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  • 1.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Klinisk nutrition har svag ställning i vårdsystemet2015In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, no 1, p. 15-17Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    »Många studier genom åren har visat att inte ens en så enkel och lätt bestämd variabel som kroppsvikt registreras och analyseras tydligt över tid.«

    Man försöker trycka in kvalitet i klinisk nutrition i ett vårdsystem som inte är förberett på saken. Detta i en situation med a) brist på infrastruktur i vården, b) brist på utbildning/träning i klinisk nutrition hos personalen och c) avsaknad av en medicinsk specialitet för klinisk nutrition. Det skriver professor Gunnar Akner i en debatterande översiktsartikel.

  • 2.
    Akner, Gunnar
    et al.
    Örebro University ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Krachler, Benno
    Kalix sjukhus.
    Orrevall, Ylva
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Rundgren, Åke
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sahlin, Nils-Eric
    Lund University.
    Kosttillägg för undernärda äldre: en systematisk litteraturöversikt2014Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Akner, Gunnar
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Ellegård, Lars
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Swedish Society for Clinical Nutrition.
    Klinisk nutrition bör återinföras som medicinsk specialitet2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, p. 1770-1770Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Boman, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kost, näring, hälsa- studenters kostvanor under åren 2001-2013: En studie över sammanställd kostdata från kursen Kost, näring, hälsa 7,5 hp, Linnéuniversitet, Kalmar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on a dietary survey conducted by Håkan Andersson and Anna Blücher with the help of students in conjunction with the course Food, Nutrition and health, 7.5 credits at the Linnaeus University Kalmar. The study covers the years 2001-2013 and explores whether, and if so how, the students' dietary intake changed during the period, and discusses potential environmental factors underlying potential changes in dietary habits. The study also investigates whether the students follow the Swedish Food Administration guidelines and if their dietary habits are consistent with other surveys from the same interval. The results indicate that there has been a redistribution of macronutrients, e.g. carbohydrates has partly been replaced with fat, but the intake still remains within the nutritional recommendations. This observation is in agreement with other dietary surveys for the same period. However, BMI appears unchanged in this study, in contrast to what has been observed elsewhere. The reasons for the reduced intake of carbohydrates and increased fat intake may be linked to the increased interest in popular diets such as LCHF.

  • 5.
    Boman, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Bergström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad university.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dietary habits of Swedish university students in nutrition science between 2001 and 20162016In: Abstracts. The 11th NORDIC NUTRITION CONFERENCE NNC2016. “Bridging nutrition sciences for better health in the Nordic countries”, 2016, article id P470Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the Swedish nutrition recommendations have been kept relatively constant in recent years, public attitudes to different diets have been swinging faster. The National food survey (Riksmaten), being performed in Sweden only once per decade, cannot identify any corresponding rapid changes in diets. Hence, our understanding of potential fluctuations is limited. During the last 15 years, nutrition students at the Linnaeus University (formerly University of Kalmar) have reported their food intake in the context of the course Diet, Nutrition and Health 7,5 hp. The result is an extensive data set comprising more than 1100 individuals and over 2500 days of food intake reports, and although not originally intended or designed as a study, it became apparent that these data could be of interest as an indicator for national dietary trends. Food intake was reported (by weighing or estimating the amounts) for two weekdays and one weekend day per student, along with age, length, sex and weight. Food intake was translated to nutrient intake using Dietist Net software (Kost & Näringsdata).  Admittedly, the data set has some validity problems: the students differ from the Riksmaten study groups in mean age and geographical distribution, and all data was collected during March-April. As students in a nutrition course, they can also be expected to be more interested and more knowledgeable in the nutrition subject than the average person. Nevertheless, the results clearly demonstrate a substantial change in nutrient intake from 2006 and onwards, where the energy from carbohydrates decreased from above 50% to below 40%, and where the energy intake from fat increased from about 25% to 36%. Further details, such as the effects on the intake of selected micronutrients, will be presented.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Wanby, Par
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lexne, Erik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Mathold, Karin
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Nobin, Rebecca
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nordqvist, Ola
    Kalmar County Council.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Older Swedish Adults with High Self-Perceived Health Show Optimal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Whereas Vitamin D Status Is Low in Patients with High Disease Burden2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy pervades the definition of adequate and optimal vitamin D status. The Institutes of Medicine have recommended serum 25(OH) D levels above 50 nmol/L based upon evidence related to bone health, but some experts, including the Endocrine Society and International Osteoporosis Foundation, suggest a minimum serum 25(OH) D level of 75 nmol/L to reduce the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. In a cross-sectional study, we compared vitamin D status in people >= 75 years selected from four groups with a frailty phenotype, combined with a control group free from serious illness, and who considered themselves completely healthy. Only 13% of the 169 controls were vitamin D deficient (S-25(OH) D) < 50 nmol/L), in contrast with 49% of orthopedic patients with hip fractures (n = 133), 31% of stroke patients (n = 122), 39% of patients visiting the hospital's emergency department >= 4 times a year (n = 81), and 75% of homebound adult residents in long-term care nursing homes (n = 51). The mean vitamin D concentration of the healthy control group (74 nmol/L) was similar to a suggested optimal level based on physiological data and mortality studies, and much higher than that of many officially recommended cut-off levels for vitamin D deficiency (< 50 nmol/L). The present study provides a basis for planning and implementing public guidelines for the screening of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D treatment for frail elderly patients.

