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  • 1.
    Aho, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hultsjö, Sally
    Region Jönköping ; Jönköping University.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linköping University.
    Experiences of being parents of young adults living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy from a salutogenic perspective2017In: Neuromuscular Disorders, ISSN 0960-8966, E-ISSN 1873-2364, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 585-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2) involve progressive muscle weakness. Parental support is important for young adults living with LGMD2, but no study has been identified focusing on the parents' experiences. The salutogenic perspective concentrates on how daily life is comprehended, managed and found meaningful, i.e. the person's sense of coherence. The aim of this study was to describe, from a salutogenic perspective, experiences of being parents of young adults living with LGMD2. Nineteen participants were included. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and the self-administrated 13-item sense of coherence questionnaire. Interview data were analysed with content analysis and related to self-rated sense of coherence. The result shows experiences of being influenced, not only by thoughts and emotions connected to the disease but also by caregiving duties and the young adults' well-being. Simultaneously, difficulty in fully grasping the disease was expressed and uncertainty about progression created worries about future management. Trying their best to support their young adults to experience well-being and to live fulfilled lives, the importance of having a social network, support from concerned professionals and eventually access to personal assistance was emphasized. The need to have meaningful pursuits of one's own was also described. The median sense of coherence score was 68 (range 53–86). Those who scored high (≥68) described satisfaction with social network, external support provided, work and leisure activities to a greater extent than those who scored low (<68). The result shows that the young adults' disease has a major impact on the parents' lives. Assessment of how the parents comprehend, manage and find meaning in everyday life may highlight support needed to promote their health.

  • 2.
    Archer, Trevor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Physical exercise ameliorates deficits induced by traumatic brain injury2012In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 293-302Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent and depth of traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major determining factor together with the type of structural insult and its location, whether mild, moderate or severe, as well as the distribution and magnitude of inflammation and loss of cerebrovascular integrity, and the eventual efficacy of intervention. The influence of exercise intervention in TBI is multiple, ranging from anti-apoptotic effects to the augmentation of neuroplasticity. Physical exercise diminishes cerebral inflammation by elevating factors and agents involved in immunomodulatory function, and buttresses glial cell, cerebrovascular, and blood-brain barrier intactness. It provides unique non-pharmacologic intervention that incorporate different physical activity regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance or resistance. Physical training regimes ought necessarily to be adapted to the specific demands of diagnosis, type and degree of injury and prognosis for individuals who have suffered TBI. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 3.
    Behforuzi, Hura
    et al.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Feng, Nicole C.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Billig, Adam R.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Ryan, Eliza
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Tusch, Erich S.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Holcomb, Phillip J.
    San Diego State Univ, USA.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Daffner, Kirk R.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Markers of Novelty Processing in Older Adults Are Stable and Reliable2019In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 11, p. 1-15, article id 165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploratory behavior and responsiveness to novelty play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in older adults. Inferences about age- or disease-related differences in neural and behavioral responses to novelty are most often based on results from single experimental testing sessions. There has been very limited research on whether such findings represent stable characteristics of populations studied, which is essential if investigators are to determine the result of interventions aimed at promoting exploratory behaviors or draw appropriate conclusions about differences in the processing of novelty across diverse clinical groups. The goal of the current study was to investigate the short-term test-retest reliability of event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral responses to novel stimuli in cognitively normal older adults. ERPs and viewing durations were recorded in 70 healthy older adults participating in a subject-controlled visual novelty oddball task during two sessions occurring 7 weeks apart. Mean midline P3 amplitude and latency, mean midline amplitude during successive 50 ms intervals, temporospatial factors derived from principal component analysis (PCA), and viewing duration in response to novel stimuli were measured during each session. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no reliable differences in the value of any measurements between Time 1 and 2. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between Time 1 and 2 were excellent for mean P3 amplitude (ICC = 0.86), the two temporospatial factors consistent with the P3 components (ICC of 0.88 and 0.76) and viewing duration of novel stimuli (ICC = 0.81). Reliability was only fair for P3 peak latency (ICC = 0.56). Successive 50 ms mean amplitude measures from 100 to 1,000 ms yielded fair to excellent reliabilities, and all but one of the 12 temporospatial factors identified demonstrated ICCs in the good to excellent range. We conclude that older adults demonstrate substantial stability in ERP and behavioral responses to novel visual stimuli over a 7-week period. These results suggest that older adults may have a characteristic way of processing novelty that appears resistant to transient changes in their environment or internal states, which can be indexed during a single testing session. The establishment of reliable measures of novelty processing will allow investigators to determine whether proposed interventions have an impact on this important aspect of behavior.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, D
    et al.
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Brudin, L
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Wanby, Pär
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Previously unknown thyroid dysfunction in patients with acute ischemic stroke.2012In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 98-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Opinions differ regarding the clinical significance of subclinical thyroid disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and influence of previously unknown overt or subclinical thyroid dysfunction in patients with acute ischemic stroke and to look for differences between cardio-embolic and non-embolic ischemic stroke.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 153 Swedish patients diagnosed with first-time acute ischemic stroke were included in the study and categorized for suspected cardio-embolic (n = 30) or non-embolic (n = 123) ischemic stroke depending on the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Blood samples were taken 48 h or earlier after onset of stroke symptoms.

