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  • 1.
    Al-Asafi, Zainab
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Förekomst av Mycobacterium avium i vattenprover från barns närmiljö: med fokus på badleksaker2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mycobacteria are gram-positive bacteria belonging to the Mycobacteriaceae family. There are more than 50 different species of the mycobacteria which can cause diseases in humans, the most important one being M. tuberculosis. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are also called environmental mycobacteria. Some species can survive in areas with very low amounts of nutrients along with aquatic areas, such as water, dirt, swamps, and marshes. Some environmental mycobacteria are pathogenic and can cause diseases in humans and animals. They are mostly opportunistic pathogens, i.e. they infect humans with an already weakened immune system or humans who suffer from chronic diseases. Two species of mycobacteria named Mycobacterium avium avium and Mycobacterium avium hominissuis belong to the subgroup Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Healthy children between the ages of 1 and 5 are an exposed group to MAC-infections. When these children are infected with MAC, they develop an inflammation in the lymph nodes (Lymphadenitis) in the neck area. Since no direct transmission between humans has been established, it has been speculated that the MAC-bacteria take a different route to reach and infect adults and children with lymphadenitis. It has been hypothesized that MAC infect humans through nature and drinking water.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to detect the occurrence of M. avium bacteria in tap water from Öland, Kalmar, and Hultsfred, incubated in rubber ducks. The purpose was also to investigate experimentally if M. avium can survive and/or thrive in a rubber duck environment. The methods which have been evaluated in the study were cultivation followed by detection by MALDI-TOF and also triplex q-PCR.  

    The study was done on clean (new) and contaminated (used) rubber ducks with tap water from Öland, Kalmar, and Hultsfred, where some rubber ducks were injected with known strains from M. avium avium and M. avium hominissuis and incubated for five weeks. DNA was extracted from the water and biofilm samples from each rubber duck, for further analysis with q-PCR. Furthermore, a culture from the same water samples was made on nutritious agar for later detection by MALDI-TOF.

    The results of this study using q-PCR showed detection of the bacteria M. avium avium and M. avium hominissuis in all the samples. A possible, and believable, reason for this could be that the extraction solutions used in this study were contaminated. However, the study show that the mycobacteria survive in rubber duck environment.

  • 2.
    Ali Ghani, Hawraa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Funktionella studier av VEGFR2-bindande affibody-molekyler kovalent konjugerade till spindelsilke2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spider silk and its mechanical properties are today well-recognized. Obtaining sufficient amount of spider silk from spiders is complicated, therefore a method to produce recombinant spider silk fusion protein (4RepCT) has been developed. 4RepCT has biocompatible properties and can be used as a scaffold for cell cultures. Fibronectin, (FN) is a glycoprotein found in the extracellular matrix containing peptides that stimulate cell adherence. 4RepCT can be genetically coupled to a FN-peptide (FN-4RepCT). The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is found on endothelial cell which are activated by VEGF-polypeptides. This initiates growth of existing blood vessels which can be observed in cancerous diseases and therefore VEGFR-2 is an attractive and promising target in cancer research. During this study transgenic cells that overexpress VEGFR-2, 293/KDR were used.

    The aim of the study is to examine the functionality and bioactivity of VEGFR-2-binding affibody molecules after their conjugation with 4RepCT and FN-4RepCT.

    Alamar Blue and the biochemical assay ELISA were used to examine cell proliferation/viability and phosphorylation respectively. Cell proliferation of 293/KDR was analyzed in wells coated initially with 4RepCT followed by one extra coating of the following affibody molecules: Zdimer-4RepCT, Ztetramer-4RepCT, FN-4RepCT, ZDimer-FN, Ztetramer-FN-4RepCT and 4RepCT. Phosphorylation was examined of 293/KDRs VEGFR-2 cultures on the mentioned coatings using ELISA.

    293/KDRs highest proliferation value was obtained on Ztetramer-FN-4RepCT. Zdimer-FN-4RepCT had a lower cell proliferation than Ztetramer-FN-4RepCT. The phosphorylation results showed that the affibody-molecule Ztetramer-4RepCT has a stronger effect on VEGFR-2 in comparison to the Zdimer-4RepCT. The conclusion was drawn that Ztetramer coupled to 4RepCT with or without FN may impose an inducive effect upon VEGFR-2 although further studies need to be conducted.

  • 3.
    Al-Masaraa, Nahil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Terpenmetabolism i Artemisia annua: rekombinant produktion och karaktärisering av seskviterpensyntaser.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Malaria är en tropisk sjukdom som orsakas av encelliga organismer, protozoer från Plasmodium släktet. Varje år drabbas ungefär en halv miljard människor av malaria och cirka en miljon av dessa dör. Okomplicerad malaria är en mild form av malaria som enligt WHO rekommendationer ska behandlas med artemisinin baserad kombinationsterapi (ACT). Artemisinin produceras naturligt i låg mängd från växten Artemisia annua. Trots att medicinen har visat sig effektiv mot malaria med färre biverkningar är den höga kostnaden en nackdel. Forskning pågår för att hitta nya syntetiska vägar för framställning av artemisinin i växten genom att studera terpenmetabolism och vilka aktiva enzymer det finns som har en avgörande roll i utbytet av artemisinin i växten. Syftet med denna studie var att med hjälp av genteknik och molekylärbiologiska metoder producera och identifiera två rekombinanta enzymer, seskviterpensyntaser från A. annua. Experimentet inleddes med att transformera klonade T-DNA (AaTS-1 och AaTS-2) som kodar för seskviterpensyntaser från A. annua med hjälp av Agrobacterium tumefaciens vartefter transienta transkriptionen av generna som finns i en binär vektor initierades i blad från växten Nicotiana benthamiana genom infiltration. Totalt RNA extraherades från växten och översattes till cDNA för att sedan studera förhållandet av transient uttryck i bladen med qPCR. Enzymerna extraherades från bladen och inkuberades med farnesyldifosfat övernatt och produkten identifierades följande dag med gaskromatografi-masspektrofotometri (GC-MS). Resultatet blev att inget genuttryck av AaTS-1 och AaTS-2 kunde detekteras i bladen. Resultat från GC-MS visade att ingen proteinprodukt genererades. De negativa resultaten berodde främst på brist av resultat som verifierar att plasmiderna var konstruerade med selektionsgenerna, men även på grund av en icke effektiv transformation, orsakad av bakteriecellklumpar som förhindrade infiltreringsmedium att nå inre delarna av bladen.    

