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  • 1. Agewall, Stefan
    et al.
    Rydén, Lars
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Boman, Kurt
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ros, Inger
    Efterlyses: politik mot hjärtinfarkt2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 13-14, p. 664-664Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Medicinen kommer inte så mycket längre när det gäller att minska dödligheten i hjärt–kärlsjukdomar. Framtidens utmaning ligger i att förhindra att människor alls insjuknar i hjärtinfarkt. Författarna efterlyser politiska åtgärder som gör de hälsosamma valen billiga och attraktiva.

  • 2.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University.
    Ibsens princip bör styra vårdsektorn2014In: Sjukhusläkaren, ISSN 1651-2715, no 5, p. 26-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University.
    Tid för klinisk analys2015In: Sjukhusläkaren, ISSN 1651-2715, no 1, p. 34-34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur lång tid tar det att göra en klinisk analys? Den erforderliga tiden varierar givetvis beroende på hälsoproblemets komplexitet, men beror även på ambitionsgraden för pedagogik och information samt läkarens kunskaper, erfarenheter och personlighet (stenisk/astenisk).

  • 4.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Lunds universitet.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    County Differences in Mortality among Foreign-Born Compared to Native Swedes 1970-19992012In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, Vol. 2012, p. Article ID 136581-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Regional variations in mortality and morbidity have been shown in Europe and USA. Longitudinal studies have found increased mortality, dissimilarities in mortality pattern, and differences in utilization of healthcare between foreign- and native-born Swedes. No study has been found comparing mortality among foreign-born and native-born Swedes in relation to catchment areas/counties. Methods. The aim was to describe and compare mortality among foreign-born persons and native Swedes during 1970–1999 in 24 counties in Sweden. Data from the Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare was used, and the database consisted of 723,948 persons, 361,974 foreign-born living in Sweden in 1970 and aged 16 years and above and 361,974 matched Swedish controls. Results. Latest county of residence independently explained higher mortality among foreign-born persons in all but four counties; OR varied from 1.01 to 1.29. Counties with a more rural structure showed the highest differences between foreign-born persons and native controls. Foreign-born persons had a lower mean age (1.0–4.3 years) at time of death. Conclusion. County of residence influences mortality; higher mortality is indicated among migrants than native Swedes in counties with a more rural structure. Further studies are needed to explore possible explanations. 

  • 5.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Hälsa, Vård och Samhälle, Lunds universitet.
    Utilization of In-Hospital Care among Foreign-Born Compared to Native Swedes 1987-1999 (Open Access)2012In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, Vol. 2012, p. Article ID 713249-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous longitudinal studies of mortality and morbidity among foreign-born and native-born Swedes, increased mortality and dissimilarities in mortality pattern were found. The aim of this study is to describe, compare, and analyse the utilization of in-hospital care among deceased foreign- and Swedish-born persons during the years 1987–1999 with focus on four diagnostic categories. The study population consisted of 361,974 foreign-born persons aged 16 years and upward who were registered as living in Sweden in 1970, together with 361,974 matched Swedish controls for each person. Data from Statistics Sweden (SCB) and the National Board of Health and Welfare Centre for Epidemiology, covering the period 1970–1999, was used. Persons were selected if they were admitted to hospital during 1987–1999 and the cause of death was in one of four ICD groups. The results indicate a tendency towards less health care utilization among migrants, especially men, as regards Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions and Injury and poisoning. Further studies are needed to explore the possible explanations and the pattern of other diseases to see whether migrants, and especially migrant men, are a risk group with less utilization of health care.

  • 6.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lund Univ.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lund Univ.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Lund University.
    Comparison of Stroke mortality in Finnish-born migrants living in Sweden 1970-1999 and in Swedish-born individuals2014In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A limited number of studies have been found on stroke mortality in migrants showing higher mortality for some groups. Influence of time of residence has been studied by one research group. An earlier study showed a significantly higher number of deaths in Diseases of the circulatory system in Finnish migrants compared with native Swedes. To test the hypothesis of a higher mortality in and a decrease in mortality over time in stroke among Finnish migrants in Sweden. The study was based on National Population data, the study population included 321,407 Swedish and 307,174 foreign born persons living in Sweden 1987-1999. Mean age was lower at time for death for Finnish migrants than native Swedes, men 5.1 years difference and women 2.3 years. The difference decreased over time. The risk of death by stroke was higher for migrants with short time of residence than with long time (<= 10 years, OR 1.61-1.36 vs >= 11 year, OR 1.18). Migrants with short time of residence died 9.8-5.3 years earlier than native Swedes. The hypothesis was confirmed and an indication of adjustment to life in the new country was found. International studies show similar results for other migrant groups but further studies are needed to verify if the same pattern can be found in other migrants groups in Sweden and to generalise the findings.