    RESULTS: Previously, unknown overt or subclinical thyroid dysfunction was found in 12%. Previously, unknown overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism was more common in the AF group (13%) compared to the non-AF group (3%), P = 0.048. Patients with AF had slightly higher concentrations of free T4 (15 vs 14 pm; P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in concentrations of S-TSH or prevalence of thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies between the groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: In patients with first-time acute ischemic stroke, unknown thyroid dysfunction is common, and unknown overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with cardio-embolic stroke.

  • 5.
    Buono, Nicola
    et al.
    National Society of Medical Education in General Practice (SNAMID), Italy.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando
    National Society of Medical Education in General Practice (SNAMID), Italy;Lund university.
    Castelli, Elena
    National Society of Medical Education in General Practice (SNAMID), Italy.
    Cambielli, Marco
    National Society of Medical Education in General Practice (SNAMID), Italy.
    Postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and trigeminal neuralgia - Chronic peripheral neuropathic pain in 58,480 rural Italian primary care patients2017In: Journal of family medicine and primary care, ISSN 2249-4863, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic peripheral neuropathic pain (CPNP) is a condition due to peripheral nervous system diseases or injury, but its prevalence is unknown in Italian primary care.

    AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of CPNP in a rural primary care area in Northern Italy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter audit study was carried out in a rural area in Northern Italy with 113 participating general practitioners (GPs) seeing 58,480 patients >18 years during 3 months. Patients who for any reason attended GPs' surgeries and had symptoms suggestive of neuropathic pain (NP) were given the NP diagnostic questionnaire "Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions" (DN4) and recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale (VAS).

    RESULTS: Chronic NP was established by a DN4 score of ≥4 and a VAS pain score of ≥40 mm for >6 months together with a clinical diagnosis in 448 (254 women and 194 men) out of 58,480 patients giving a prevalence of 0.77%. 179 patients (0.31%) had diabetes neuropathy, 142 (0.24%) had postherpetic pain, 41 (0.07%) had trigeminal neuralgia, 27 (0.05%) had NP postinjury, 27 (0.05%) had NP caused by nerve entrapments, 11 (0.02%) had NP triggered by systemic diseases, and 21 (0.04%) had NP of unknown etiology.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CPNP in this population of primary care attenders in a rural area in Northern Italy was 0.77%. Diabetes neuropathy (0.31%) and postherpetic pain (0.24%) were the two most common subgroups of NP, followed by trigeminal neuralgia (0.07%).