  • 7.
    Dapi Nzefa, Leonie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Janlert, Urban
    Stenlund, Hans
    Larsson, Christel
    Energy and nutrient intakes in relation to sex and socio-economic status among school adolescents in urban Cameroon, Africa.2011In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 904-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess energy and nutrient intakes and physical activity of adolescents in urban Cameroon according to sex and socio-economic status (SES).

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with adolescents randomly selected from schools in low-, middle- and high-SES areas. Weight and height were measured and information about food intake and physical activity was obtained through repeated individual 24 h recalls. Under- and over-reporting of energy intake and inadequacy of nutrient intake were assessed.

    SETTING: Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    SUBJECTS: Boys and girls aged 12-16 years (n 227).

    RESULTS: Boys had a lower BMI and reported higher energy expenditures and physical activity levels (PAL) than girls. Under-reporting of energy intake was large among boys and girls regardless of PAL; boys under-reported more than girls. Among those with low PAL, over-reporting of energy intake was common. Over 50% of boys and girls had protein below the recommendations. The intake of fat varied; 26% of the adolescents were below and 25% were above the recommendations. Inadequate intakes of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₃ and Fe were more common among girls, while boys more often had inadequate intake of vitamin A. Adolescents with low SES were more likely to be below the recommendations for fat and vitamins B₂, B₃, B₆ and B₁₂ than those with high SES.

    CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of boys and girls reported inadequate intakes. However under- and over-reporting were also very common. Boys under-reported energy intake more than girls and inadequate nutrient intake was more frequently reported by adolescents with low SES than by those with high SES.

  • 8.
    Dapi Nzefa, Leonie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Janlert, Urban
    Nouedoui, Christophe
    Stenlund, Hans
    Håglin, Lena
    Socioeconomic and gender differences in adolescents' nutritional status in urban Cameroon, Africa.2009In: Nutrition Research, ISSN 0271-5317, E-ISSN 1879-0739, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 313-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' nutritional status according to socioeconomic status (SES) and sex using anthropometry in urban Cameroon, Africa. Adolescent boys (n = 248) and girls (n = 333) 12 to 16 years old were recruited from randomly selected schools in a cross sectional study in Yaoundé city and grouped according to SES. Weight, height, skinfold thickness, and circumferences were measured, and body mass index, waist/hip ratio, arm muscle, and arm fat areas were calculated. Stunting, underweight, and overweight were determined using international cutoff points. Adolescents with medium and high SES were less likely to be stunted than adolescents with low SES (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; P < .01). Prevalences of stunting (12%, 6%, and 5%) and underweight (3%, 4%, and 1%) were higher among the adolescents with low and medium SES than those with high SES. Overweight prevalence was high among the adolescents with low (8%), medium (11%), and high (9%) SES. The OR for overweight was higher among girls than boys (OR, 4.13; P < .001). Girls were less likely to be stunted and underweight than boys (OR, 0.29 [P < .001] and OR, 0.20 [P < .01], respectively). Prevalences of stunting (15% and 6%) and underweight (5% and 2%) were higher among boys than girls. Pubescent adolescents were less likely to be stunted than nonpubescent (OR, 0.53; P < .05). Adolescents with low and medium SES were more underweight and stunted than adolescents with high SES. Girls were more overweight, less stunted, and underweight than boys.

