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  • 1.
    Alfredsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Manufacture of a Vegetarian Smoothie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen
    et al.
    Universidad de Concepción, Chile.
    González-Acuña, Daniel
    Universidad de Concepción, Chile.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island2011In: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 486-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  • 3.
    Aslani Asl, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Synthesis of new perchlorates from 4- nitropyridine 1-oxide by acylation and decarboxylation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    4-Nitropyridine 1-oxide was reacted with bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate, carbonyl fluoride, methyland ethyl chloroformate. Of particular interest was to examine if denitrohalogenation occurs when 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide is treated with carbonyl fluoride which happens when 4-nitropyridine 1-oxidereacts with bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate. A reaction took place but what was formed is still amatter of question.

    Two new compounds, 1-(methyloxycarbonyloxy)- and 1-(ethyloxycarbonyloxy)-4-nitropyridiniumperchlorate were obtained when 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide and sodium perchlorate in acetonitrile werereacted with methyl and ethyl chloroformate, respectively.

    1-Ethyloxy-4-nitropyridinium perchlorate were formed when heating 1-(ethyloxy-carbonyloxy)-4-nitropyridinium perchlorate. The evolution of carbon dioxide ceased at 90 OC. The structuredetermination of the product was made by IR and1H-NMR spectroscopy. The methyl analogue onthe other hand was completely decarboxylated at 145 OC according to an IR spectrum. The finalstructure determination of the latter compound remains to be done. Both compounds are new.

    Experiments were also done in order to work out a simple method for synthesizing carbonyl fluoridefrom bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate and potassium fluoride using 18-crown-6 or tetrabutylammoniumbromide as phase transfer catalysts in several solvents, e.g. acetonitrile, nitromethane, propylenecarbonate. Carbonyl fluoride was formed but its purity remains to be settled.

  • 4.
    Dahlbäcker, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utveckling av ett lågkaloripulver med chokladsmak2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, obesity is the cause for many diseases such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Very low calorie diets (VLCD) are formulated foods with 450-800 kilocalories per day intended for use as the sole dietary source of energy during weight loss. These diets have proven useful in short-term weight loss and show improvements in blood pressure, serum lipids and glycaemia in obese people with type 2 diabetes.

    Currently, there is no harmonised legislation throughout the EU for VLCD-products, however Codex Alimentarius has developed a standard (Codex Standard 203-1995) which the Nordic Council of Ministers have based their Nordic recommendations (Report 1993:557) on. The Swedish recommendations are based on this report and The Swedish National Food Administration direct the control and labelling of products merchandised inSweden.

    The current recommendations for VLCD have been summarized in this study. A review of scientific studies of the use of VLCD-products demonstrated the safe use of these products for a limited time to achieve weight loss, due to nutritional composition preventing loss of lean body mass.

    The aim of this study was to formulate a recipe for a chocolate flavoured VLCD-powder based on The Swedish National Food Administration’s VLCD recommendations. First, a theoretical recipe was calculated and based on sensory analysis different sources of raw materials and the amounts were evaluated and adjusted in different trials. In the fifth and final trial, a product with a satisfying taste and texture was created.

    The results from the different trials showed that the low energy content in the product demanded the right type of raw material to achieve a pleasant flavour and correct amount of nutrients. The raw material used in the project was presented and described in the background.

    All together the project gave an overview of VLCD-products whereby no evidence of serious adverse effects was found in the literature from using VLCD for a limited time. In formulating a VLCD powder it was important to use the right raw materials and combination of ingredients to develop a product with a satisfying taste and texture.

     

  • 5.
    Edgren, Ellen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Analys av vitamin B12 i tillagad och återuppvärmd lax genom bioassay med Lactobacillus delbrueckii subart lactis ATCC® 7830TM2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Halten näringsämnen i livsmedel varierar bland annat med tillagningsmetod, lagringstid och lagringsförhållanden, som exponering för ljus och syre. Oklarheter finns för mikrovågors inverkan på näringsämnen och framförallt på vitamin B12. Eftersom många äldre drabbas av brist på vitamin B12, är detta av intresse eftersom många hemmaboende äldre människor får hemleverans av färdiga matportioner som är avsedda att värmas, ofta i mikrovågsugn. Syftet med studien var att kunna ge en indikation på om uppvärmning genom mikrovågor påverkar halten vitamin B12 i färdiga kylda måltider. Detta gjordes genom litteratursammanställning om vitamin B12 och mikrovågar samt genom bioassay med Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Vitamin B12 i ouppvärmd lax, lax värmd i mikrovågsugn samt lax värmd i konventionell ugn analyserades. Tillväxten av bakterier uppskattades genom mätning av turbiditet. Högst vitamin B12-halt sågs i mikrovågsvärmd lax, därefter ouppvärmd lax och ugnsvärmd lax. Statistiskt signifikanta skillnader sågs för analyserade vitamin B12-halter mellan ouppvärmt- och ugnsvärmt prov respektive mellan mikrovågsvärmt- och ugnsvärmt prov. De varierande vitaminhalterna kan bero på metodfel, otillräcklig vitaminextraktion eller att bakterierna inte konsumerat allt tillgängligt vitamin vid turbiditetsmätning. Slutsatsen av studien är att halten vitamin B12 i livsmedel inte verkar påverkas negativt av mikrovågor, däremot finns tendenser att halten minskar beroende av temperatur och tillagningstid.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Emily
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Alternativa fröer i bröd: En teknisk och sensorisk utvärdering av amarant, bovete, chia, hirs samt quinoa i bröd och bakning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Influenser från hela världen påverkar livsmedelsindustrin och användandet av fröer har ökat kraftigt de senaste åren. Idag används endast ett begränsat antal fröer inom bageriindustrin men ett intresse finns av att finna alternativa fröer som kan bidra med sina egenskaper till bröd.