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Är det dags att byta ut metoden för analys av "sänkan"?: En jämförelse mellan traditionell analys av erytrocytsedimentationshastighet och aggregationsmetod med Alifax Roller 20 PN2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    B-ESR är en ospecifik inflammatorisk markör vilken fungerar som en indikator på förekomst av kroniska infektioner samt maligna tillstånd. Metoden för analys av B-ESR som används i idag är modifierad enligt Westergrens metod, vilken bygger på att fyra delar blod späds med en del isoton citratlösning i ett vacutainerrör (100×9mm). Provröret blandas noga, placeras vertikalt i rumstemperatur varefter hastigheten för sedimentation av erytrocyterna mäts i mm efter 60 min. Analysen är tidskrävande och många yttre faktorer kan inverka vilka kan leda till felaktiga analysresultat.

    Syftet med denna studie var att jämföra instrumentet ESR-100 (Westergren) med Alifax Roller 20 PN som använder en mikrokapilläraggregationsmetod. Genom registrering av den optiska densiteten i relation till koncentrationen av erytrocytaggregat som finns närvarande vid analystillfället konstruerar instrumentet en sedimentationskurva för varje prov. En algoritm omvandlar sedan sedimentationskurvans resultat från optisk densitet för antalet erytrocytaggregationer, till mm/h som används vid mätning av B-ESR. Analysen utförs på EDTA-rör och tar endast 35 sekunder för varje prov.

    I studien analyserades prover från 180 patienter (106 kvinnor mellan 15-93 år och 74 mellan 11-88 år) på båda instrumenten. Därefter upprättades en korrelationskurva som visade att r=0,85. Detta är en acceptabel korrelation, men det förekom även vissa avvikande prov (n=9, 5 %). Då repeterbarhetsundersökningar genomfördes var CV % lågt för de högsta respektive lägsta analysresultaten ( = 59 mm/h respektive 2 mm/h). CV % var högst hos provet som hade ett medelvärde på 7 mm/h och sjönk med stigande B-ESR. Reproducerbarhetsundersökningarna visade att samtliga analysresultat sjönk från dag1 till dag 2, då mätning genomfördes efter förvaring i rumstemperatur ≈20ºC respektive kyla +4ºC - +8ºC.

    Studien visade att det fanns ett acceptabelt samband mellan aggregationsmetoden och referensmetoden, men det förekom även avvikande resultat. Därför bör ytterligare studier med patientmaterial som avviker från normalt referensintervall genomföras.

  • 5.
    Angeland, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Inverkan av n-3-fettsyror vid förlossningsdepression.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    n-3 fettsyror har en avgörande roll som komponent av plasmamembranets fosfolipider och tillhör gruppen fleromättade fettsyror. n- 3 fettsyrorna har en inverkan på cellstruktur och funktion och viktiga fettsyror är dokosahexaensyra (DHA) och eikosapentaensyra (EPA). DHA och EPA bildas från Alfalinolensyra (ALA) som är essentiell, det vill säga att den måste tillföras via kosten därför att kroppen inte kan tillverka den själv. ALA måste därför tillföras antingen genom fisk-och skaldjursintag och då framförallt fet fisk eller genom kosttillskott. EPA och DHA finns främst i hjärnan som till 60 % består av fett.

    Förlossningsdepression är en åkomma som drabbar ungefär 10-20 % av barnafödande kvinnor. Det är en komplex åkomma som kan bero på olika miljöfaktorer, genetiska anlag men kan även bero på kosten. Förlossningsdepression kan bli allvarligt både för modern och för barnet.

    Syftet med den här studien var att genom vetenskapliga artiklar undersöka om n-3 fettsyror kan ha en inverkan vid förlossningsdepression och isåfall genom vilka mekanismer. Det finns idag inget konkret svar på om n-3 fettsyror kan hjälpa vid förlossningsdepression samtidigt som många studier inom området har gjorts. Denna studie hade därför som syfte att eventuellt kunna bidra med ytterligare kunskap om n-3 fettsyror och förlossningsdepression och om fettsyrorna verkligen hjälper.

    Resultaten från de sex artiklar i studien som undersöktes visade inte på någon tydlig koppling mellan halten av n-3 fettsyror och förlossningsdepression. I tre av de sex studierna kunde dock en liten effekt observeras. En studie visade också att en högre snarare än en lägre nivå av fettsyror kunde öka risken för depression. Det behövs fler studier inom området för att få ett konkret svar.

  • 6.
    Aniansson, Rebecka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Utvärdering av snabb resistensbestämning för Staphylococcus aureus och Streptococcus pneumoniae direkt från positiv blododlingsflaska2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria in the bloodstream may cause sepsis, therefore early and correct treatment is important. Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for the patients survival. In sepsis with diagnosis based on blood culture, at least two days are required for results from AST.

    Routine AST-method in Swedish microbiological laboratories is the disc diffusion method standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). In disc diffusion, bacteria are grown on agar plates and inhibition zones around paper disks with antibiotics are used to measure the antibiotic effect. The method requires bacterial colonies as source material and takes 16–20 hours. EUCAST has further developed the method for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (RAST). RAST is performed directly from positive blood culture bottles and inhibition zones are measured at 4, 6 and 8 hours. The method uses different breakpoints for categorization at the different timepoints. The purpose of the study was to evaluate RAST for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae by examining bacterial isolates inoculated into blood culture bottles. Zone diameters were measured, and results were compared with those of standardized disk diffusion. For S.aureus, at 4 hours 102/184 (55%) readings were categorizable, at 6 hours 164/184 (89%) and at 8 hours 174/184 (95%). A total of 7 error categorizations occurred, 5 of which were underestimation of clindamycin resistance at 4 hours. For S.pneumoniae at 4 hours, 74/80 (92%) readings were categorizable, at 6 hours 73/80 (91%) and at 8 hours 77/80 (96%). Resistance was overestimated at 21 zone measurements at 4 hours.. RAST showed good results for S.aureus after 6 hours. For S.pneumoniae, further studies are required but RAST may work after 6 hours for penicillin resistance assessment.