  • 7.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jiang, Qin
    The mental health of children left behind in rural China by migrating parents: a literature treview2010In: Journal of Public mental health, ISSN 1746-5729, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 4-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Aldén, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Livsstilsförändringar vid fetma: En litteraturstudie som undersöker livsstilsförändringar samt hur täta kontakter påverkar följsamheten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity has become one of our times most endemic disease on a global scale and changes to lifestyle is the most cost-effective way to treat patients, when the cost for healthcare related treatment is staggeringly high for obesity and sequela diseases NAFLD, diabetes typ 2, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome.The problem with this remedy is that it requires work and dedication. But changes require hard work, and in this patient group- low compliance, weight gain after treatment, dropping out of programs and small desire to change are the most common problems. Motivational studies report that readiness in obese patients is low and the best way to help patients to move forward is by motivational conversations. The obesity sequela disease NAFLD is an asymptomatic disease it displays no symptoms until very late stages. Therefore it’s a problem to get patients make the patient understand his illness and the seriousness of it.

    Aim: This literature work was aimed at investigating compliance in lifestyle changes in obese subject and to see if close contact with healthcare staff affected the achieved results.

    Method: In this literature study, the databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Medline and Sportdiscus were used to find information. Article inclusion criteria were that the articles were not older than 10 years and were in English.

    Result: Frequent and regular contacts between participants and professional staff provided good results both with regard to weight loss, biochemical response, and the participants' willingness to change. Also it shows that return visits at least every three months will improve weight loss if the participant is motivated to implement a change to lifestyle.

    Conclusion: Overall, this literature study shows the difficulties with lifestyle changes in people with obesity and sequela NAFLD. Close contacts of the patients with healthcare staff has proven to have a positive impact on treatment compliance, but there are other lifestyle difficulties in these patient groups which hamper compliance. 

  • 9. Alexander, Anneli
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    IPAQ environmental module; Reliability testing2006In: Journal of Public Health, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 76-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Alexander, Anneli
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    Metodprövning av IPAQs miljömodul2005In: Läkarstämman, Stockholm, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Domalewski, Debra
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Physical activity, health and prevalence of overweight and musculoskeletal complaints in young women2008In: Exercise and Women's Health Research / [ed] Laura A. Charlington, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2008, p. 143-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University ; Griffith University, Australia.
    Domalewski, Debra
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Romild, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Karolinska Institutet ; Jämtland County Council.
    Health, sleeping Habits and Physical activity2009In: Obesity and Adolescence: A Public Health Concern / [ed] Hatim A. Omar, Donald E. Greydanus, Dilip R. Patel, Joav Merrick, New york: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2009, p. 95-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents are becoming less physically active and are increasingly adopting a sedentary life-style in front of computers and television screens. In this chapter we look at self-related health, physical activity, sleeping habits, the prevalence of overweight and body complaints in two senior high schools with questions about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, sleeping habits and possible injuries or complaints during the last three months. Seventy seven percent % of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. In academic programs compared to vocational programs, more males and females in academic programs participated in sports (71% and 80% respectively). Males reported significantly better health than females, but 65% reported body complaints during the last three months. A higher number of females than males reported back and hip complaints. Good sleep was reported in 82.1% of the males (76.6% of the females). In males 44.3% were often sleepy in the daytime (females 56.6%). Underweight, physical activity and good sleep were found to be factors with significant positive effect on good health, whereas overweight was a negative factor. Proper sleep habits and higher physical activity levels should be promoted among high school students and TV viewing time and video game use restricted. Additionally, schools should provide opportunities for young people to participate in a wider range of physical activities that address their individual needs, while promoting the health benefits of engaging in regular exercise.