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att undersöka amarant, bovete, chia, hirs och quinoa, för att se vad de kan bidra med för näringsmässiga och sensoriska egenskaper till bröd. Examensarbetet utförs vid Pågen AB. Genom en mindre litteraturstudie och ett antal bakningsförsök med efterföljande analyser av volym, inkråm, textur och vattenhalt, kartläggs fröernas närings- och bakningsegenskaper. Sensoriska analyser görs även för att undersöka dessa egenskaper hos varje frö.

    Av de studerade fröerna valdes chia, bovete och quinoa ut för vidare bakningsförsök. Chia och bovete valdes ut bland annat på grund av de goda resultaten från de sensoriska analyserna och försöken visade att båda fröerna fungerar bra i olika bröd, i olika mängder. Quinoas bittra smak och lukt var svår att få bort men minskade när fröet användes som dekor. Även chia och krossat bovete passade bra som dekor på bröd.

    Försöken visar på att det finns spännande alternativa fröer som kan bidra med mycket både när det gäller näring och smak till bröd. Vidare försök med olika brödrecept och varierade frömängder krävs för att se hur väl fröerna skulle fungera i storskaliga projekt inom bageriindustrin.

  • 7.
    Fröberg, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Extraction and Method Optimization of Thylakoid Membranes and their Application in Oat Based Products2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Thylakoid, the photosynthetic membranes of chloroplast are the most abundant biological membranes on earth. They have been shown to have an increasing and prolonged satiety effect when added to food components given to animals and humans, in order to lose or maintain a healthy weight. Several studies conducted in the subject proves this effect and the next step is to reach out to the public with a simple, nutritious and well tasting product that provides the consumer with the recommended daily intake (RDI) of thylakoids.

    Aim: The aim of this study was first of all to learn about the different steps in the extraction process of thylakoid membranes from spinach and learn how to determine the chlorophyll and protein content. Since thylakoids have a very peculiar and recital taste, much of the effort was put into optimize the extraction method in order to reduce this undesirable characteristic. Secondly, the aim was to develop a product concept with thylakoids as an active satiety substance. Oatly products were used as a base to develop e.g. table drinks, yoghurt and pancakes.

    Results: The measured cholorophyll and protein contents were in line with previous studies, indicating that these methods are successful and consistent tools for thylakoid determination. The addition of ethanol treatment and blanching to the original extraction process showed to be favourable in reducing the undesirable taste and smell of the thylakoids. Using Oatly products as a base for thylakoid application worked quite well taste wise for the flavoured products but not so well for the natural products. The most successful products, ranked by different attributes, proved to be a soup and an exotic yoghurt, though these results were not significant.

    Conclusions: There is a big potential in creating products with thylakoids as an active satiety ingredient. However, more effort in reducing the thylakoid flavour needs to be done in order to create a marketable product.

  • 8.
    García Bravo, Gabriela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Milk and dairy intake and the metabolic syndrome2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this master thesis was to get an overview on how milk and dairy consumption affect development of the metabolic syndrome, and from this review to formulate a milk product with potentially beneficial effects.

    A cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia are known as the metabolic syndrome. Epidemiological studies performed to investigate the relation between milk and dairy intake and the metabolic syndrome, suggests that low-fat milk and dairy intake have a positive effect in the prevention of the disease. Many dairy components might contribute to this effect.

    There are promising effects seen by whey amino acids on the glucose and insulin control, but the long-term effects are warranted. Low-fat milk and dairy as part of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables have the most blood pressure reducing effect. This beneficial effect is in part believed to be due to the calcium content of milk and dairy products. In addition, it is also hypothesised that calcium plays an important roll in weight management. However, the evidence up to date is contradictorily.

    Weight control, on the other hand, can be improved by affecting satiety. Acute intervention studies show that whey, in particular, alfa-lactalbumin, is more satiating than other proteins, resulting in a lower energy intake in a subsequent meal.

    It is of interest to the dairy industry to provide milk and dairy consumers with milk products that have beneficial effects on wellness and health. Therefore, based on the literatured reviewed on milk and dairy intake and the metabolic syndrome, a milk product with beneficial effects on weight was formulated and developed.