  • 7.
    Ankarling, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dechiffrerandet av Detox: Bland sanningar och myter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sellers of detox preparations argue that in our modern society, the body's purification mechanisms are no longer sufficient and need a little help, preferably in the form of alleged cleansing herbal formulas. Some also advocate colonic irrigation and ionizing foot baths. The purpose of this study is to survey the flora of detox products in the form of nutritional supplements: what types there are, what ingredients are included and which claims are made. The claims have been classified for testability and reliability was assessed through searches in PubMed and Web of Science. Some of the testable assertions seem to completely lack evidence, other claims lean on studies that suffer from problematic deficiencies, while some claims deserve further study since they find support from studies with promising preliminary results. You cannot rule out a future for evidence-based detox diets, no more than you can to say that detox diets today keep their promises. More clinical, placebo-controlled studies are required and a clearer dividing line between what is pure bluff and what is serious research. Consumers should be aware of the lack of evidence and the risks that exist, for example in the form of contaminated products and the potential risk of interactions with medicines. 

  • 8.
    Aronsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Genetisk modifiering och kloning av coxsackievirus B5 Dalldorf2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Aronsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Method Development: Quantitative Determination of Polysorbate 80 in Gammanorm® and Poloxamer 188 in Octagenate® Using Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polysorbate 80 (PS80) and Poloxamer 188 (P188) are non-ionic detergents used as surfactants in the injection fluids Gammanorm® (human immunoglobulin) and Octagenate® (recombinant human factor VIII) respectively.PS80 in Gammanorm® is currently quantified using a spectrophotometric method based on complexation with ammonium cobalt(II)-thiocyanate after a protein precipitation step with ethanol (T-603). Highly questionable performance of T-603 has led to the development of an analysis method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). P188 in Octagenate® is currently quantified using HILIC-ELSD (Q-726), but recent problems with peak broadening, signal saturation and insufficient resolution have caused Q-726 to be placed on hold.The aim of this work was to solve the problems connected with Q-726, an analysis method for the quantitative determination of P188 in Octagenate®, and to develop a new analysis method for the quantitative determination of PS80 in Gammanorm® based on HILIC-ELSD.Optimization of ELSD parameters and increased water content in the mobile phase, proved effective in solving the problems with the analysis of P188. The lack of reproducible ethanol injections without interfering peaks prevented further advancement of the PS80 method development. Good results from analysis of standard injections of PS80 between 1 and 10 ppm in the PS80 method were obtained with good correlation (R2 > 0.99). The obtained results, in combination with a recently published article, describing a quantitative determination of PS80 in therapeutic protein formulations based on HPLC-ELSD, indicates potential for this method and further analysis should be performed to validate whether or not the method development is to be continued.

  • 10.
    Ataei, Shakila
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Optimering av analysmetoden hos koldioxid-isotop-analysatorn, Picarro-G2131-i2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marine bacteria are microscopically visible organisms that can survive in most of the marine environments. Their function is to decompose dead organic matter, and thus contribute to the carbon cycle in the oceans. They utilizes dissolved organic matter in the oceans and produce carbon dioxide through respiration. This carbon dioxide can be measured with modern instruments to determine the primary production of the ecosystem and determine what carbon sources are responsible for the energy flow in the ecosystem. During this study, the possibility, advisability and the sensitivity of measuring bacterial respiration with the carbon dioxide isotope analyzer Picarro-G2131-i was examined. Further, the method was developed. For the experiment, two species of proteorhodopsin containing marine bacteria Polaribacter sp. strain MED152 and Dokdonia sp. strain MED134 were used. Growth and respiration of the bacteria were studied in nutrient rich medium. To test the Picarro-instrument is sensitivity, the respiration of both bacterial species was performed in respectively dilution series. In addition, the growth and respiration of MED134 in nutrient-poor conditions in light and darkness condition was compared. To study the impact of light on the growth of bacteria. No significant difference was found between MED134´s growth and respiration in light and dark. The method could be improved by modification such as changing pump, shorten tubes, remove a safety bottle and use a refefence bottle.

     

    Conclusion

    The carbon dioxide isotope analyzer Picarro-G2131-i is a sensitive instrument and can detect both the 12CO2 and 13CO2. According to the growth experiment, the bacteria grow very rapidly in nutrient rich medium. For comparing bacterial growth in light and dark, the correct light intensity and sufficient nutrient must be used.

  • 11.
    Ataei, Tahereh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Förekomst av penicillinkänslighet hos blododlingsisolat av Staphylococcus aureus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most clinically important Staphylococcus species and is associated with high mortality in patients with positive blood cultures. S. aureus bacteria may cause a variety of disease manifestations ranging from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and sepsis. This microorganism belonging to the gram positive cocci may also be part of the normal flora. In Sweden, penicillinase-stable penicillins are the primary alternatives to treat S. aureus infection. Mutations in genes encoding the penicillin binding proteins (PBP2) in the bacteria which lead to a lower affinity for the  beta-lactam antibiotics define  methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) which is a significant global health problem. Other resistance mechanisms of S. aureus are present, and one of these is penicillinase production which is associated with resistance to penicillin G. In order to detect penicillinase production in S. aureus, there are several methods but the European guidelines recommend disc diffusion and the clover-leaf test for follow-up if the zone diameter for benzylpenicillin (PcG) is 26 mm or more. There are no modern Swedish studies on the prevalence of S. aureus susceptible to PcG and this has recently attained interest from infectious disease physicans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of S. aureus susceptible to PcG from blood cultures isolated during 2012 from the Kalmar county.    Disc diffusion testing showed that 32% of 90 unique isolates tested had an inhibition zone diameter of PcG that was ≥ 26 mm in diameter. All of these isolates were confirmed as PcG sensitive with clover-leaf test. Internal controls showed little variation and external control isolates showed full agreement with the results obtained from a Danish study, suggesting that PcG zone diameter of ≥ 26 mm in combination with cloverleaf test can be used to detect penicillin susceptibility of S. aureus.    In conclusion, this study shows that nearly 1 /3 of the blood culture isolates of S. aureus from Kalmar are sensitive to benzylpenicillin.

  • 12.
    Benderix, Ylva
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Almqvist, Ann-Mari
    Andersson, Åsa
    Bengtsson, Elisabeth
    Björk, Maria
    Birgersson, Petra
    Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrin
    Bredlöv, Britt
    Broberg, Malin
    Danielsson, Pernilla
    Drevenhorn, Eva
    Edwinsson-Månsson, Marie
    Ervander Grandinsson, Inger
    Falk, Ann-Charlotte
    Forsner, Maria
    Gelander, RS
    Gothefors, Leif
    Gånemo, Agneta
    Barn med neuropsykiatriskt funktionshinder2009In: PEDIATRISK OMVÅRDNAD / [ed] Inger Hallström & Tom Lindberg, Stockholm: LIBER , 2009, p. 309-315Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Berkeby Banérsson, Emilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hållbarhetsstudier och granskning av automatvalidering av analysresultat vid analys av prostataspecifikt antigen Hållbarhetsstudier och granskning av automatvalidering av analysresultat vid analys av prostataspecifikt antigen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Prostatacancer är den vanligaste orsaken till cancerdöd hos män i Sverige. Cirka 9500 patienter får diagnosen prostatacancer varje år. Prostatacancer diagnostiseras med hjälp av analys av tumörmarkören prostataspecifikt antigen (PSA) i plasma.