  • 9.
    Dapi Nzefa, Leonie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Omoloko, Cécile
    Janlert, Urban
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Håglin, Lena
    "I eat to be happy, to be strong, and to live." perceptions of rural and urban adolescents in Cameroon, Africa.2007In: Journal of nutrition education and behavior, ISSN 1499-4046, E-ISSN 1878-2620, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 320-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors influencing rural and urban adolescents' food perceptions during a time of nutritional transition in Cameroon, Africa.

    DESIGN: Qualitative in-depth interviews.

    SETTINGS: Yaoundé urban and Bandja rural areas.

    PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen adolescents 12 to 15 years old purposely selected from schools in urban and rural areas.

    ANALYSIS: Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using Grounded Theory method.

    FINDINGS: Factors influencing adolescents' food perceptions from the rural area were "to live" "health" and "poverty." Among adolescents from the urban poor area, "health," "beauty," and "not enough money" were factors. Among adolescents from the urban rich area, "pleasure" and "beauty" were factors. Rural girls liked "to be fat," whereas girls from the urban poor wanted "to be a little bit fat," and girls from the urban rich wanted "to be normal."

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Food behavior is changing from a diet composed of traditional food in rural areas to a more westernized diet in urban areas. The relationship between socioeconomic factors and nutrition needs to be examined with a sufficiently large number of adolescents to investigate these factors in a quantitative survey. Healthful local food should be available at home and from vendors. Nutrition education about food and diet-related diseases is needed in school.

  • 10.
    Dapi Nzefa, Léonie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ayuk, Tambe Betrand
    Centre for Food and Nutritional Research, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Axberg, Frida
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Umeå University, Umeå.
    Lundström, Linnéa
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Umeå University, Umeå.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Umeå University, Umeå.
    After giving birth to a baby, breastfeeding becomes your responsibility: Infant feeding perceptions and practices among women in Yaoundé, Bamenda and Bandja, Cameroon, Africa2018In: International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, ISSN 2360-8803, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon advises mothers to follow the World Health Organization’s recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life and to continue breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years or beyond. Despite these recommendations, malnutrition due to inadequate feeding practices is still prevalent in Cameroon. Therefore, this study aims to explore infant feeding perceptions and identify factors influencing infant feeding practices in Cameroon. Forty-nine women aged 19 to 38 who had infants aged 6 days to 15 months were purposively selected from hospitals during the vaccination days and interviewed until saturation. The research tools included six qualitative group interviews, with each group comprising 6 to 10 women. The study was conducted in the rural area of Bandja and the urban areas of Yaoundé and Bamenda. Data were analysed using content analysis. In the study, breastfeeding was agreed upon as the best way to feed infants and was commonly practised for 1 to 2 years. Nevertheless, few infants were breastfed exclusively. Complementary foods were often nutritionally inadequate; many children were not given fruit, vegetables or foods of animal origin on a daily basis. Cultural beliefs, tradition, community norms and low educational and economic levels negatively influenced the implementation of appropriate infant feeding recommendations. The short duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the poor food diversity are the main problems. In response, it is necessary to strengthen the position of women, increase the period of maternal leave, introduce sustainable and practical education for both parents about breastfeeding, and provide good, local complementary foods. 