  • 13.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet ; Griffith University Logan Campus, Australia.
    Domalewski, Debra
    Romild, Ulla
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Physical activity, health, body mass index, sleeping habits and bodycomplaints in Australian senior high school students2008In: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, ISSN 0334-0139, E-ISSN 2191-0278, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 501-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less physically active and are increasingly adopting a sedentary life-style in front of computers and television screens. OBJECTIVE: to determine self-related health, physical activity, sleeping habits, prevalence of overweight, and body complaints in Australian senior high school students. METHODS: Participants were 466 high school students aged 15-17 years enrolled in academic and vocational programs. A questionnaire was completed at two senior high schools with questions about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, sleeping habits, and possible injuries or complaints during the last three months. RESULTS: Seventy seven percent of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Compared with vocational programs, more males and females in academic programs participated in sports (71% and 80% respectively) (p = .036). Males reported significantly better health than females (p < .0001). 65% of the study group reported body complaints during the last 3 months. A higher number of females than males reported complaints about the back (p = .007) and the hip (p = .05). Good sleep was reported in 82.1% of males and in 76.6% of females. In males, 44.3% were often sleepy in the daytime (females 56.6%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Underweight, physical activity and good sleep are factors with significant positive effect on good health, whereas overweight is a negative factor. Proper sleep habits and higher physical activity levels should be promoted among high school students, and TV viewing time and video game use restricted. Additionally, schools should provide opportunities for young people to participate in a wider range of physical activities that address their individual needs while promoting the health benefits of engaging in regular exercise.

  • 14.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Larsson, Börje
    Linder, Jan
    Werner, Suzanne
    Neck muscle strength and endurance in fighter pilots: effects of a supervised training program2004In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Schüldt, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ekholm, Jan
    linder, Jürgen
    Mobility, muscular strength and endurance in the cervical spine in Swedish air force pilots2001In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 336-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Muscle strength, endurance and range of movement of the cervical spine in a group of Swedish Air Force jet pilots (AF) and in a reference group of conscripts doing their military service (RG) were compared. METHODS: We tested 30 (AF) 24-42 yr and 33 (RG) 19-22 yr. A questionnaire was used to document complaints. Maximum voluntary isometric muscle strength of the flexor and extensor muscles of the cervical spine and sub-maximum isometric endurance in the flexor and extensor muscles were measured. RESULTS: Eleven AF (37%) and four RG (12%) had experienced discomfort in the neck within the previous year. The pilots' flexor and extensor muscle strength (47 Nm and 65 Nm) was superior to that of the conscripts (36 Nm and 59 Nm) (p = 0.0001, p = < 0.05, respectively). However, the RG group had greater isometric endurance in the flexor muscles than AF (p = < 0.05) and greater neck rotation (p = <0.005). There was no difference between the two groups in the other variables. CONCLUSION: Differences between the groups with regard to muscle strength and endurance might depend on variations in work-related physical muscle strain, and/or differences in fiber composition in the muscles, which might be reflected by pilot selection procedures.

  • 16.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Werner, Suzanne
    Reliability of sports related functional tests with emphasis on speed and agility in young athletes.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 229-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present investigation was to test the reliability of two sports related functional tests, a speed test (slalom-test) and an agility test (hurdle-test). Eleven athletes aged 11 years (8 boys, 3 girls) participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects completed four different test sessions for both the slalom-test and the hurdle-test using six standard track hurdles placed at 2-m intervals along a 12-m length of track. There were no significant differences between testing sessions for either the slalom-test (P=0.99) or the hurdle-test (P=0.96), showing no systematic variation between test times. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.96 and 0.90 respectively, indicating a good reliability. We conclude that the slalom-test and the hurdle-test are reliable sports related functional tests for measuring speed and agility in groups of young athletic individuals.