    Syftet med den aktuella studien var att undersöka den preanalytiska stabiliteten av PSA i plasma och att undersöka hur förändrade provtagningsanvisningar och provtagningsrutiner påverkade analysresultat, arbetsförhållanden och patientsäkerhet.

    Analysmetoden som användes vid studien var electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay (ECLIA), vilken nyttjar ljus för detektion av antigen-/antikroppskomplex.

    I en första studie visades att centrifugerade PSA-prover med icke avhälld plasma, förvarade i 6o C, kan analyseras upp till 5 dagar efter provtagning. Detta till skillnad från nuvarande metodbeskrivning som kräver avhälld plasma vid analys 24 timmar efter provtagning. En andra studie visade att PSA-prov, förvarat i 6o C, centrifugerat och analyserat 24 timmar efter provtagning gav oförändrade PSA-värden jämfört med PSA-prov som centrifugerats och analyserats direkt efter provtagning. Detta till skillnad från nuvarande metodbeskrivning där prov skall centrifugeras inom 2 timmar och att ocentrifugerat prov skall förvaras i rumstemperatur.

    Nya automatvalideringsgränser och införandet av laboratoriedataprogrammet Delta-check gav en halvering av antalet analysresultat som ej automatvalideras.

    Studien visar att PSA var mer stabilt än tidigare förmodats och att förändrade rutiner vid analys av PSA och införande av automatvalidering med Delta-check kan leda till ett förbättrat och mer effektivt arbete för personalen på laboratoriet och ge ökad patientsäkerhet.

  • 14.
    Biberfeld, G
    et al.
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Thorstensson, R
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Bergström, M
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Naucler, A
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Costa, C M
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Enzyme immunoassays for the demonstration of antibodies to HIV-2SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV (SIVmac).1988In: AIDS (London), ISSN 0269-9370, E-ISSN 1473-5571, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 195-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for the demonstration of antibodies to HIV-2 using disrupted virions of the SBL-6669 isolate of HIV-2 and the so-called human T-lymphotropic virus type IV (HTLV-IV), recently found to be identical with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac), as antigens. Three hundred sera from West African subjects, attending an outward clinic in Bissau for examination of suspected tuberculosis, were tested by these two assays as well as by a commercially available anti-HIV-2 ELISA (ELAVIA II). Fifty of these sera were positive in all three ELISAs as well as in Western blot tests against HTLV-IV. Thirty-eight of these positive sera were also tested by an anti-HIV-2 Western blot kit (LAV-Blot II) with positive results. The ELISAs based on SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV antigens had a specificity of 99.6% (one false positive among 250 negative sera) whereas the specificity of ELAVIA II was 94.6% using the recommended cut-off value and 98.4% using a higher cut-off value. Another 58 sera from West African patients, clinically suspected of having AIDS or HIV-related disease, were tested for HIV-2/HTLV-IV antibodies by Western blot and by ELISA against SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV antigens; all of the 30 sera which were positive by Western blot were found to be positive in both ELISAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 15.
    Bild, Filippa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Utvärdering av BD Vacutainer® Rapid Serum Tube vid analys av S-Paracetamol och S-Etanol2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avdelningen för klinisk kemi vid Länssjukhuset i Kalmar analyserar läkemedel och alkoholer med BD Vacutainer® Plus Plastic Serum Tube (Serum Tube), som kräver en koagulationstid i upp till 60 minuter. BD Vacutainer® Rapid Serum Tube (RST™) innehåller trombin och kräver en koagulationstid på endast 5 minuter. Syftet med studien var att undersöka möjligheten att förkorta den preanalytiska väntetiden före centrifugering vid intoxikationsanalyser i serumrör från akutmottagningen. Studien utfördes genom att jämföra RST™ med Serum Tube vid analys av S-Paracetamol och S-Etanol. Totalt analyserades 70 prover för S-Paracetamol, varav 35 RST™ och 35 Serum Tube från 35 patienter. Analys av S-Etanol utfördes på 60 prover, varav 30 RST™ och 30 Serum Tube från 30 patienter. RST™ centrifugerades efter 5 minuter och Serum Tube efter 50 minuter, före kolorimetrisk analys på analysinstrumentet VITROS® 5,1 FS. Resultaten för S-Paracetamol var inom intervallet 74,9 – 198,7 µmol/L för RST™ och inom 76,6 – 195,3 µmol/L för Serum Tube. Resultaten för S-Etanol var inom intervallet 7,5 – 74,5 mmol/L för RST™ och inom 7,5 – 74,8 mmol/L för Serum Tube. Pearsons korrelationskoefficient var 0,9977 för S-Paracetamol och 0,9980 för S-Etanol och det fanns en liten positiv bias vid analys med RST™ för båda analyterna, men ingen signifikant skillnad (p>0,05) mellan provrören påvisades. Användning av RST™ på akutmottagningen medför en förkortad preanalytisk väntetid och en snabbare turnaround time (TAT). Hypotesen att S-Paracetamol och S-Etanol kan analyseras med RST™ på VITROS® 5,1 FS stämmer, med undantag för höga koncentrationer av S-Paracetamol som inte kunde utvärderas. För att RST™ ska kunna användas rutinmässigt bör därför ytterligare studier utföras.