  • 11.
    Dapi Nzefa, Léonie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Monebenimp, Francisca
    University of Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Äng, Christofer
    Umeå University.
    Undernutrition among children under five in the Bandja village of Cameroon, Africa2018In: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 1607-0658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has a long history of struggling with child undernutrition. The prevalence of undernutrition is still high and knowledge about this public health problem and the underlying causes is essential for children’s health.

    Aim: To evaluate the anthropometric status of children under five in the Bandja village of Cameroon.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken that included 388 children. Undernutrition was evaluated in terms of wasting, stunting and underweight. Information on sex, age, birth order, birth interval, duration of breastfeeding, and mother’s age at birth, occupation and educational level were collected.

    Results: The prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight was 3.2%, 16.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Boys were more stunted than girls (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.16–4.34). Children less than 30 months were more often wasted than older children (OR 17.70; 95% CI 1.82–172.40). The first and second born in order were more stunted than the third or later born in order (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.02–4.18). Children of farming mothers were more often stunted (OR 2.87; 95% CI 1.35–6.13) and underweight (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.09–11.09) than others. Children still being breastfed were more underweight (OR 6.52; 95% CI 1.31–32.43) than those whose mothers had finished breastfeeding.

    Conclusion: Undernutrition is highly prevalent in Bandja, and is more common among boys, younger children, first born in order, children still being breastfed and children of farming mothers. This study underlines the importance of intervention to prevent and reduce undernutrition among children.

  • 12.
    Dapi Nzefa, Léonie
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Nouedoui, Christophe
    University of Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå University.
    Håglin, Lena
    University Hospital Umeå.
    Adolescents' Food Habits and Nutritional Status among in urban and Rural Areas in Cameroon, Africa2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 151-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food intake in Cameroon is based on three meals daily. The diet in rural areas is based on traditional staple foods, while that of the urban population incorporates more modern foods. The health and nutrition of adolescents is important as their eating behaviour and nutrition will affect their future health.

    Objective: To describe and compare food habits and nutritional status of adolescents in Cameroon.

    Design: A cross-Stional study using an unquantified food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric data, in urban and rural areas. Fifty-two adolescents, 12–15 years old, were selected from schools.

    Results: Frequencies of consumption of meat, vegetables, cereals, milk products and junk food were significantly higher in urban than in rural adolescents (11.8 vs 4.5, 9.5 vs 3.9, 16.5 vs 11.9, 5.7 vs 0.8, 24.2 vs 8.7, respectively). The frequency of in-between meals was higher in urban than in rural adolescents (4.9 vs 0.9, respectively). Arm muscle area (AMA, mm2) and waist/hip ratio were significantly higher in rural than in urban adolescents (3554 vs 2802 and 0.82 vs 0.79, respectively). Body mass index (BMI, kg m−2) was higher in rural than urban adolescents, although not significant (20.6 vs 19.4, respectively). There was a positive significant correlation between BMI and AMA in urban and rural areas (r=0.67 and r=0. 72, respectively).

    Conclusions: Despite a lower frequency of food consumption, rural adolescents had higher AMA and waist/hip ratio than urban adolescents. Less junk food and more traditional food consumption, more manual activities and walking in rural adolescents could explain these results.