  • 9.
    Haemig, Paul D.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sjöstedt de Luna, S
    Grafström, A
    Lithner, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Stedt, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Forecasting risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): using data from wildlife and climate to predict next year's number of human victims.2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 366-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Over the past quarter century, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has increased in most European nations. However, the number of humans stricken by the disease varies from year to year. A method for predicting major increases and decreases is needed.

    METHODS: We assembled a 25-y database (1984-2008) of the number of human TBE victims and wildlife and climate data for the Stockholm region of Sweden, and used it to create easy-to-use mathematical models that predict increases and decreases in the number of humans stricken by TBE.

    RESULTS: Our best model, which uses December precipitation and mink (Neovison vison, formerly Mustela vison) bagging figures, successfully predicted every major increase or decrease in TBE during the past quarter century, with a minimum of false alarms. However, this model was not efficient in predicting small increases and decreases.

    CONCLUSIONS: Predictions from our models can be used to determine when preventive and adaptive programmes should be implemented. For example, in years when the frequency of TBE in humans is predicted to be high, vector control could be intensified where infested ticks have a higher probability of encountering humans, such as at playgrounds, bathing lakes, barbecue areas and camping facilities. Because our models use only wildlife and climate data, they can be used even when the human population is vaccinated. Another advantage is that because our models employ data from previously-established databases, no additional funding for surveillance is required.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Helene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Extraction and Characterization of Hydrophobin from Trichoderma reesei2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrophobins are a class of small proteins (7-15kDa) found in filamentous fungi and are among the most surface active proteins known today. Because of this they have received attention for different applications, e.g. for the food industry as an alternative in emulsions. The goal of this project was to culture and extract hydrophobins from Trichoderma reesei and characterize it. This was done from a freeze-dried culture of Trichoderma reesei, which was cultured on PDA-plates and in liquid medium with glucose as carbon source. Extraction was made by breaking the cells, mechanically and by sonication, and then by shaking a seperating funnel to create foam from the surface-active proteins. The foam was washed and freeze-dried and the total protein concentration of the freeze-dried substance was determined with Bradford assay and the hydrophpbin was characterized with SDS-PAGE. The culturing of the fungi was successful. The amount of foam created was, however, less than expected. The Bradford assay gave a total protein concentration of 7.5% in the freeze-dried substance, but the SDS-PAGE didn't give any results. The reason for this probably depends on the culturing and the extraction of the hydrophobin. T. reesei hydrophobin HFBI, expressed in glucose containing media, is bound to the mycelium of the fungi and the breaking of the mycelium might not have been enough to release all the protein, which also would explain the small amounts of foam. One way to improve this could be to grow the fungi on lactose instead. This will result in that T. reesei produces HFBII instead, which is mainly released to the surrounding. The conclusion of the project is that the method for culturing and extraction needs to be improved to obtain hydrophobin from T. reesei.

  • 11.
    Jonsson, Petter
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Utveckling av en ny sportdryck för uthållighetsidrott2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this examination project work was to develop one new sports drink for consumption during prolonged exercise. Most existing sports drinks contain carbohydrates and electrolytes but the drink developed during this project work aimed to contain protein/amino acids and other substances that potentially may help the athlete to perform better compared with sports dinks containing only carbohydrates and electrolytes. Since it is unclear if whole proteins, oligopeptides or free amino acids are preferred, three different sports drink where developed.

    All three sports drinks contain 25 mmol Na+/l, 5.5 mmol K+/l, 240 mg caffeine (per serving), high molecular weight glucose polymer (7%), aromas, beta-carotene and other substances supposed to improve the taste of the drinks. The three drinks contain different sources of amino acids: 0.47% branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the BCAA-sports drink, 2% whey protein in the Whey protein-sports drink and 0.8% hydrolyzed casein (oligopeptides) in the Peptopro®-sports drink. The serving size of each sports drink is 0.75 l.

    As the drinks should taste well and be easy to drink during exercise blinded tasting tests were performed. During these tests prototypes and the final versions of all three sports drinks were compared to a placebo drink containing no amino acids or caffeine.

    The results from the taste-tests show that none of the test drinks or the placebo drink exhibited significantly better taste (p>0.05). However, the BCAA-sports drink, the Whey protein-sports drink and the placebo drink was shown to taste better than the Peptopro®-sports drink.