  • 17.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Kahlin, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Physical activity and Health in Adolescents2016In: Sedentary Lifestyle: Predictive Factors, Health Risks and Physiological Implications / [ed] Ahmad Alkhatib, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 115-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University ; Griffith University, Australia ; Nord-Trøndelag University College, Norway.
    Physical activity, self-related health and complaints in adolescents2007In: Adolescent behaviour research: International perspectives / [ed] Joav Merrick, Hatim A. Omar, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007, p. 119-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Romild, Ulla
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Self-related health, physical activity and complaints in Swedish high school students2006In: Scientific World Journal, ISSN 1537-744X, E-ISSN 1537-744X, Vol. 6, p. 816-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to study self-related health, physical activity and level of exertion, as well as body complaints in Swedish high school students. A total of 993 high school students aged 16–19 years participated in the study. A questionnaire was completed at school and included questions about self-related health, physical activity behavior, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, duration, possible injuries or complaints, and absence from physical training at school, during the last 3 months. The results showed that 26% of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Males reported significantly better health than females (p < 0.0005). A significantly higher number of females participated in physical activities at a lower level of effort (p < 0.0005) and a higher number of males trained at a higher level of effort (p < 0.005). Sixty-one percent reported body pain during the last 3 months, representing a higher number of females than males (p = 0.03). A higher number of females than males reported complaints from the back (p = 0.002), the knees (p = 0.015), the neck (p = 0.001), and the hip (p = 0.015). Females with body complaints reported poorer health than those without complaints. There was a correlation between poor self-related health and a lower level of physical effort (0.219; p < 0.001). The results showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was high in this population and demonstrated a certain association with self-related health. Therefore, it is important to make it easy for adolescents to perform physical activity at school and during their leisure time in order to prevent chronic diseases.

  • 20.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Dansträning för längdskidåkare: får jag lov, Per Elofsson?2002In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 77-79Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Reliability tests of joint motion and muscle flexibility of the hip.2002In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet ; Karolinska Institute.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institute.
    Self-reported health, physical activity and prevalence of complaints in elite cross-country skiers and matched controls2005In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 547-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare physical health, physical activity and location for possible symptoms in high school students with cross-country skiers of the same age from ski high schools. Another aim was to study back pain with regards to influence on skiing.Methods. The subjects studied were: 92% (n=120) of all Swedish cross-country skiers at ski high schools and 68% (n=993) of regular high school students from the North part of Sweden answered a reliable questionnaire (r=1) with regards to health, physical activity and location of possible symptoms/injuries during the last 3 months. Furthermore, the skiers answered questions on possible ski related back pain.Results. All skiers were active also in other sports compared with 26% of the controls and at considerably higher levels of physical effort than the controls; 92% of the skiers and 76% of the controls described themselves as healthy, meaning "very good" or "good" (P=0.0001); 55% of the skiers and 64% of the controls reported recent symptoms (P=0.06); 47% of the skiers reported previous or present complaints of back pain, mainly low back pain, which could be relieved by changing body position from a flexed to a more extended one while skiing, and 77% reported their back pain to disappear during rest.Conclusion. These results show the need for encouraging regular high school students to participate in sport. It also shows the importance of introducing preventative strategies regarding back pain to long-distance cross-country skiers, who are exposed to a prolonged flexed position of their back.

  • 23.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    The effect of pre-season dance training on physical indices and back pain in elite cross-country skiers: a prospective controlled intervention study2004In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 148-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Young elite cross-country skiers and low back pain: A 5-year study2006In: Physical Therapy in Sport, ISSN 1466-853X, E-ISSN 1873-1600, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 181-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate possible changes in spinal curvature over a period of 5 years of an elite cross-country skiing squad, and to study whether there are any differences in this respect between individuals who report low back pain and those how do not. Participants Fifteen young cross-country skiers (M age=13.6±0.9) participated voluntarily throughout the entire study period. Main outcome measures Debrunner's kyphometer was used for measuring the difference between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis of the spine. All subjects also answered a questionnaire including questions about ski-related low back pain, the amount of ski training, and participation in other sports. Results The results at the end of the 5-year period comprise data from 15 skiers (M age=18.5±0.9 years). The relationship between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis increased from 3.5° to 13.1°, respectively (p=0.0001). Of the 15 elite cross-country skiers, seven reported low back pain at the 5-year examination. At the 5-year follow-up, skiers with low back pain showed significantly higher relationship between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis than did those skiers without low back pain, 18.2° and 10.5°, respectively (p=0.035). Of the eight elite cross-country skiers without low back pain, seven were also involved in other sports (p=0.005). Conclusions Based on these findings, our advice is that adolescent cross-country skiers also should participate in other physical activities besides cross-country skiing.

  • 25.
    Al-Seadi, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Leva med ADHD: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Arvidsson, Annsofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gymnasieungdomars hälsa: En jämförande studie av unga migranters och inrikesfödda ungdomars hälsa2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to investigate and describe, how students on high school level in Kronoberg county self rated their health with relation to irritation, nervousness/anxiety insomnia and gender. An additional aim was to investigate if there are differences between students born in Sweden by Swedish parents, students born in Sweden by foreign-born parents and foreign-born students.