  • 6.
    Ferreira, Marisa Borges
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal;Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Pereira, Paulo Alexandre
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal;University of Minho, Portugal.
    Parreira, Marta
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Sousa, Ines
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Figueiredo, José
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Cerqueira, João José
    University of Minho, Portugal;Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Relationships between neuropsychological and antisaccade measures in multiple sclerosis patients2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, p. 1-18, article id e5737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Stroop test is frequently used to assess deficits in inhibitory control in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). This test has limitations and antisaccade eye movements, that also measure inhibitory control, may be an alternative to Stroop.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to investigate if the performance in the antisaccade task is altered in patients with MS and (ii) to investigate the correlation between performances in neuropsychological tests, the Stroop test and the antisaccade task.

    Methods

    We measured antisaccades (AS) parameters with an infrared eye tracker (SMIRED 250 Hz) using a standard AS paradigm. A total of 38 subjects diagnosed with MS and 38 age and gender matched controls participated in this study. Neuropsychological measures were obtained from the MS group.

    Results

    Patients with MS have higher error rates and prolonged latency than controls in the antisaccade task. There was a consistent association between the Stroop performance and AS latency. Stroop performance but not AS latency was associated with other neuropsychological measures in which the MS group showed deficits.

    Conclusions

    Our findings suggest that AS may be a selective and independent measure to investigate inhibitory control in patients with MS. More studies are necessary to confirm our results and to describe brain correlates associated with impaired performance in the antisaccade task in people diagnosed with MS.

  • 7.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Hälsoringen, Neron HSU AB, Osby.
    Grahn, Birgitta
    Lund University ; Region Skåne ; Region Kronoberg.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. jens.agerstrom@lnu.se.
    Increased deep pain sensitivity in persistent musculoskeletal pain but not in other musculoskeletal pain states2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 13, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in a non-painful body area are known to be affected in some chronic pain states. The aim of this study is to investigate PPTs in a pain-free body part in relation to pain persistence and intensity in patients with musculoskeletal pain. MethodsPatients with musculoskeletal pain were divided into three different pain groups: acute pain (pain duration < 3 months, n = 38), regularly recurrent pain (regularly recurrent pain duration > 3 months, n = 56), persistent pain (persistent pain duration > 3 months, n = 52) and a healthy control group (n = 51). PPT measures were conducted over the tibialis anterior muscle on the right leg in all groups. ResultsThe persistent pain group showed significantly lower PPTs over the tibialis anterior muscle compared to controls. No significant differences were found between the acute and regularly recurrent pain groups compared to healthy controls. Significant correlations, albeit small, were found between pain intensity and PPTs. ConclusionsIncreased deep pain sensitivity was found in patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain, but not in regularly recurrent pain or in acute pain. Yet, a limitation of the study is that it did not have sufficient power to detect small levels of increased deep pain sensitivity among the latter groups when compared to healthy controls. Implications: Knowledge about increased general hypersensitivity in persistent musculoskeletal pain could be important in clinical treatment.

  • 8.
    Håkansson, Krister
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Helkala, E.L.
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
    Soininen, H.
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
    Nissinen, A.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki.
    Winblad, B.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Kivipelto, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Depressive signs in midlife: A risk factor for cognitive impairment in later life?2010In: International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease (ICAD) 2010, Chicago, USA: Alzheimer's Association , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although depression has been associated with dementia, the nature of this relation is still unclear. Establishing causality from previous studies has been complicated by the typical use of a short follow-up and participants aged over 70 already at baseline. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate if depressive signs already in midlife are related to cognitive impairment in later life. Methods: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples previously investigated in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. Their mean age at baseline was 50.4 years (SD 6.0). After an average follow-up of 21 years, 1449 individuals (73%) aged 65 to 79 years were re-examined in 1998. At the re-examination some form of cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 139 of the participants: 82 with mild cognitive impairment and 57 with dementia (48 of these with Alzheimer’s disease). Signs of depression were estimated through responses to three questions concerning the perception of a hopeless future, impossible life goals and loneliness. The relation between depressive signs in midlife and cognitive impairment in later life was analyzed with logistic regression with adjustments for age, gender, apolipoprotein e4 status and a number of midlife health and lifestyle indicators, including blood pressure, cholesterol and marital status. Results: Depressive signs in midlife, as measured in this study, were significantly related to general cognitive impairment in later life, but also separately to both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. When dichotomized into high versus low levels of depressive signs the odds ratios were 2.19 (1.1 to 4.3) for mild cognitive impairment and 3.81 (1.3 to 11.5) for Alzheimer’s disease. Significant associations were also found between the separate measures of hopelessness and loneliness on the one hand and the separate outcomes of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease on the other. Conclusions: The results support a causal relation between depressive signs relatively early in life and cognitive function in later life. Clinical relevance includes the long-term health implications of depressive signs in midlife also for the risk of dementia.