    To investigate the effects of the sports drinks on performance, two elite trained cyclists were supplemented with the test drinks and the placebo drink during interval-trials on a cycle ergometer equipped to measure power output during blinded tests. The power output was compared to the heart rate of each test participant. The placebo drinks contained 8% carbohydrates but no caffeine or amino acids. The results indicate that all three sports drinks either were considered equal, or improved the performance, as compared to the placebo drink. All drinks were considered to taste well during exercise. These findings indicate that the three sports drinks developed during this project work, improved performance and tasted well. However, it is desired to improve the taste of both the Peptopro®-sports drink and the Whey protein-sports drink. Alternative drinks containing no caffeine should be developed in order for the athlete to intake large quantities of the developed sports drinks during prolonged exercise

  • 12.
    Jourdain, Elsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Ake
    Hubálek, Zdenek
    Sikutová, Silvie
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Malin
    Wahlström, Maria
    Jozan, Martine
    Falk, Kerstin I
    Surveillance for West Nile virus in wild birds from northern Europe.2011In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 77-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 1935 migratory birds from 104 different species were captured in southeastern Sweden in 2005-2006 and tested for antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV). Overall, 46 birds (2.4%; binomial confidence limits, 1.8-3.2) were positive by blocking-ELISA, but only 2 (0.10%; binomial confidence limits, 0.0-0.4) had antibodies detectable by both blocking-ELISA and WNV neutralization test. ELISA-positive birds included long- and short-distance migrants likely exposed to WNV while wintering in or migrating through areas enzootic for WNV. Exposure to a cross-reactive Flavivirus was suspected for short-distance migrants of the Turdidae family, but no cross-neutralization with tick-borne encephalitis and Usutu viruses was observed.

  • 13.
    Jönsson, Katarina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Investigation of Salt Limit Values and Product Safety in Seafood Products using Water Activity and Water Phase Salt Content2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Jönsson, Tove
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Distribution of Anthocyanin in Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) and Effects of Heat Treatment on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic and Total Anthocyanin Content2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments responsible for the red, violet and blue colours in plants. Anthocyanins belong to the flavonoid group and are the major antioxidant in bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), where the highest content can be found in the peel. Several health benefits of anthocyanins have been reported, like preventing cancer and diabetes and inhibit the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL).

    The anthocyanins are degraded during heating and storage, thus the nutritional quality changes as berry products are produced. It has been reported earlier that the degradation products also might possess antioxidant activity, hence heating may be beneficial.

    The aim of this degree project work was to determine the distribution of anthocyanin in bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) and effects of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total anthocyanin content. The scavenging capacity was studied against both peroxyl radicals and the DPPH radical. Another part of this project was to develop new products that can stimulate the intake of berry based products.

    The bilberries used for determination of distribution of anthocyanins were peeled, which gave one fraction of peel and one fraction of pulp. The study showed that the peel contained 9 times more anthocyanins than the pulp. When the antioxidant capacity, total content of polyphenolic compounds and anthocyanins, was determined samples obtained in a juiceextractor were used. The bilberries were filtered through a juice-extractor which yielded one fraction of juice and one fraction of presscake. The heat treatments of samples were performed at 80ºC and 120 ºC for 10 and 30 min. The antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals increased after thermal treatment, but decreased for the DPPH radical. Thus it seems as the degradation products possess some antioxidant capacity. The content of polyphenols increased after thermal treatment. The anthocyanin content decreased after heating, except when heating at 80ºC for 10 min. The presscake possessed the highest antioxidant capacity and content of polyphenols and anthocyanins compared to the juice.

    The results indicate that heating of bilberry juice and presscake can be beneficial in regard to antioxidant capacity to scavenge peroxyl radicals and that a bilberry product in which the peel is included gives the product a higher content of antioxidants.

    The outcome of the product development was a mixture of bilberry pomace and corn flour that could be used to make an extruded snack and a bilberry jam with sugar distributed in domains, which was perceived as sweeter than a traditional bilberry jam without sugar domains but with equal total sugar concentration.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Björn C. G.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rosengren, Annika M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Näslund, Inga
    FOI.
    Andersson, Per Ola
    FOI.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Synthetic Human Serum Albumin Sudlow I Binding Site Mimics2010In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 53, no 22, p. 7932-7937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) derived mimics of the human serum albumin (HSA) Sudlow I site-the binding site for the anticoagulant warfarin. MIP design was based upon a combination of experimental (H-1 NMR) and computational (molecular dynamics) methods, Two MIPs and corresponding nonimprinted reference polymers were synthesized and characterized (scanning electron microscopy; nitrogen sorption; and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). MIP-ligand recognition was examined using radioligand binding studies, where the largest number of selective sites was found in a warfarin-imprinted methacrylic acid ethylene dimethacrylate copolymer (MAA-MIP). The warfarin selectivity of this MIP was confirmed using radioligand displacement and zonal chromatographic studies. A direct comparison of MIP-warfarin binding characteristics with those of the HSA Sudlow I binding site was made, and similarities in site population (per gram polymer or protein) and affinities were observed. The warfarin selectivity of the MIP suggests its potential for use as a recognition element in a MIP-based warfarin sensor and even as a model to aid in understanding and steering blood-plasma protein-regulated transport processes or even for the development of warfarin sensors.