     

    Methods: A quantitative method was used to analyse data gathered from students (n=1936) on high school level in 2006. All statistical analyses were made with help of SPSS V-12.

     

    Finding: The findings showed that most of the students self rated their health as “good”, however migrant students self rated their health as “not so good” and they had more problems with insomnia.

     

    The overall findings showed gender differences. Particularly, foreign-born girls self rated their health as “not so good” and reported more problems with insomnia.

     

    There was no divergence between the groups regarding irritation, nervousness/anxiety.

     

    Conclusion: School nurses and health workers must have deep knowledge about differences in gender, self- rated health and insomnia when they work with public health. More studies are needed to further investigate why the migrant students, particularly the girls health was worse and why they had more insomnia than the other groups.

     

  • 27.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås.
    Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås.
    Nationella regler krävs för ambulanssjukvård2011In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 2011-11-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige är det upp till varje landsting att bestämma hur snabbt en ambulans ska vara på plats. I stället borde det finnas nationella riktlinjer kring hur tillgängligheten ska se ut, skriver flera ambulanssjuksköterskor.

  • 28.
    Ayuk, B. T.
    et al.
    Catholic University of Central Africa, Cameroon.
    Dapi Nzefa, Léonie
    Sweden-Cameroon Organization, Cameroon.
    Nchang Allo, N.
    Catholic University of Central Africa, Cameroon.
    Childhood Diarrhea Determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross Sectional Study of Tiko-Cameroon2015In: Challenges, ISSN 2078-1547, E-ISSN 2078-1547, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 229-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death among children under five years globally. Nearly one in five child deaths, about 1.5 million each year, are due to diarrhea. It kills more young children than Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), malaria and measles combined. World Health Organization has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhea in all geographical areas. The main research objectives were to estimate the prevalence of diarrhea and identify factors associated with diarrheal diseases in Tiko city in Cameroon. Method: The present study was a cross-sectional community household survey which was conducted in Tiko town from 1st to 31st of August 2012. With the use of a questionnaire, a total of 602 households that had at least one child under five years of age were interviewed. Mothers/caregivers were questioned on the morbidity of diarrhea and the logistic regression model was employed to examine the determinants of childhood diarrhea. Both univariable and multivariable data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 23.8% and children under 24 months were highly affected. We found children using the main toilet and other types of toilet facilities such as bushes, diaper, and streams (OR: 0.194; p < 0.001, 95% CI) and usage of narrow-mouth container for storage of drinking water (OR: 0.492; p < 0.001, 95% CI) less likely to suffer from diarrhea. In contrast, higher rates of diarrhea prevalence were seen in children from households with two or more siblings (OR: 1.222; p < 0.001, 95% CI) and whose mothers/caregivers never had the knowledge of safe sources of drinking water (OR: 1.849; p < 0.01, 95% CI). Conclusion: Childhood diarrhea is a public health problem in Tiko city. Hence, interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence should take into consideration the integration of family planning activities in the prevention of childhood diarrhea and the deployed of health personals to educate the community to adopt a hygienic behavior. Future research on the topic should be qualitative inquiry to complement the quantitative nature of this study.

  • 29.
    Baptista, Antonio M. G.
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Joel, Monteiro
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Vieira, Marco
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Reimão, Pedro
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Rocha, Paulo
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Freitas, Cristina
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Causes of Vision Impairment in Portugal: A hospital based study2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 2118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Causes of vision impairment (VI) are influenced by factors such as race or socio-economic circumstances. Because of this collecting national information is important for planning reduction of vision loss. The aim of this study was to determine causes of vision impairment in a population visiting ophthalmology departments in public hospitals in Portugal.

    Methods 

    This study was designed according with the guidelines of the Vancouver Economic Burden of Vision Loss Group (IOVS, 2010, V51/4/1801). Recommendations are to collect hospital data during 1 year to determine causes of VI. We selected four public hospitals that are expected to have over 120-140K appointments per year. Files are analysed weekly to detect patients with vision impairment. Inclusion criteria are: visual acuity with the current refractive correction equal or less than 0.5 (20/40) in the better-seeing eye and/or a visual field of less than 20 degrees. Patients were selected by trained hospital staff (medics and orthoptists) and inserted in a database. Diagnoses were classified according the ICD9. Data collected included fundamental demographic information, main diagnosis, secondary diagnosis and comorbidities.