  • 9.
    Håkansson, Krister
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Rovio, Suvi
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Helkala, Eeva-Liisa
    University of Kuopio, Finland.
    Vilska, Anna-Riitta
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Winblad, Bengt
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    University of Kuopio, Finland.
    Nissinen, Aulikki
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska institutet / University of Kuopio, Finland.
    Association between mid-life marital status and cognitive function in later life: population based cohort study2009In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 339, no July, p. Article number: b2462-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate whether mid-life marital status is related to cognitive function in later life. Design Prospective population based study with an average follow-up of 21 years. Setting Kuopio and Joensuu regions in eastern Finland. Participants Participants were derived from random, population based samples previously investigated in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987; 1449 individuals (73%), aged 65-79, underwent re-examination in 1998. Main outcome measures Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Results People cohabiting with a partner in mid-life (mean age 50.4) were less likely than all other categories (single, separated, or widowed) to show cognitive impairment later in life at ages 65-79. Those widowed or divorced in mid-life and still so at follow-up had three times the risk compared with married or cohabiting people. Those widowed both at mid-life and later life had an odds ratio of 7.67 (1.6 to 40.0) for Alzheimer's disease compared with married or cohabiting people. The highest increased risk for Alzheimer's disease was in carriers of the apolipoprotein E e4 allele who lost their partner before mid-life and were still widowed or divorced at follow-up. The progressive entering of several adjustment variables from mid-life did not alter these associations. Conclusions Living in a relationship with a partner might imply cognitive and social challenges that have a protective effect against cognitive impairment later in life, consistent with the brain reserve hypothesis. The specific increased risk for widowed and divorced people compared with single people indicates that other factors are needed to explain parts of the results. A sociogenetic disease model might explain the dramatic increase in risk of Alzheimer's disease for widowed apolipoprotein E e4 carriers.

  • 10.
    Khrennikov, Andrei
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Basieva, Irina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Quantum Model for Psychological Measurements: From the Projection Postulate to Interference of Mental Observables Represented As Positive Operator Valued Measures2014In: NeuroQuantology, ISSN 1303-5150, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 324-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently foundational issues of applicability of the formalism of quantum mechanics (QM) to cognitive psychology, decision making, and psychophysics attracted a lot of interest. In particular, in (Khrennikov et al., 2014) the possibility to use of the projection postulate and representation of "mental observables" by Hermitian operators was discussed in very detail. The main conclusion of the recent discussions on the foundations of "quantum(-like) cognitive psychology" is that one has to be careful in determination of conditions of applicability of the projection postulate as a mathematical tool for description of measurements of observables represented by Hermitian operators. To represent some statistical experimental data (both physical and mental) in the quantum(-like) way, one has to use generalized quantum observables given by positive operator-valued measures (POVMs). This paper contains a brief review on POVMs which can be useful for newcomers to the field of quantum(-like) studies. Especially interesting for cognitive psychology is a variant of the formula of total probability (FTP) with the interference term derived for incompatible observables given by POVMs. We present an interpretation of the interference term from the psychological viewpoint. As was shown before, the appearance of such a term (perturbing classical FTP) plays the important role in cognitive psychology, e.g., recognition of ambiguous figures and the disjunction effect. The interference term for observables given by POVMs has much more complicated structure than the corresponding term for observables given by Hermitian operators. We elaborate cognitive interpretations of different components of the POVMs-interference term and apply our analysis to a quantum(-like) model of decision making.