  • 16. Keller, Judith I
    et al.
    Shriver, W Gregory
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Griekspoor, Petra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds of the mid-Atlantic region, USA.2011In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 750-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the occurrence of three Campylobacter species--C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari--from 333 wild bird fecal samples collected at Tri-State Bird Rescue and Research in Newark, Delaware, in 2008. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, we detected C. jejuni from six avian families with an overall prevalence rate of 7.2%. We did not detect any other Campylobacter species. Campylobacter jejuni prevalence ranged widely between different avian families with crows (Corvidae) and gulls (Laridae) having the highest prevalence rates (23% and 25%, respectively).

  • 17.
    Kraus, Robert H. S.
    et al.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    van Hooft, Pim
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ydenberg, Ronald C.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands ; Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Prins, Herbert H. T.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved2011In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 54, article id 2832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans(1). These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes(2). Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs(3). Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported. Lately, a new AIV related strain swept through the human population, causing the 'swine flu epidemic'(4). Although human trading and transportation activity seems to be responsible for the spread of highly pathogenic strains(5), dispersal can also partly be attributed to wild birds(6, 7). However, the actual reservoir of all AIV strains is wild birds. In reaction to this and in face of severe commercial losses in the poultry industry, large surveillance programs have been implemented globally to collect information on the ecology of AIVs, and to install early warning systems to detect certain highly pathogenic strains(8-12). Traditional virological methods require viruses to be intact and cultivated before analysis. This necessitates strict cold chains with deep freezers and heavy biosafety procedures to be in place during transport. Long-term surveillance is therefore usually restricted to a few field stations close to well equipped laboratories. Remote areas cannot be sampled unless logistically cumbersome procedures are implemented. These problems have been recognised(13, 14) and the use of alternative storage and transport strategies investigated (alcohols or guanidine)(15-17). Recently, Kraus et al.(18) introduced a method to collect, store and transport AIV samples, based on a special filter paper. FTA cards(19) preserve RNA on a dry storage basis(20) and render pathogens inactive upon contact(21). This study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect AIV RNA in reverse-transcription PCR and that the resulting cDNA could be sequenced and virus genes and determined. In the study of Kraus et al.(18) a laboratory isolate of AIV was used, and samples were handled individually. In the extension presented here, faecal samples from wild birds from the duck trap at the Ottenby Bird Observatory (SE Sweden) were tested directly to illustrate the usefulness of the methods under field conditions. Catching of ducks and sample collection by cloacal swabs is demonstrated. The current protocol includes up-scaling of the work flow from single tube handling to a 96-well design. Although less sensitive than the traditional methods, the method of FTA cards provides an excellent supplement to large surveillance schemes. It allows collection and analysis of samples from anywhere in the world, without the need to maintaining a cool chain or safety regulations with respect to shipping of hazardous reagents, such as alcohol or guanidine.

  • 18.
    Lejonklev, Johan
    University of Kalmar. University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Possibilities to Vary the Functional Properties of Yellow Cheese by Using Different Vegetable Fats2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Lengstrand, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Molecular Characterizing of Starch and Starch Based Materials in Food Packaging2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Lennartsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Framtagning av ett nytt recept för clear-coat batter av pommes frites: En teknisk och sensorisk utvärdering2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements of good quality and appetizing fast food increases continuously as a consequence of a community where food is always available. The crispiness of French fries is an issue that must be considered in this context, since it tends to decrease and give the fries a soft surface not appreciated by the consumer. To prolong the crispiness, the fries can be coated by a batter, a mix of starches. The batters used often consists of modified starches, e.g. cross-linked, acetylated and dextrinizated to increase and prolong crispiness, flour to stabilize the batter and sodium bicarbonate to make the batter “rise”.

    The cross-linked starch keeps the granules in a swelled state and prevents them from breaking when exposed to heat or processing: therefore, it delays the gelatinization and decreases the stickiness of the batter. The acetylated starch delays the retrogradation since it prevents amylose from packing when retrograded. It also stabilizes the batter. The dextrin added consists of heat and acid processed starch and decreases the gelatinization temperature of the batter. It also gives an appetizing color to the French fries.

    The aim of this project is to give further understanding of the ingredients´ functions, and to find alternative ingredients in a recipe already used, since the price of some ingredients has increased rapidly during the last few years. By studying an existing recipe and by doing a literary research some of the ideas were applied in the laboratory, followed by sensory and technical evaluations where color, appearance, crispiness, hardness and, to some degree, taste were evaluated. The viscosity of the starch solutions was measured since it indicates the pick-up (the amount of batter attached to the French fries). Pick-up and texture were also analyzed.

    Experiments confirmed the hypothesis that the acetylated starch was unnecessary and could be replaced by cross-linked starch. A high degree of cross-linking seemed to decrease the crispiness, which may depend on the prevented granule swelling. Replacing the cross-linked starch with native potato starch did not work since the batter became way too sticky. The flour could, to some degree, be replaced by native potato starch since the crispiness was very distinct. Too high concentrations of native starch made all batters very sticky, though, probably because of the early granule “explosion” caused by processing and high frying temperatures. Maize flour was an alternative to the flour currently used, since the color, appearance and crispiness of the French fries were very good according to the sensory evaluations. Although the difference between the batters seemed evident when evaluated sensory, statistics made sure that it was not significant.