  • 16.
    Björk, Josefin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Erytrocytinnehåll i plasmakomponenter: En jämförelse mellan teststickan Multistix, hematologiinstrumentet Advia 2120 och manuell räkning i mikroskop med Bürkers räknekammare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following blood donation of 450 mL of whole blood from volunteer donors, the blood is separated into plasma, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Controls are performed to investigate the separation performance. E.g. the plasma units are not allowed to contain more than 6x109 erythrocytes per liter. Whole blood does normally contain 4-6x1012 erythrocytes per liter. The primary indication for plasma transfusion is massive bleeding, a treatment mainly associated with risks such as transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO). The aim of the thesis work was to find a decision limit for the determination of the erythrocyte content in plasma components produced prior to transfusion. The limit was to be determined by a comparison between the Multistix 8 SG test stick, Body fluid program in the Advia 2120 hematology instrument and manual count in the Bürker counting chamber. Analysis were performed on 38 samples, of which 18 samples were prepared by addition of extra erythrocytes to either exceed the control limit or find the transition point to the highest result level of the stick. The average and median of the quantitative results from the Bürker counting chamber for the 20 approved controls, broken down by the categories on the stick, were calculated. All results were between 0.063x109/L and 2.08x109/L. Of the 38 samples analyzed, 37 received a result <10x109/L on the Advia 2120. Based on these results, the decision limit at which a component control is guaranteed an approved result was determined to ≤2+ on the test stick. In the case of a 3+ result, a confirmatory quantitative analysis must be performed. The conclusion was that the test stick Multistix 8 SG could be used as a screening method for analyzing the erythrocyte content of the plasma components produced. The conclusion was also that the Adviaprogram used is not suitable for analysis of the erythrocyte content in plasma.

  • 17.
    Borg, Olivia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Diversity of Avian Coronaviruses in Mallards Anas platyrhynchos, Ottenby, Sweden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Coronavirus are single-stranded plus-strand RNA viruses that cause several respiratory and neurological diseases in a wide range of animals and humans. There are 4 main groups of Coronaviruses: alpha, beta, gamma and deltacoronavirus, where gamma and deltacoronaviruses have been found in wild birds. This study evaluated the epidemiology and phylogeny of coronavirus in Swedish waterfowl in order to increase the existing knowledge of these viruses in nature. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of 36 different samples from Mallards collected from Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden (56°12’58”N 16°24’40”E) in 2011 were sequenced. These sequences were characterized and compared to other gammacoronaviruses using a phylogenetic approach. Analysis revealed that there is diversity of sequences from the samples as there was evidence of at least 4 groups of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase sequences. A difference of sequences over time was also detected which might suggest virus turnover due to host herd immunity. However, the results doesn´t demonstrate a clear pattern of reinfection with the same or different RNA-dependent RNA sequences within individuals over time. This study has contributed 1/3 of all gammacoronavirus sequences, and demonstrates the need in finding a method to complete genome sequence these viruses. Comparative genomic studies are important to determine the diversity of virus gene lineages and viral phenotypes, and also to be able to understand the relations behind interclass jumping, which is important to predict and avoid pandemics that coronavirus might cause.

  • 18.
    Brevestedt, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur exponeras barn för ftalater i sin inomhusmiljö på förskolan?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ftalater är ett ämne som har till syfte att verka mjukgörande i plast. Ftalater finns i flera material och produkter i vår omgivning t ex i leksaker, elektronik, textilier och i inredningsmaterial. De problem som uppkommer i samband med användandet av ftalater i produkter är att ftalaterna inte är kovalent bundna till sitt material och därmed kan dessa frigöras ut i luft och damm. Flera ftalater är klassade som hormonstörande ämnen och kan påverka flera viktiga funktioner i kroppen. Barn är en extra känslig grupp då flera av deras organ ännu inte är färdigutvecklade och är beroende av ett fungerande endokrint system.

     

    Barn spenderar en stor del av sin vardag på förskolan och det ställer krav på deras inomhusmiljö. Studier visar på att koncentrationerna av ftalater är 2-4 gånger så hög i förskolans inomhusmiljö som i hemmiljön. Med tanke på att barn har flera organsystem under utveckling är det viktigt att fasa ut onödiga källor för exponering av ftalater.

     

    Arbetets syfte är att kartlägga ftalater i inomhusmiljön på förskolor i Växjö kommun och att undersöka pedagogers medvetenhet kring ämnet. Arbetet utgår från tidigare vetenskapliga artiklar och en enkätundersökning som personal på 46 förskolor i Växjö kommun har besvarat.

     

    Studier som undersökt inomhusmiljöer visar på att det förekommer höga koncentrationer av ftalater som är begränsade enligt REACH-förordningen. Då ftalater finns i flera produkter blir det många olika exponeringskällor och det gör det viktigt att fasa ut onödiga källor för att minska koncentrationen av ftalater i luft och damm. De mest intressanta resultat som kommit fram via enkätundersökningen är att det förekommer plastgolv i de flesta lokaler, elektronik finns i de rum där barnen spenderar mest tid och att barn använder “vuxna leksaker” såsom äldre elektronik, väskor och skor. Ett resultat som visar att barn lever i en allt mer vuxen miljö med produkter som är avsedda för vuxna. Sådana produkter täcks inte in av de begränsningar som REACH-förordningen skapat och täcks inte heller av de nya leksaksdirektiven.  

    Förskolepedagogerna uppger sig vara medvetna om ämnet ftalater men ändå visar undersökningen att det finns en rad olika brister i kunskap. Det är därför viktigt att öka kunskapen och medvetenheten kring ämnet för att på så sätt fasa ut onödiga källor för exponering av ftalater. 

  • 19.
    Brokvist, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Autolyserade pneumokocker kan modulera cytokinsvaret hos humana monocyter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Byhlén, Liselott
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Enterobacteriaceae och amoxicillin-klavulansyra: Effekt av bestämt förhållande respektive bestämd koncentration av klavulansyra på MIC-värden och zon/MIC-korrelation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förekomsten av bakterier med olika typer av resistensmekanismer ökar globalt. De varianter som på engelska benämns ”Extended spectrum β-lactamases” (ESBL) är en heterogen grupp β- laktamaser som genom hydrolys inaktiverar β-laktamantibiotika och därigenom ger resistens mot bland annat β -laktamantibiotika som penicilliner och cefalosporiner. Resistensbestämning på kliniska laboratorier utförs huvudsakligen med lappdiffusion eller Minimum Inhibiting Concentration (MIC)-bestämning med gradienttester. Infektioner orsakade av ESBL-producerande organismer kan behandlas med β-laktamantibiotika kombinerat med en β-laktamasinhibitor. I Europa rekommenderas resistensbestämning med bestämd koncentration β-laktamasinhibitor, men produkter på marknaden saknas.

    Syftet med projektet var att utvärdera olika typer av gradienttester med amoxicillin- klavulansyra från två leverantörer (Etest och MIC Test Strip, MTS) och undersöka hur klavulansyra påverkar resistensbestämningen, samt att se hur resultat från lappdiffusion korrelerar med resultat från ovan nämnda tester.