  • 13.
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    et al.
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA ; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran ; Massachusetts General Hospital, USA.
    Malekshah, Akbar F.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Pourshams, Akram
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Sharafkhah, Maryam
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Khoshnia, Masoud
    Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Farvid, Mojtaba
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Abnet, Christian C.
    National Cancer Institute, USA.
    Kamangar, Farin
    Morgan State University, USA.
    Dawsey, Sanford M.
    National Cancer Institute, USA.
    Brennan, Paul
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Pharoah, Paul D.
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA.
    Willett, Walter C.
    Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA ; Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA ; Harvard University, USA.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Dietary Protein Sources and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study in Iran2017In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0749-3797, E-ISSN 1873-2607, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 237-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Dietary protein comes from foods with greatly different compositions that may not relate equally with mortality risk. Few cohort studies from non-Western countries have examined the association between various dietary protein sources and cause-specific mortality. Therefore, the associations between dietary protein sources and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality were evaluated in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. Methods: Among 42,403 men and women who completed a dietary questionnaire at baseline, 3,291 deaths were documented during 11 years of follow up (2004-2015). Cox proportional hazards models estimated age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for all cause and disease-specific mortality in relation to dietary protein sources. Data were analyzed from 2015 to 2016. Results: Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile, egg consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.97, ptrend=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the highest versus the lowest quartile of fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of total cancer (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.64, 0.98, ptrend=0.03) and gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.75, 95% CI=0.56, 1.00, ptrend=0.02) mortality. The highest versus the lowest quintile of legume consumption was associated with reduced total cancer (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58, 0.89, ptrend=0.004), gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.58, 1.01, ptrend=0.05), and other cancer (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.47, 0.93, ptrend=0.04) mortality. Significant associations between total red meat and poultry intake and allcause, cardiovascular disease, or cancer mortality rate were not observed among all participants. Conclusions: These findings support an association of higher fish and legume consumption with lower cancer mortality, and higher egg consumption with lower all-cause mortality. (C) 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Månsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Stale, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kosten ombord: Hur vill sjömannen att kostregleringen ska se ut?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diet is mentioned by many seamen as a subject of joy and aims to give nutritional value and sufficient energy to manage a long working day at sea. The purpose with this investigation is to examine if there is a need among seamen to receive more information about diet regulations onboard and if they wish that it was shaped differently to meet their demands. The study is based on a literature part where diet regulations are examined and an interview part with semi structured qualitative interviews with five seamen. The conclusion of the study indicates that seamen have limited knowledge about the enunciation of the regulation, where it is to be found and consider it to be imprecise. Interviews showed that seamen believe that variety is the most important factor in diet intake and it was this expression that they primarily wanted stated in the regulations. There are legitimate reasons to assume that Livsmedelsverket´s (compare NFA) recommendations also are applicable regarding diet at sea. A good diet is not only good for the individual’s health but also gains including safety and quality of work performed.

  • 15.
    Naseer, M.
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology;Blekinge Centre of Competence.
    Prevalence and association of undernutrition with quality of life among Swedish people aged 60 years and above: results of the SNAC-B study2015In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 970-979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of undernutrition among elderly and to investigate the association of risk of undernutrition with health-related quality of life and life satisfaction controlling for age, gender, marital status, economic status, housing arrangement, education level, functional ability, and diseases.

    Design: A cross-sectional study design was used for this study. The baseline data (2001-€“2003) of "€œThe Swedish National Study of Aging and Care-Blekinge (SNAC-B)"€ was used.

    Setting: This population-based study focused on both home-living and special-housing residents.

    Participants: The participants (n=1402) were randomly selected and included both males and females 60-€“96 years of age residing in a municipality of south-east Sweden.

    Measurements: The risk of undernutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (body mass index, mid-arm circumference, and calf circumference) below cut-off, in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (declined food intake, weight loss, and eating difficulty). The dependent variables, health-related quality of life and life satisfaction, were measured by the validated short form health survey (SF-12) and Liang’s life satisfactions index A (LSIA), respectively.

    Results: According to the criterion, 8.5% of the participants were at risk of undernutrition, and subjects at nutritional risk were significantly older, female, unmarried/widowed/divorced, residing in special housing, and functionally impaired. The risk of undernutrition was significantly associated with poor health-related quality of life, both in the physical (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-€“4.52) and mental (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.22-€“4.47) dimensions. However, no significant association was observed between nutritional status and life satisfaction (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.70-€“2.40).

    Conclusion: The risk of undernutrition significantly increases the risk of poor physical and mental health-related quality of life but has negligible impact on life satisfaction. This study also highlights the importance of functional ability both for the prevention of undernutrition and promotion of quality of life. However, more studies are needed to validate the tool used here for undernutrition risk assessment before it can be used in clinical or population settings.