    More research and tests needs to be done to assure the results of this project. It is also necessary to verify that the laboratory results are identical to those in industry. However, the study gave further understanding of the function of the ingredients and confirmed that there are several ways of improving an already good concept.

  • 21.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    et al.
    Uppsala University ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bálint, Adám
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; National Veterinary Institute.
    Wahlgren, John
    Karolinska Institutet ; Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.
    Belák, Sándor
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; National Veterinary Institute.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Prevalence and phylogeny of coronaviruses in wild birds from the Bering Strait area (Beringia)2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 10, article id e13640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology.

  • 22.
    Mårtensson, Ellinor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Foaming in Apple Wine2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At Kiviks Musteri AB, situated in the southeast part of Scania, a wide variety of products based on fruits and berries, are produced. One of these products is base apple wine, which is used for the production of cider and mulled wine and also is sold to other producers of cider. A foaming problem has occurred at some customers when the cider is bottled, and this problem has been traced to the base wine. The aim of this paper is to investigate what causes the foaming and how the foaming is affected by the clarifying agents used during the production of the wine. An investigation whether silica based antifoaming agents might be a solution of the problem will be performed. During the work fermentations, clarification and foaming tests will be performed in laboratory scale in Kivik. Tests with four different silica based antifoaming compounds are carried out and on these samples the surface tension and viscosity are measured to see how these factors correlate with the foaming when antifoaming agents are added to the wine. What is more, fermentations with a new yeast type and fermentations with less fruit are made to investigate if this could give better foaming properties in the wine.

    The tests showed that it is probably proteins that are the main cause of the foaming, but an increase of the amount of bentonite, the clarifying agent reducing protein content in the wine, is not possible since this causes too much sediment. Antifoaming agents gave reduced foaming times, which were at an acceptable level, but when the wine was mixed to cider base and filtered the effect was lost. No significant differences were observed between the four antifoaming compounds. The test with the new yeast type gave no positive results when it came to foaming. The test with less fruit showed a decrease in foaming but not sufficient enough.

  • 23.
    Nilsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    AMPK Expression in Denervated Atrophic and Hypertrophic Skeletal Muscle2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Nilsson, Therese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Interaction between Oil Content, pH and Preservatives and their Effect on Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Lactobacillus plantarum in Mayonnaise Type Products2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Norrbäck, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vitamin D metabolism in the enterocyte2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, can be produced by UV light from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin. However, as this synthesis is often insufficient, it should also be provided by the diet through fat fish, beef liver, miIk and egg yolk. Two successive hydroxylations occur to produce 1α,25(OH)2-D3, the biologically active form of vitamin D, which primarily functions to maintain the calcium and phosphorous homeostasis. Vitamin D is first hydroxylated in the liver by  D3-25-hydroxylase to 25(OH)D3. There have been several candidates suggested as the D3-25-hydroxylase such as the mitochondrial CYP27A enzyme. This enzyme is expressed in the liver, but it is also expressed in the intestinal cells of both rodents and humans. The aim of this project was to investigate whether a metabolization of the vitamin D3 could occur directly in the intestinal cell. Both an extraction method and two analytical HPLC methods were developed and used for comparing the putative vitamin D3 metabolization in HepG2 cell line (control) and the Caco-2 TC7 line. We first observed no spontaneous degradation when vitamin D3 was incubated in culture medium in similar conditions without cells. Then, a decrease of vitamin D3 joined with an increase in 25(OH)D3 were observed in both cell experiments in the apical medium. A small amount of 25(OH)D3 was detected in HepG2 cell compartment but not in the Caco-2 cells. This suggests that vitamin D3 can be incorporated into the HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, then metabolized and immediately re-secreted. Further research still needs to be done and we suggest conducting cell inhibitor experiments, evaluating the possible metabolization in mouse intestine by conducting ex vivo experiments, and finally validate these observations in humans with a postprandial experiment after a meal supplemented in vitamin D, which would definitely ensure the possible metabolization under dietary conditions.

  • 26.
    Olsson, Gustaf D.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Fundamental Studies of Molecular Interactions in Complete Prepolymerization Mixtures of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers2009Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, molecular dynamics simulations were used to evaluate the molecular interactions in prepolymerization mixtures, as occurring during production of molecularly imprinted polymers. The systems simulated were produced based on earlier studies for reference of results. Four systems were simulated in order to investigate the effect on molecular interactions based upon the choice of porogen (acetonitrile or chloroform) and proton transfers. The systems consisted of phenylalanine anilide as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and 2,2’-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) as radical initiator, with either acetonitrile or chloroform as porogen. Trajectories from the simulations were evaluated through radial distribution function analysis, grid density analysis and hydrogen bond analysis to investigate molecular interactions and complex formations in the simulated complete prepolymerization mixtures. Focus was on functional monomer-template, crosslinker-template and template-template complex formations. The results showed that the porogen influences molecular interactions in complete prepolymerization mixtures. Formation of higher order complexes was confirmed in all of the systems involving all of the investigated molecular species in the prepolymerization mixtures. The results could also confirm the presence of previously observed complexes between functional monomer and template (2:1 and 1:1 stoichiometry) and the prevalence of template dimerization, as well as a high involvement of crosslinker in complex formation.