    Lappdiffusion och MIC- bestämning med gradienttester med antingen bestämt förhållande av amoxicillin-klavulansyra (2:1) (Etest och MTS) eller bestämd koncentration klavulansyra (2mg/L) (MTS) utfördes med Escherichia coli (både med ESBL-positiva och ESBL-negativa stammar) samt med Proteus mirabilis. ESBL-detektion med cefpodoxim och cefpodoxim-klavulansyra utfördes parallellt.

    För P. mirabilis korrelerade lappdiffusionsresultat mycket bra med resultat från samtliga gradienttester. För E. coli korrelerade lappdiffusionsresultat mycket bra med MIC-värden vid användning av Etest 2:1 medan MTS 2:1 gav högre MIC-värden än referensdistributionen och resulterade i sämre korrelation. MIC-bestämning med MTS 2 mg/L resulterade i högre MIC-värden.

    Den nuvarande zonbrytpunkten behöver justeras för att korrelera med tolkningen från amoxicillin-klavulansyra med bestämd koncentration av klavulansyra 2 mg/L, framförallt för ESBL- producerande E. coli.

  • 21.
    Bäckström, Annie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan två nedkylningsmetoder av helblodsenheter för vidare framställning av trombocytkoncentrat avsedda för transfusion2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trombocytopeni behandlas primärt med trombocyttransfusion. Trombocytkoncentraten kan erhållas genom poolning av lättcellskikt framställda ur helblodsenheter från flera blodgivare. Helblodsenheterna kyls vanligen ner på en CompoCool®-platta för att snabbt komma ner till rumstemperatur och kan då prepareras redan efter 2 h. Detta brukar vara logistiskt fördelaktigt och gynnar erytrocyterna som framställs ur samma helblodsenheter. Det går även att låta helblodsenheterna kylas ner i rumstemperatur vilket å andra sidan sägs ge ett högre trombocytutbyte då studier visat att trombocyter är känsliga för kyla. Syftet med examensarbetet var att framställa och jämföra kvaliteten på trombocytkoncentrat där helblodsenheten hade kylts ner på CompoCool®-platta respektive kylts ner i rumstemperatur. Hypotesen var att trombocytutbytet skulle bli högre vid nedkylning av helblodsenheten i rumstemperatur än vid nedkylning på CompoCool®-platta. Framställningen av trombocytkoncentraten gjordes genom poolning av 5 st lättcellskikt och en påse trombocytsuspensionsmedium efterföljt av centrifugering och separation i en automatisk blodkomponents separator. Kvalitén utvärderades med avseende på trombocytkoncentration, leukocytkoncentration, swirling samt bakterieodling. Samtliga resultat för kvalitetskontrollerna låg inom de rekommenderade gränsvärdena. Det beräknade t-testet för trombocytkoncentrationen var högre än det kritiska t-värdet vilket innebar att det var en signifikant skillnad mellan de olika nedkylningsmetoderna. Genom användning av de erhållna resultaten kunde hypotesen bekräftas och slutsatsen dras att trombocytutbytet är signifikant högre då helblodsenheten kyls ner i rumstemperatur jämfört med CompoCool®-platta. 

  • 22.
    Carlie, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Spädbarns tarmflora & probiotikas effekt vid kolik: Kan skillnader i spädbarns tarmflora förklara kolik och är probiotika en effektiv behandling vid kolik?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One out of five infants suffer from colic during the first three months of life. Otherwise healthy infants suffer from severe crying and are unable to be comforted during at least three consecutive hours per day for more than three days a week. Although colic is a common problem for both babies and parents, there is currently no effective treatment. The etiology is unclear, but smoking and  prepartum maternal mental illness, allergies to foods and an undeveloped gastrointestinal system in infants are believed to be contributing factors. This study reviews eight articles that examine the differences in intestinal flora between infants with and without colic, to see if the differences can explain colic and probiotic effect in colicky infants. Reviewed studies show that the prevalence of Proteobacteria, coliforms and Escherichia coli is higher in infants with colic. Unlike infants without colic, colicky infants exhibit a minor bacterial diversity, reduced colonization of Bacteroidetes and the beneficial bacterial genus of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Breastfed colicky infants treated with the probiotic bacterial strain, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, obtained, in two out of three studies, a positive effect on colic symtoms without any side effects, where the crying time was reduced to less than half. Results vary geographically and evidence for a probiotic effect on bottle-fed infants with colic is still inadequate. It remains unclear whether an altered intestinal flora can cause colic or is a result of colic as the intestinal flora is very complex and more studies are needed in this area.

  • 23.
    Celander, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Förekomst av bakterier efter användning av nytt ytdesinfektionsmedel med kvardröjande effekt på en klinisk vårdavdelning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden approximately 10 % of patients receiving health care are afflicted with health care associated infections. To minimize the risks involved for patients and personnel, a great deal of attention is directed towards matters of hygiene, with the purpose of decreasing occurrence of infectious microorganisms. Improved hygiene is also considered to be a major part of the effort to limit the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    The purpose of this study was to examine if a surface disinfectant with a persistent effect could lead to a significant reduction in the occurrence of bacteria in a health care environment compared to the currently routinely used disinfectant. Samples were collected from 14 hand-touch surfaces in patient isolation rooms cleaned with either of the two desinfectants at a hospital ward. Simultaneously the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, coliform bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined. Bacteria were cultured and identified using conventional microbiological laboratory methods.

    A significant difference between the different disinfectants could not be demonstrated, nor ruled out. Further, more extensive, studies are required to evaluate if a statistically significant reduction can be achieved with the new disinfectant. S. aureus was found in 106 out of 297 samples (36 %), and a correlation could be seen between the total count of bacteria and the number of S. aureus in individual samples. Enterococci were found in 72 out of 297 samples (24 %), of which 52 were identified as Enterococcus faecalis, 18 E. faecium and two samples containing both species. No correlation between the total count of bacteria and the number of enterococci could be seen. Coliform bacteria and P. aeruginosa were only found on one occasion respectively. 