  • 11.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    et al.
    Universty of Minho, Portugal.
    Borges Ferreira, Marisa
    TEM-All with the Mutiple Sclerosis, Portugal ; Universty of Minho, Portugal.
    Parreira, Marta Gamito
    TEM-All with the Mutiple Sclerosis, Portugal.
    Sousa, Inês
    Universty of Minho, Portugal.
    Figueiredo, José
    Private Hospital of Braga, Portugal.
    Cerqueira, João José
    University of Minho, Portugal ; Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Silva Pereira, Paulo
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Anti-saccades in early stages of multiple sclerosis2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 2911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Eye movements disability is common finding in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the exact stage at which changes are visible is not clear. The aim of study was to assess if anti-saccade (AS) planning and execution are altered at early stages of the disease.

    Methods: A total of 48 participants with MS selected by a neurologist (JJC) at Hospital de Braga and 52 controls participated in this study. Inclusion criteria: relapsing-remitting course, EDSS≤3, 1 month or more without MS crisis, and normal or corrected visual acuity. Exclusion criteria (MS and Control): cognitive impairment, traumatic brain injury or stroke. The mean age in the MS group was 37y and 33y in the control group. Eye movements were monitored using a binocular infrared eyetracker running at 250Hz(RED250, SMI Gmb Germany), precision <0.4deg, stimuli were presented in a 22 monitor (Dell P2210). Code for running the experiment and data analysis was written using the Matlab (Mathworks Inc). Participants were seated in a room dim light at 74cm from the monitor and head movements were minimized by a headband. The task was to fixate, after a variable period between steady fixation and the stimulus of 1250ms or 1600ms, participants looked as quickly as possible for the opposite direction where the target (a 30x30mm cross) was presented (anti-saccade movement). Each subject performed 40 trails.

    Results: The main results were the proportion of the directional errors (wherein the participant voluntarily looked for the wrong side), and latencies for: i) anti-saccades, ii) pro-saccades (movement in the same direction of the stimulus) and iii) correction (reaction time that the participant takes from the error fixation until to start the movement). The mean number of errors was 28%(SD=19) in MS group and 16%(SD=11) in the control group, mean difference 12%, t(74)=3.83, p<.001. Anti-saccades latency was 330msec (SD=61) in the MS group and 294ms(SD=59) in the control group, mean difference 36ms, F(1,98)=10.99, p<.05. The mean of the correction latency value was 178ms(SD=111) in the MS group and 129ms(SD=107) in the control group with a mean difference of 49ms, F(1,98)=6, p<.05. No statistically significant differences were found in accuracy and pro-saccade latency between groups.

    Conclusions: This study shows that anti-saccades latency and errors are increased at early stages of multiple sclerosis. Anti-saccades might be a sensitive tool to assess functional status in people with this condition.

  • 12.
    Magnusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala universitet.
    Syvänen, Stina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Svedberg, Marie M.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Philipson, Ola
    Uppsala universitet.
    Soderberg, Linda
    Tegerstedt, Karin
    Holmquist, Mats
    Gellerfors, Pär
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala universitet.
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hall, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars N. G.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Specific Uptake of an Amyloid-beta Protofibril-Binding Antibody-Tracer in A beta PP Transgenic Mouse Brain2013In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (A beta) protofibrils/oligomers are pathogenic agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Unfortunately, techniques enabling quantitative estimates of these species in patients or patient samples are still rather limited. Here we describe the in vitro and ex vivo characteristics of a new antibody-based radioactive ligand, [I-125]mAb158, which binds to A beta protofibrils with high affinity. [I-125]mAb158 was specifically taken up in brain of transgenic mice expressing amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) as shown ex vivo. This was in contrast to [I-125]mAb-Ly128 which does not bind to A beta. The uptake of intraperitoneally-administered [I-125]mAb158 into the brain was age- and time-dependent, and saturable in A beta PP transgenic mice with modest A beta deposition. Brain uptake was also found in young A beta PP transgenic mice that were devoid of A beta deposits, suggesting that [I-125]mAb158 targets soluble A beta protofibrils. The radioligand was diffusely located in the parenchyma, sometimes around senile plaques and only occasionally colocalized with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. A refined iodine-124-labeled version of mAb158 with much improved blood-brain barrier passage and a shorter plasma half-life might be useful for PET imaging of A beta protofibrils.