  • 27.
    Olsson, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Enzymtillsats som ersättning för extratillsatt gluten i bröddegar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With today’s demand to produce bread varieties at low cost, bread bakeries are looking for alternative methods to achieve cheaper products but with the same qualities.

    There are many approaches that can be used to achieve this, modifying the baking process by using enzymes is one method.

    In bread bakeries, extra gluten is usually added to bread dough to achieve bread with increased volume, improved crumb structure, dough stability, shelf life and circular shape.

    Gluten proteins align to form a thin viscous protein layer called gluten network which contributes to a range of bread characteristics and is therefore difficult to substitute. The raw materials expensiveness, due to a range of price changes, has influenced development of new methods that will substitute the use of extra added gluten.

    The focus of this study is to substitute 50 % of the extra added gluten in a wheat and rye dough (25 respectively 40 g/ kg water) by using enzymes in purpose to strength and stretch the gluten network and get similar results compared to bread baked with extra added gluten.

    Wheat and rye bread were baked with the addition of three different kinds of enzyme (named X, Y and Z), in three concentrations with the purpose to strength the gluten network. After the fermentation and before baking stability test was performed. After baking the bread’s volume, crumb structure and shape were estimated. The results were compared to bread baked with extra added gluten (reference bread). The wheat bread most similar to its reference bread was bread baked with 250 ppm of enzyme addition V.  To stabilize the strengthened gluten network enzyme Z was added. The outcome of this study showed that the combination of enzyme V and Z is able to substitute for 50 % of the extra added gluten in wheat and rye bread.

  • 28.
    Oudah, Dayana
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Development of a Healthy and Satiating Snack2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The demand of healthier products is increasing, and more people are more interested of what they eat. Statistics show that the consumption of snacks is rising.

    Hyperglycemia leads to an increased risk for complications in type II diabetes mellitus. Increased levels of postprandial plasma glucose may also lead to equal or maybe more harmful effects than fasting hyperglycemia. When the levels of postprandial plasma glucose are decreased, the development of cardiovascular complications is delayed, why it is important to lower the snacks consumption especially snacks that brings hunger quickly after they are eaten. Because of these factors, healthier products were developed in this study. The aim was to develop a wafer chocolate product that gives higher satiating effect and healthier blood glucose levels compared to one of Cloetta’s chocolate products. Two raw materials were used, a new carbohydrate and a new fat. The new carbohydrate is a healthier sugar alternative than sucrose, since it leads to lower and prolonged increase in blood glucose and insulin levels. The new fat is based on natural oil that is believed to be healthy, mainly due to its satiating effect. The effects of these two materials on blood glucose response and satiety were examined in two products. Furthermore, the products were made of fat reduced milk chocolate in which sucrose in the chocolate mass was 100 % replaced with the new carbohydrate, dietary fibre and fruit concentrate. Only one of the products contained the new fat. The products, together with Cloetta’s chocolate product were consumed by 17 healthy subjects. Blood glucose response and satiating effect after product intake were examined during a period of 3 days.

    When blood glucose response was analyzed, a slight indication that the products were relatively healthier than placebo, due to placebo’s unhealthy fluctuations, was found. No clear differences regarding blood sugar maxima were found. Placebo showed, as expected, the highest blood glucose maxima and the largest incremental area under curve, but the maxima of the new fat-lacking product was less than half as high as that of the new fatcontaining product and the area was smaller too, which was not expected. The results regarding the hunger levels were not as expected either since the new fat-lacking product was most satiating while the new fatcontaining product was the least satiating. Despite that, 57 % of the subjects reported they would by such products in the future.

    Several biases may have played a role in the results, for example whether or not subjects followed the criteria (e.g. lunch time, exercise), stress, worry, individual energy requirement and how serious and focused the subjects were. However, for further research, increasing the new fat content to 3 g, a bigger sized product, different filling, more subjects and more repeats of same measurements is recommended.

     

     

  • 29.
    Prebner, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Development of a Nutritious Liquid Food-Base2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Since adult consumers desire products with health beneficial enrichments a nutritious liquid food-base was developed in this project. Depending on the added vitamins and minerals enrichments have different health effects, such as enhancing the immunity, cognition or overall wellness. Though, to achieve a product with a good overall impression other characteristics, such as texture, taste and smell, have to be consider beside the enrichment.

    Aim: The aim of this project was to develop a nutritious liquid food-base from a basic recipe. The first task was to establish the vitamin and mineral fortification and the following task was to develop a suitable texture. A sensory test was performed to evaluate the newly developed food-base and if time permitted flavours suitable for the food-base would be examined.