  • 16.
    Natander, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Vilka behandlingsmetoder och åtgärder finns för att motverka nedsatt aptit hos äldre människor?: En litteraturstudie med en mindre granskning av Hudiksvalls kommuns verksamhet avseende kost för äldre.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investigate how a loss of appetite in the elderly population can be prevented och cocounteracted, based on factors that cause reduced appetite in elderly. Litterature study and a minor review of Hudiksvalls municipalities activities regarding diet for the elderly. Interview with the nutritionist in charge. Physiological changes in combination with patological causes, cause a decrease in appetite. Adaptions according to the elderly persons prerequsitites are required to stimulate appetite and reduce the risk of weight loss. 

  • 17. Nguefack-Tsague, G.
    et al.
    Dapi Nzefa, Leonie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Multidimensional nature of undernutrition: a statistical approach2011In: Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, ISSN 2141-9477, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 690-695Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Niklas, Håkansson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Finns det koppling mellan tillskott av BCAA/grenade aminosyror (leucin, isoleucin och valin) och förbättrad fysisk prestation?: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: BCAA or branched amino acids are a commonly used dietary supplement. Supplements of BCAA are assumed to increase physical performance based on research results obtained from animal experiments and some research on humans. The results are, however, partly contradictory. Physical performance can be divided into different types, depending on measurement methods and tests that differentiate them. Examples of different forms of physical performance are aerobic performance, anaerobic performance and muscle performance.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate possible correlation between supplements of BCAA and increased physical performance in the areas of aerobic performance, anaerobic performance and muscle performance. In addition, it is also investigated whether the effect of BCAA is affected by the duration of supplementation.

    Method: Six studies were included in this literature study, which investigated the impact of supplementation of BCAA on physical performance, in terms of either aerobic performance, anaerobic performance or muscle performance.

    Results: Two studies demonstrated positive effect on muscle performance after long-term supplementation, one with significant correlation with the supplement. One study failed to demonstrate positive effect on muscle performance after short-term supplementation. One study showed a positive effect on muscle performance after long-term supplementation, with significant association with the supplement. Two studies failed to show positive effect on aerobic performance, regardless of the length of the supplementation period. One of the two latter studies demonstrated positive effects on anaerobic performance, without significant correlation with the supplement.

    Conclusion: Several studies demonstrated a positive effect on performance after supplementation of BCAA, but differences and lack of significant association between BCAA supplementation and the studied effect in several of the studies make it difficult to ensure that supplementation of BCAA has an effect. More research in the field is needed.

  • 19.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Kristianstad University ; Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lindborg, Ann-Louise
    Mälardalen University.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Lund.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University.
    The meal as a performance: food and meal practices beyond health and nutrition2018In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, no 1, p. 83-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to in- vestigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life. By using Goffman’s concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu’s thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi- structured interviews were conducted with  elderly people (aged between  and  years) and meal observations were carried out with  of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjust- ing and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages, using simple eating aids, but also withdrawing socially during the meals. All these adjustments were important in order to be able to demonstrate proper food and meal behaviour, to maintain the façade and to act according to the perceived norms. As well as being a pleasurable event, food and meals were also perceived in terms of being important for maintaining health and as ‘fuel’ where the main purpose is to sustain life. This was strongly connected to the social context and the ability to enjoy food and meals with family members and friends, which appeared to be particularly crucial due to the impending risk of failing the meal performance. 

  • 20.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Agerhem, Hanna
    Ipsos, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Svensson, Therése
    Kristianstad University.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University.
    Wendin, Karin
    SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Westin, Marie
    Kristianstad University.
    Improved everyday food for home living elderly - perception of protein and energy enrichment2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Kristianstad University.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University.
    Designing meals for elderly with eating difficulties: a cooperative approach.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Rothausen, BW
    et al.
    Danish Technical University, National Food Institute.
    Gille, MB
    Danish Technical University, National Food Institute.
    Biltoft-Jensen, A
    Danish Technical University, National Food Institute.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Matthiesen, J
    Danish Technical University, National Food Institute.
    Testing of simple objectivemeasurments for assessment of physical activity  and antropometry in The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2007-20082010Report (Other academic)
1 - 22 of 22
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