    Results 

    We have now 2462 patients selected that correspond to 4 to 33 weeks of data collection. The number of weeks is variable because we did not start all hospitals simultaneously. From the current number of cases detected, 58% are female, 1.9% are under 20, 8.2% are between 20 and 50 and 89.9% are 50 years or older. The leading causes of vision impairment among these patients are diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract (C), glaucoma (GC) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Using the North American definition of VI the proportions are 26.8% for DR, 25.5% for C, 10.4% for GC and 8.2% for AMD. The remaining causes of VI have percentages below 5% and in total they correspond to approximately 29% of the cases detected.

    Conclusions 

    Our results show that the most common causes of vision impairment are eye diseases related with systemic conditions and aging of the population. Vision impairment was relatively low under the age of 20 and the causes were mostly inherited diseases. Numbers reported now will be more accurate at the end of the study but they already highlight the importance of targeting conditions such as diabetes.

  • 30.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Quattrini, Sabrina
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Papa, Roberta
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Using eHealth to improve integrated care for older people with multimorbidity: Francesco Barbabella2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no Supplement 3, p. 48-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issue

    The exploitation of eHealth tools in integrated care practices addressing multimorbidity might be a strong driver for facilitating access to the services provided to people with multiple chronic diseases. This is particularly true in the case of older people living in the community, since eHealth could enhance and reinforce care services at home, improving independent living and security of patients.

    Description of the problem

    One of the ICARE4EU project aims, was to explore whether and which kind of eHealth tools are implemented in integrated care practices for older people with multimorbidity across Europe. In fact, eHealth tools could differ widely across practices, requiring specific know-how by users and health professionals for using and maintaining technology-based solutions, adequate financial resources, compatible organisational and cultural environment with innovations.

    Results

    The ICARE4EU project selected 101 integrated care practices in 24 European countries, of which 85 included the provision of at least one eHealth tool. Out of 50 practices addressing needs of older people, 42 included some eHealth solution aimed at: enhancing digital communication (64%); monitoring care processes (58%); providing decision support systems (60%); supporting patients' self-management (32%). Two promising approaches exploiting eHealth are presented in detail: the ‘TeleRehabilitation project: Post ICU patient telerehabilitation services' at the Nicosia General Hospital and the ‘Strategy for chronic care' by the Regional Department of Health in Valencia.

    Lessons

    The use of eHealth seems to have many benefits in terms of improvement of integration and management of care, as well as quality of care. However, to realize this benefits, it is important to arrange adequate technical support, legislative frameworks and training of users and health professionals.

  • 31.
    Barkstedt, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    SJUKSKÖTERSKORS ERFARENHETER AV FYSISKAKTIVITET PÅ RECEPT SOM ALTERNATIVBEHANDLINGSMETOD: En intervjustudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Genom fysisk aktivitet är det möjligt att både förebygga och behandla olika sjukdomstillstånd. Sedan 2001 har det varit möjligt för hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal att ordinera fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR) till patienter och statistiken visar att majoriteten av landets vårdcentraler har erfarenheter av att föreskriva FaR till sina patienter.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva vilka erfarenheter sjuksköterskor inom primärvården har av fysisk aktivitet på recept som alternativ behandlingsmetod.

    Metod: Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i en kvalitativ ansats och består av fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer med sjuksköterskor verksamma vid fyra olika vårdcentraler.

    Resultat: Samtliga sjuksköterskor hade flera års erfarenhet av att arbeta med FaR och hade utbildning i den alternativa behandlingsmetoden. Inställningen till FaR var positiv så länge som det genomfördes på patientens villkor. Sjuksköterskorna var överens om att det låg i primärvårdens ansvarsområde att jobba med FaR.

    Slutsatser: Erfarenheterna av att ordinera FaR var positiva så länge ett intresse fanns hos patienterna. Sjuksköterskorna ansåg att utbildningen var tillräcklig men att de borde få mer uppföljning på utbildningen. Även uppföljningen av patienterna och samarbetet med idrottsrörelsen behövde enligt sjuksköterskorna förbättras. Genom ett stärkt samarbete skulle patienternas följsamhet till recepten bli lättare att kontrollera och därmed skulle uppföljningsarbetet bli lättare att genomföra.