  • 13.
    Marisa, Ferreira
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal ; Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Pereira, Paulo A.
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal ; University of Minho, Portugal.
    Parreira, Marta
    Association “Todos com a Esclerose Multipla (TEM)”, Portugal.
    Sousa, Inês
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Cerqueira, João J.
    University of Minho, Portugal ; Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Using endogenous saccades to characterize fatigue in multiple sclerosis2017In: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-0348, E-ISSN 2211-0356, Vol. 14, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS.

    Methods

    Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSS<=3) and age matched controls were recruited. Eye movements were monitored using an infrared eyetracker. Each participant performed 40 trials in an endogenous generated saccade paradigm (valid and invalid trials). The fatigue severity scale (FSS) was used to assess the severity of fatigue. FSS scores were used to define two subgroups, the MS fatigue group (score above normal range) and the MS non-fatigue. Differences between groups were tested using linear mixed models.

    Results

    Thirty-one MS patients and equal number of controls participated in this study. FSS scores were above the normal range in 11 patients. Differences in saccade latency were found according to group (p<0.001) and trial validity (p=0.023). Differences were 16.9 ms, between MS fatigue and MS non-fatigue, 15.5 ms between MS fatigue and control. The mean difference between valid and invalid trials was 7.5 ms. Differences in saccade peak velocity were found according to group (p<0.001), the difference between MS fatigue and control was 22.3°/s and between MS fatigue and non-fatigue was 12.3°/s. Group was a statistically significant predictor for amplitude (p<0.001). FSS scores were correlated with peak velocity (p=0.028) and amplitude (p=0.019).

    Conclusion

    Consistent with the initial hypothesis, our study revealed altered saccade latency, peak velocity and amplitude in patients with fatigue symptoms. Eye movement testing can complement the standard inventories when investigating fatigue because they do not share similar limitations. Our findings contribute to the understanding of functional changes induced by MS and might be useful for clinical trials and treatment decisions.

  • 14.
    Momeni, Naghi
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University.
    Brudin, Lars
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Behnia, Fatemeh
    University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran.
    Sivberg, Bengt
    Lund University.
    Joghataei, Mohammad
    Tehran Medical University, Iran.
    Persson, Bengt L.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    A novel blood-based biomarker for detection of autism spectrum disorders2012In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 2, article id e91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are classified as neurological developmental disorders. Several studies have been carried out to find a candidate biomarker linked to development of these disorders, but up to date no reliable biomarker is available. Mass spectrometry techniques have been used for protein profiling of blood plasma of children with such disorders in order to identify proteins/peptides which may be used as biomarkers for detection of the disorders. Three differentially expressed peptides with mass charged (m/z) values of 2,020 ± 1, 1,864 ± 1, and 1,978 ± 1 Da in heparin plasma of children with ASD which were significantly changed as compared to the peptide pattern of the non-ASD control group are reported here. This novel set of biomarkers allows for a reliable blood based diagnostic tool that may be used in diagnosis and potentially, in prognosis of ASD. 

