODS: The research questions for evaluating the process are based on the conceptual model of change processes assumed in the intervention and will be analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data are used to evaluate the medication review in terms of drug-related problems, to describe how patients' beliefs about medicines are affected by the intervention, and to evaluate the quality of motivational interviewing. Qualitative data will be used to analyze whether patients experienced the intervention as intended, how cardiologists experienced the collaboration and intervention, and how the intervention affected patients' overall experience of care after coronary heart disease.

    RESULTS: The development and piloting of the intervention are described in relation to the theoretical framework. Data for the process evaluation will be collected until March 2018. Some process evaluation questions will be analyzed before, and others will be analyzed after the outcomes of the MIMeRiC RCT are known.

    CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes the framework for the design of the intervention tested in the MIMeRiC trial, development of the intervention from the pilot stage to the complete trial intervention, and the framework and methods for the process evaluation. Providing the protocol of the process evaluation allows prespecification of the processes that will be evaluated, because we hypothesize that they will determine the outcomes of the MIMeRiC trial. This protocol also constitutes a contribution to the new field of process evaluations as made explicit in health services research and clinical trials of complex interventions.

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  • 49.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University, Sweden;Norweigan University of Sciences and Technology, Norway.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hellström, Lina
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary Heart Disease (MIMeRiC): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating Effects on Clinical Outcomes, Adherence, and Quality of Life2018In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-15, article id e57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Preventive treatment goals for blood pressure and cholesterol levels continue to be unmet for many coronary patients. The effect of drug treatment depends on both its appropriateness and the patients' adherence to the treatment regimen. There is a need for adherence interventions that have a measurable effect on clinical outcomes.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects on treatment goals of an intervention designed to improve patient adherence and treatment quality in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. A protocol for the prespecified process evaluation of the trial is published separately.

    METHODS: The Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary heart disease (MIMeRiC) trial is a prospective, randomized, outcomes-blinded trial designed to compare individualized follow-up by a clinical pharmacist using motivational interviewing (MI) and medication review with standard follow-up. Patients were randomized to 2 groups after stratification according to their beliefs about medicines. After standard follow-up at the cardiology clinic, patients in the intervention group are seen individually by a clinical pharmacist 2 to 5 times as required over 7 months, at the clinic. The pharmacist reviews each patient's medication and uses MI to manage any problems with prescribing and adherence. The primary study outcome is the proportion of patients who have reached the treatment goal for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 12 months after discharge. Secondary outcomes are the effects on patient adherence, systolic blood pressure, disease-specific quality of life, and health care use.

    RESULTS: The protocol for this study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee, Linköping, in 2013. Enrollment started in October 2013 and ended in December 2016 when 417 patients had been included. Follow-up data collection will conclude in March 2018. Publication of the primary and secondary outcome results from the MIMeRiC trial is anticipated in 2019.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MIMeRiC trial will assess the effectiveness of an intervention involving medication reviews and individualized support. The results will inform the continued development of support for this large group of patients who use preventive medicines for lifelong treatment. The design of this adherence intervention is based on a theoretical framework and is the first trial of an intervention that uses beliefs about medicines to individualize the intervention protocol.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02102503; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02102503 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6x7iUDohy).

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  • 50.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Region Kalmar county, Sweden.
    Hellström, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kalmar county, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Trivial or Troublesome: Experience with Coronary Heart Disease Medication from the Patient's Perspective2020In: Patient Preference and Adherence, E-ISSN 1177-889X, Vol. 14, p. 411-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Living with coronary heart disease (CHD) usually means being prescribed several medications to help prevent new cardiac events. Using medicines for long-term conditions impacts on day-to-day life, and coping with medicines can be burdensome and can affect the quality of life. To enable better support of these patients, we need to understand their collective medicine-related experience. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe patients' medicine-related experience 1 year after the diagnosis of CHD. Patients and Methods: A qualitative, descriptive study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in 19 patients in their homes or at Linnaeus University, Sweden. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach was used. Results: Patients' experiences with using their medicines after diagnosis of CHD differed considerably. Some patients found handling the medicines and administering their treatment very easy, natural and straightforward, while others found that it was distressing or trouble-some, and influenced their lives extensively. There was a varied sense of personal responsibility about the treatment and use of medicines. The patients' experiences were classified into one of seven categories: a sense of security, unproblematic, learning to live with it, taking responsibility for it, somewhat uncertain, troublesome, or distressing. Participants in the study who expressed an unproblematic view of medicine taking also often revealed that they had dilemmas or uncertainties. Conclusion: Patients' medicine-related experiences after CHD vary greatly. The findings of this study highlight a need for more individualized support for patients using medicines for secondary prevention. The patients often needed better dialogue with healthcare providers to optimally manage their medicines. Medicine-related support for these patients should encompass various aspects of medicine-taking.

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