  • 32.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Dags att omvärdera stillasittandet2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33. Bergman, Patrick
    Health enhancing physical activity and the neighbourhood environment2008In: The Stockholm Seminars on Physical Activity and Public Health, GIH, Stockholm, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34. Bergman, Patrick
    Health enhancing physical activity, sociodemograpic factors and the neighbourhood environment2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 35. Bergman, Patrick
    Physical activity in european adolescents2008In: European childhood obesity group, Porto, Portugal, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The number of repeated observations needed to estimate the habitual physical activity of an individual to a given level of precision.2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity behavior varies naturally from day to day, from week to week and even across seasons. In order to assess the habitual level of physical activity of a person, the person must be monitored for long enough so that the level can be identified, taking into account this natural within-person variation. An important question, and one whose answer has implications for study- and survey design, epidemiological research and population surveillance, is, for how long does an individual need to be monitored before such a habitual level or pattern can be identified to a desired level of precision? The aim of this study was to estimate the number of repeated observations needed to identify the habitual physical activity behaviour of an individual to a given degree of precision. A convenience sample of 50 Swedish adults wore accelerometers during four consecutive weeks. The number of days needed to come within 5-50% of an individual's usual physical activity 95% of the time was calculated. To get an idea of the uncertainty of the estimates all statistical estimates were bootstrapped 2000 times. The mean number of days of measurement needed for the observation to, with 95% confidence, be within 20% of the habitual physical activity of an individual is highest for vigorous physical activity, for which 182 days are needed. For sedentary behaviour the equivalent number of days is 2.4. To capture 80% of the sample to within ±20% of their habitual level of physical activity, 3.4 days is needed if sedentary behavior is the outcome of interest, and 34.8 days for MVPA. The present study shows that for analyses requiring accurate data at the individual level a longer measurement collection period than the traditional 7-day protocol should be used. In addition, the amount of MVPA was negatively associated with the number of days required to identify the habitual physical activity level indicating that the least active are also those whose habitual physical activity level is the most difficult to identify. These results could have important implications for researchers whose aim is to analyse data on an individual level. Before recommendations regarding an appropriate monitoring protocol are updated, the present study should be replicated in different populations.

  • 37. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Mårild, Staffan
    Physical activity behaviour in Children 2-8 years2010In: ICO2010 Pre Congress Meeting Sociocultural, Behavioral and Economic Factors in Obesity Prevention, Stockholm. Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Grjibovski, A. M.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway;University of Tromsø, Norway;Northern State Medical University, Russia.
    Hagströmer, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Patterson, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sjöström, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Congestion road tax and physical activity2010In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0749-3797, E-ISSN 1873-2607, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 171-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Large-scale policy and environmental changes, such as congestion road taxes, may be a way to promote active transportation. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential effect of a congestion road tax on physical activity. METHODS: Baseline data were collected during October-November 2003, follow-up data in May 2006, and analysis was performed in September 2008. The short self-administered version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Data from those with access to motorized vehicles in the Stockholm region (n=165), where the tax was in place, were compared with those from the Goteborg/Malmo regions (n=138). Within each region before and during the road tax implementation, the data were analyzed for differences in time spent at different intensity levels of physical activity, in addition to sitting, as well as for changes in reported time in overall (weighted) physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the magnitude of the changes of the intensity levels of physical activity, weighted overall physical activity, or sitting, between Stockholm and Goteborg/Malmo. Among those exposed to the congestion road tax and with access to motorized vehicles, an increase in moderate physical activity (p=0.036); overall physical activity (p=0.015); and a reduction in time spent sitting (p=0.009) was observed. No differences were observed among those unexposed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study on the influence of a congestion road tax on levels of physical activity, though inconclusive, suggest that policy changes such as a congestion road tax might promote improvements in physical activity levels in individuals with motorized vehicles.

  • 39. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Bauman, Adrian
    Sjöström, Michael
    Adherence to physical activity recommendations and the influence of socio-demographic correlates - a population-based cross-sectional study2008In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 8:367Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sallis, James F
    Sjöström, Michael
    The association between health enhancing physical activity and neighbourhood environment among Swedish adults a population-based cross-sectional study2009In: International Journal of Behaviour Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 6, p. Article ID: 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study examines the relationship of neighbourhood environment factors with walking and total health enhancing physical activity.