    Material & Methods: At first, a literature study was performed to establish the fortification. pH, dry matter and viscosity at different temperatures were analyzed to develop a desirable texture. When the final texture was developed rheology measurements were performed to examine changes in viscosity and shear stress in relation to time and increasing shear rate. A single-blinded sensory test was performed to evaluate the food-base and additionally an internal sensory test was performed at the company to evaluate flavoured food-bases.

    Results/Conclusion: According to the participants in the sensory test and the rheology measurements a nutritious liquid food-base with a smooth and appreciated texture had been developed. Among the flavoured food-bases the taste of vanilla was the most preferred, but suitable flavours will be examined further in the future.

  • 30.
    Sandberg, Viktoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Can the Addition of Maltogenic Amylase Prolong the Freshness of Gluten-free Bread?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether the addition of Novamyl Conc. BG, a maltogenic amylase, could prolong the freshness of gluten–free bread. Three different breads, made from Finax gluten-free flour mix, fibre bread mix and sourdough bread mix, were tested. The enzyme concentrations in the breads were 10, 20 and 30 ppm, and one reference bread, which had no enzyme added. Sensory evaluations, texture analyses and water content analyses were carried out to evaluate the possible effects of the enzyme. The texture analyses were done by the assistant of a texture analyzer from TexVol Instrument, which measured the hardness and the resilience of the breads.

    The results of this project showed that the maltogenic amylase prolonged the freshness of the gluten-free breads, since the reference breads were the hardest and also the least likable. For the white bread the 10 ppm concentration gave the softest bread, while the bread with 20 ppm was the most likable by the taste panel. When summarizing the results for the fibre bread, the 20 ppm concentration received the best results. For the sourdough bread, however, it was difficult to determine whether it was the 10 ppm or the 30 ppm bread that was the best.

    Even though this project showed some useful results, further studies are necessary to determine which concentration of Novamyl Conc. BG. that is the best for each bread type. In future studies it could be beneficial to use other test modes on the texture analyzer to see if the results would differ from this study. To obtain more reliable results, further sensory evaluations could be performed with larger taste panels.

  • 31.
    Skott, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Receptoptimering och processgranskning av vetedegsprodukter2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet är viktigt för livsmedel som bröd. När bröd åldras behöver det inte vara angrepp av mikroorganismer som försämrar bröden. Fysikaliska förändringar som till exempel retrogradering påverkar brödet som stelnar och blir torrare under förvaringstiden. Med endast vatten, mjöl och jäst skulle bröd få en oaptitlig struktur och inte smaka så mycket. För att uppnå bättre egenskaper tillsätts även andra ingredienser. I industrin används bland annat emulgeringsmedel för att bröds inkråm ska bli mjukt samt för att degen inte ska förstöras av de stora maskinella påfrestningar den utsätts för.

    På Konsum Värmlands bageri är färskhållning av kaffebröd något som kan förbättras. Målet med denna studie har därför varit att vidareutveckla ett av de befintliga recepten för kaffebröd så att produkterna får längre hållbarhet. Provbakningar har utförts med hushållsassistent samt i ordinarie produktion. Provbröden testades av paneler med bagerianställda. Deras uppgift var att bedöma hur de upplevde smak, torrhet och mjukhet i proverna. Ett konsumenttest utfördes på det optimerade receptet dagen efter produktionsdag. Resultatet blev att 55,6 % ansåg att den nya kanelsnäckan var bättre än den gamla och 36,2 % ansåg att originalsnäckan var bäst. Produktionsprocessen har granskats och resultaten har aktualiserats för berörd personal.

    Receptet för kaffebrödsdeg kommer att bytas ut till det optimerade receptet.

  • 32.
    Strand, Michael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Nanoparticles as sensing material for selective and stable SiC-FET gas sensors.2005In: Proceedings European Aerosol Conference 2005, 2005, p. 735-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Stål, Maja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Identification of Surface Active Oat Proteins Suitable for Oil-in-Water Emulsions2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oat has a high nutritional value resulting in a progressive interest in oat products on the food market. However, oat proteins have technological shortcomings which limit the production of oat products. The aim of this project was to identify oat proteins with strong amphiphilic properties that can be used in food formulations. All proteins are more or less amphiphilic which can result in competitive adsorption to the oil-water interface in emulsions between protein species. In this thesis oat proteins were extracted and used to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsion droplet size was determined by studying the emulsions in microscope. Emulsions were then centrifuged to get a cream layer (CL) and a water layer (WL). Sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were used to determine molecular weights and isoelectric point (pI) for oat proteins from the CL, WL and oat extract. The gel electrophoresis results show that oat proteins from the CL have a dominant band at 14.5 kDa and pI values ranging from 4.5 to 6. The band at 14.5 kDa was not dominant at the WL and extract gels. The conclusion is that the most amphiphilic proteins in oats are small peptides with quite low pI values. Considering the molecular weight of these proteins they might be albumins or prolamins.

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