  • 24.
    Chow, Joyce A
    et al.
    RISE Interactive Institute.
    Törnros, Martin E
    Interaktiva Rum Sverige.
    Waltersson, Marie
    Linköping University.
    Richard, Helen
    Linköping University Hospital.
    Kusoffsky, Madeleine
    RISE Interactive Institute.
    Lundström, Claes F
    Linköping University.
    Kurti, Arianit
    RISE Interactive Institute.
    A design study investigating augmented reality and photograph annotation in a digitalized grossing workstation2017In: Journal of Pathology Informatics, ISSN 2229-5089, E-ISSN 2153-3539, Vol. 8, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Aims: Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. Settings and Design: The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Subjects and Methods: Our research institute focused on an experimental and “designerly” approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as “rapid ethnography” and “conversation with materials”. Results: We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the image, and create linked information. Conclusions: The augmented reality magnetically tracked scalpel reduces tool switching though limitations in today's augmented reality technology fall short of creating an ideal immersive workflow by requiring the use of a monitor. While this technology catches up, we recommend focusing efforts on enabling the easy creation of layered, complex reports, linking, and viewing information across systems. Reflecting upon our results, we argue for digitalization to focus not only on how to record increasing amounts of data but also how these data can be accessed in a more thoughtful way that draws upon the expertise and creativity of pathology professionals using the systems.

  • 25.
    Classon, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Atypiskt terminalt komplementkomplex: Kvantifiering av in vivo-nivåer av atypiskt terminalt komplementkomplex under normala och patofysiologiska betingelser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The late steps of complement activation involves a cleavage of complement protein C5, to C5a and C5b, which initiates the formation of terminal complement complex (TCC). The final complex is referred to as the membrane-attack-complex (MAC) which forms cytotoxic pores in, inter alia, gram-negative bacteria. The formation of MAC can be inhibited by endogenous regulators and the TCC is then released as a soluble complex, sC5b-9, in plasma. In the degree project, another type of TCC was studied, which in previous studies had shown to form independently of C3 and C5 convertases when serum was acidified to pH <7.0 in vitro. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether this atypical TCC (aTCC) was formed in piglets, which in a model of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), received a reduced systemic pH in vivo. The purpose was also to establish an ELISA for analyzing aTCC. Sandwich ELISA, with monoclonal anti-C5a / C5a (desArg) (clone T13/9) as a capture antibody and monoclonal anti-C9 (clone aE11) as a detection antibody, was used to analyse aTCC in plasma samples from 18 MAS piglets, and in control samples consisting of pig serum acidified to pH 6.8 and 6.4 in vitro. The amount of aTCC in the control samples increased when the pH was lowered, but the content of aTCC in the plasma samples decreased over the course of the MAS study. When the relative change in aTCC was related to the final pH of the MAS pigs, a significant relationship could be seen (p = 0.02) which showed that a major change in the aTCC coincided with a lower final pH. aTCC were generally higher in plasma samples compared with control samples, which could be due to differences in plasma vs serum for aTCC or that the samples came from pigs of different age and weight. Lack of pig-specific standard and negative control as well as low signal to noise ratio contribute to sources of error for the analysis and this requires continued optimization.

  • 26.
    Cocha, Laura Romina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Metodutveckling för prövning av lektiners påverkan på patogena svampar2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Dadarman, Mina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Möjlig mekanism bakom antiinflammatorisk polymer, polyvinylalkoholkarbazat: Studier av apoptos och viabilitet i cellkultur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Dagsberg, Jacob
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Förekomst av aviärt influensavirus bland vilda fåglar provtagna vid Ottenby fågelstation under 2017: Detektion och fylogenetisk analys av neuraminidas subtyp 6-virus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is divided into subtypes based on two glycoproteins on its surface. Among birds there are 16 subtypes of hemagglutinin (H) and 9 subtypes of neuraminidase (N). Some H subtypes can mutate into highly pathogenic viruses and cause deadly infections. One such highly pathogenic virus was reported in northern Europe in 2017. Spread amongst highly pathogenic H5 is well mapped out. Reverse transcription followed by amplification in real time is used to detect neuraminidase in AIV, based on synthesis of complementary DNA, which gets amplified and detected using fluorescent probe. Sanger sequencing of neuraminidase coding gene segments is used to verify the results from RT-qPCR screening and analysing phylogenetic relationship. To contribute with knowledge about neuraminidase subtype 6, RT-qPCR analysis was used on 282 AIV positive samples from wild birds, sampled at Ottenby bird station in 2017. Gene segments coding for hemaglutinin and neuraminidase among viruses in N6 positive samples was sequenced to validate the N6-RT-qPCR analyses, determine H subtype and to analyse phylogenetic relationship among N6-sequences. The RT-qPCR resulted in 37 N6 positive samples where 26 of these was confirmed as N6 with traditional PCR and sequencing. AIV from the analyses occurred in subtype constellations of: 14 H1N6, 3 H3N6, 8 H4N6 and 1 H5N6. Three samples failed to give H subtype, three different samples gave no N6 sequence. Detected H5N6 was low pathogenic. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AIV N6 sequences from Ottenby, in tandem with sequences from GenBank, formed four genotypes. N6 sequences from two viruses sequenced in this study, associated with subtypes H3N6 and H1N6 formed genotype two, together with four H5N6, possibly high pathogenic viruses from Japan.

  • 29.
    Danielsson, Micaela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Bindningsmönster av aviärt influensa A-virus till mag-tarmkanalen hos andfåglar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus is a major human disease, with recurrent seasonal outbreaks that cause up to 500,000 deaths worldwide every year. The natural reservoir and home to most subtypes of the virus is wild water birds. To get a better understanding of how so many different viruses can infect wild birds, the binding pattern of the virus to the host can be studied with the virus histochemistry technique. The purpose of this work was to investigate the binding pattern of avian influenza virus, subtype H4, H9, H13 and H16, to gastrointestinal tract tissues from different species of ducks to see which cells and in what quantity these viruses bind to. The techniques that have been used are propagation of the virus by culturing embryonated chicken eggs, sucrose gradient purification, formalin inactivation and then fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeling. The titre of the virus was measured by hemagglutination assay, showing the result that the titre after harvesting eggs for H4 was: 256 HAU/100 μl, H9: 512 HAU/100 μl, H13: 384 HAU/100 μl and for H16: 768 HAU/100 μl. FITC-labeled virus titer was measured to H4: 15 360 HAU/100 μl, H9: 30 720 HAU/100 μl, H13: 163 840 HAU/100 μl and H16: 81 920 HAU/100 μl. Virus histochemistry was not performed and therefore the result of the binding pattern is still unknown and the question of this work unanswered with in the time limit of this thesis. What is expected from the result, however, is that subtype H4 and H9, common to found in birds ducks, will bind to epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract of ducks while subtype H16 and H13, which have only been found in isolate from ducks in a few cases, are not expected bind to the gastrointestinal tract of ducks to the same extent.