    Methods

    A population-based cross-sectional study. The short self-administered version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess health enhancing physical activity including walking. The neighbourhood environment was assessed using a 17-item environmental module. A principal component analysis among the environmental variables was conducted. The factor scores were divided into tertiles and independent associations between factor tertiles and physical activity categories and walking were studied by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for confounders.

    Results

    In adjusted models, a lower odds ratio (OR) for reaching the middle, OR: 0.66 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47–0.98), and upper, OR: 0.65 (0.45–0.95), tertile of walking was observed among those in the lowest tertile of the degree of urbanisation. A higher OR for reaching the middle, OR: 1.84 (1.28–1.64), and upper tertile, OR: 1.64 (1.14–2.36), of walking was observed among those in the lowest tertile of fear of crime. A higher OR for reaching the high category of total health enhancing physical activity was observed among those in the lowest, OR: 2.01 (1.32–3.05), and middle tertile, OR: 1.52 (1.02–2.25), of the factor degree of urbanisation.

    Conclusion

    The findings suggest that the environment is differentially related to walking and total health enhancing physical activity. This should be explored in future research to disentangle the complex relationship between different levels and aspects of physical activity and their relationship with the environment.

  • 41. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Forskning pågår...: Barn, Fysisk aktivitet och hälsa2007In: Fysioterapeuten, no 6-7, p. 40-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Oja, Pekka
    Sjöström, Michael
    Environmental factors are associated with level of physical activity.2006In: CDC conference on physical activity and public health, Atlanta USA, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Sjöström, Michael
    Kan närmiljön påverka befolkningens aktivitetsnivå?2005In: Läkarstämman, Stockholm, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Patterson, Emma
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Sjöström, Michael
    Gender differences in physical activity among Swedish adults2006In: American College of Sports Medicine, 53rd Annual Meeting., Denver, Colorado, USA., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    Urban-Rural difference in the influence of environmental features on physical activity2008In: International conference on Physical Activity and Health, Amsterdam, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Linder, Jan
    Äng, Björn
    Electromyographic evaluation of cervical neck muscles among aviatory pilots2001In: Sjukgymnastdagarna, Stockholm, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Patterson, Emma
    Hagströmer, Maria
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Ortega, Fransciso B
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    Manios, Yannis
    Rey-López, J. Pablo
    Phillipp, Katharina
    von Berlepsch, Juliana
    Sjöström, Michael
    Concurrent validity of a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-A) in European adolescents – The HELENA study2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Patterson, Emma
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    How long is a day?2008In: International Conference on Physical Activity and Health, Amsterdam, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Bjelke, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg.
    Martinsson, Anna-Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg.
    Lendahls, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Using the internet as a source of information during pregnancy: a descriptive cross-sectional study in Sweden2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 40, p. 187-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The Internet plays a major role for pregnant women in seeking knowledge and for getting in touch with like-minded women. The information is available at all hours and can be accessed anywhere. The information provides the women with a sense of control and confidence but the large amount of information available can also be overwhelming. The aim of this study was to identify how women use the Internet as a source of information during their pregnancy and how it affects them.

    Design and setting

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted.Data were collected through a questionnaire at antenatal clinics in the southern Sweden. The data were analyzed descriptively

    Participants

    A total of 193 Swedish women, pregnant at least 34 weeks, participated in the study. The response rate was 94%.

    Findings

    Almost all (95%) of the women in the study used the Internet as a source of information. The main reason was to find information and read about people in the same situation. Reading pregnancy-related information on the Internet was seen as positive. However, a majority of the woman experienced feelings of worry due to something they read online. These feelings were most commonly coped with by talking to a partner, relatives, and friends or by asking the midwife at their next appointment. Eleven per cent of the women contacted the general healthcare services because of their feelings of worry.

    Conclusion

    Almost all women in this study searched the Internet to find pregnancy-related information, despite being satisfied with the information they received from the ANC. Using the Internet was seen as complementary to the information from professionals. It also caused feelings of worry, which could lead to the woman contacting healthcare services for support. ANC could help to reduce these feelings for some women by informing about the advantages and disadvantages with online information and recommending suitable web pages.

  • 50.
    Blomkvist, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Fotisättningens betydelse för löparens rörelsemönster: En jämförelse mellan häl-till-tålöpnging och framfotalöpning hos vana löpare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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