  • 15.
    Momeni, Naghi
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Brudin, Lars
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Behnia, Fatemeh
    University of Social Welfare and rehabilitation Sciences, Iran.
    Nordström, Berit
    Lund University.
    Yousefi-Oudarji, Ali
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Sivberg, Bengt
    Lund University.
    Joghataei, Mohammad
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Persson, Bengt L.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    High complement factor I activity in the plasma of children with autism spectrum disorders2012In: Autism Research and Treatment, ISSN 2090-1925, E-ISSN 2090-1933, article id 868576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental and behavioural syndromes affecting social orientation, behaviour, and communication that can be classified as developmental disorders. ASD is also associated with immune system abnormality. Immune system abnormalities may be caused partly by complement system factor I deficiency. Complement factor I is a serine protease present in human plasma that is involved in the degradation of complement protein C3b, which is a major opsonin of the complement system. Deficiency in factor I activity is associated with an increased incidence of infections in humans. In this paper, we show that the mean level of factor I activity in the ASD group is significantly higher than in the control group of typically developed and healthy children, suggesting that high activity of complement factor I might have an impact on the development of ASD.

  • 16.
    Porto, Fabio Henrique de Gobbi
    et al.
    Harvard University, USA.
    Fox, Anne Murphy
    Harvard University, USA.
    Tusch, Erich S.
    Harvard University, USA.
    Sorond, Farzaneh
    Harvard University, USA.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Daffner, Kirk R.
    Harvard University, USA.
    In vivo evidence for neuroplasticity in older adults2015In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 114, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroplasticity can be conceptualized as an intrinsic property of the brain that enables modification of function and structure in response to environmental demands. Neuroplastic strengthening of synapses is believed to serve as a critical mechanism underlying learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. Ex vivo work investigating neuroplasticity has been done on hippocampal slices using high frequency stimulation. However, in vivo neuroplasticity in humans has been difficult to demonstrate. Recently, a long-term potentiation-like phenomenon, a form of neuroplastic change, was identified in young adults by differences in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) that were measured before and after tetanic visual stimulation (TVS). The current study investigated whether neuroplastic changes in the visual pathway can persist in older adults. Seventeen healthy subjects, 65 years and older, were recruited from the community. Subjects had a mean age of 77.4 years, mean education of 17 years, mean MMSE of 29.1, and demonstrated normal performance on neuropsychological tests. 1 Hz checkerboard stimulation, presented randomly to the right or left visual hemi-field, was followed by 2 mm of 9 Hz stimulation (TVS) to one hemi-field. After 2 mm of rest, 1 Hz stimulation was repeated. Temporospatial principal component analysis was used to identify the Nib component of the VEPs, at lateral occipital locations, in response to 1 Hz stimulation pre- and post-TVS. Results showed that the amplitude of factors representing the early and late Nib component was substantially larger after tetanic stimulation. These findings indicate that high frequency visual stimulation can enhance the Nib in cognitively high functioning old adults, suggesting that neuroplastic changes in visual pathways can continue into late life. Future studies are needed to determine the extent to which this marker of neuroplasticity is sustained over a longer period of time, and is influenced by age, cognitive status, and neurodegenerative disease. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Cognitive and Brain Reserve (CBR): Tools to Reduce the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer2018In: Advances in Alzheimer's Diseases, ISSN 2210-5727, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 93-102, article id 88472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The study was performed to examine and assess the impact of the education, occupation and leisure time on building brain and cognitive reserves (CBR). A cross sectional study of 132 persons at age between 40 to 70 years old has been conducted. A structuredquestionnaire covering multiple constructs was used to collect the data. Multivariate regression results show that the three independent variables (LE, OC and ED) were statistically significant in the models with CBR as dependent variable. Leisure time and activities (LE) makethe strongest unique contribution (0.683) followed by occupation (0.261) and the weak contribution of the education (0.198) to explainthe dependent variable cognitive and brain reserve (CBR).The Brain and Cognitive Reserve hypothesesassumes that a rich intellectual measures and abilities a person have during her/his life enable this person to copewith difficult cognitive tasks and social events in life.

1 - 17 of 17
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