  • 30.
    de Gelidi, S.
    et al.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Seifnaraghi, N.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Bardill, A.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Tizzard, A.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Wu, Y.
    UCL, UK.
    Sorantin, E.
    Med Univ Graz, Austria..
    Nordebo, Sven
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Demosthenous, A.
    UCL, UK.
    Bayford, R.
    Middlesex Univ, UK.
    Torso shape detection to improve lung monitoring2018In: Physiological Measurement, ISSN 0967-3334, E-ISSN 1361-6579, Vol. 39, no 7, article id 074001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Newborns with lung immaturity often require continuous monitoring and treatment of their lung ventilation in intensive care units, especially if born preterm. Recent studies indicate that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is feasible in newborn infants and children, and can quantitatively identify changes in regional lung aeration and ventilation following alterations to respiratory conditions. Information on the patient-specific shape of the torso and its role in minimizing the artefacts in the reconstructed images can improve the accuracy of the clinical parameters obtained from EIT. Currently, only idealized models or those segmented from CT scans are usually adopted. Approach: This study presents and compares two methodologies that can detect the patient-specific torso shape by means of wearable devices based on (1) previously reported bend sensor technology, and (2) a novel approach based on the use of accelerometers. Main results: The reconstruction of different phantoms, taking into account anatomical asymmetries and different sizes, are produced for comparison. Significance: As a result, the accelerometers are more versatile than bend sensors, which cannot be used on bigger cross-sections. The computational study estimates the optimal number of accelerometers required in order to generate an image reconstruction comparable to the use of a CT scan as the forward model. Furthermore, since the patient position is crucial to monitoring lung ventilation, the orientation of the phantoms is automatically detected by the accelerometer-based method.

  • 31.
    Dragan, Smiljic
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Studies of small bicoid knock-down and overexpression at early and late stage of development in Drosophila melanogaster.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Ekelöf, Josefine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Detection of Carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumoniae Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/IonizationTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Ekstedt, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Effect of IL-13 on Serotonin mediated Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Asthma is a disease that occurs worldwide and approximately 300 million people carry this disease. It is characterized by chronic inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). This T-lymphocyte controlled disease has symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. In addition to chronic inflammation, asthma is also caused by overproduction of mucus and airway wall remodelling. The chronic inflammation and airway wall remodelling are suggested to contribute to the AHR and airway obstruction. AHR is a way to measure the reactivity in the airways in asthmatics. IL-13 has been shown to play an important role in the development of AHR, and biopsies from bronchial submucosa and air way smooth muscle (ASM) in humans have shown an increased concentration of IL-13 in severe asthma.

    Aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate if IL-13 is able to enhance the 5-HT response in mouse tracheal segments, which had been cultured for 2 days and, if so, try to unravel the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon. Literature reports that IL-13 enhanced contractions in mouse trachea in presence of KCl and CCH. Earlier work within this project did not find any clear proof for this observation. However, in this work this observation will be evaluated in a more controlled fashion by correcting for size and location of the trachea.

    Methods: The trachea was removed from Balp/c mice and cultured in small wells for two days in DMEM medium and various additions were performed to the medium for understanding the effect of e.g. IL-13 on the cells. The contractility change due to IL-13 and various additions in segments challenged with KCL, CCH and 5-HT were measured in a tissue-organ bath.

    Results and Conclusion: A more enhanced CCH induced contraction of IL-13 treated segments was obtained for the lower part compared to the upper part of the trachea. IL-13 enhanced the response in the ASM to 5-HT after two days of culturing. An increased concentration of the cytokine IL-13 in the airways from TH2-cells enhances the reactivity to 5-HT in the ASM. The underlying mechanism might involve JNK and ERK but more experiments are needed to statistically ensure this claim.

  • 34.
    Ekström, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Buller som stressor i skolmatsalar: En fördjupning av Barnmiljöhälsorapport 2013 i samarbete med Landstinget i Jönköpings län2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The child health report of 2013 was undertaken in the district of Jönköping, Sweden. The results of this survey indicated that the 12 year olds that participated in the study were bothered by the noise in the dining area of their school. An elevated level of noise can affect the human body in a negative way, and can lead to an increased level of stress. Exposure to elevated levels of noise gives enhanced excretion of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH). CRH is a hormone that can have a negative impact on the normal function of the gastrointestinal tract. Elevated noise will affect the health of people being exposed, and entails a health hazard.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the noise in school dining areas and the self reflected health of 858 12 year old students from the district of Jönköping, Sweden.

    Method: The analysis was based on a child health survey 2011; evaluating the student´s reflection of the exposure of noise in relation to their own estimated health status.

    Results: The results from the child health survey 2011 did show that the students being most affected by noise also experienced a lower self reflected health compared to the students less affected by noise in the school dining area. 

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that students experience an overall lower level of health if they feel negatively affected by noise. To be able to improve child health, further research needs to be undertaken regarding this issue. The effects of stress hormones need to be investigated further, as well as the relationship between excretions of stress hormones in the body and the level of surrounding noise.

  • 35.
    Enström, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kan ett tillskott av tryptofan ha en inverkan på  sjukdomstillstånd som depression och/eller smärta?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    5-hydroxytryptamin (5-HT) is biochemically derived from Tryptophan. Kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid are also known metabolites of tryptophan. 5-HT is considered to play a role in depression and today selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used for treatment of depression. 5-HT may also play a role in pain perception. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a supplement of tryptophan may affect conditions such as depression and/or pain. Reviewed studies show that tryptophan deficiency leads to less availability of tryptophan in the brain, which reduces the synthesis of serotonin. Lowering of mood appears and seems to be linked to the decrease in serotonin synthesis. Supplements of tryptophan have in some studies been shown to have effects on social behaviour with reduced quarrelsome behaviour and increased dominant behaviour. Corresponding studies on the effects on pain provide a complex picture. Results indicate that in acute pain 5- HT seems to provide some pain relief but contradictory responses to 5-HT are seen in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Comorbidity with both depression and pain occur, and has been linked to the increase in tryptophan metabolism through the kynurenine pathway. Enzymatic modifications have been detected which lead to elevated kynurenine/tryptophan ratios. This seems relevant to this comorbidity. Tryptophan as a supplement for effects on conditions such as depression and/or pain is very uncertain because of the complexity in physiological responses. More studies are needed. 

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria ; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Kroon, Martin
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria ; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Influence of medial collagen organization and in-situ axial stretch on saccular cerebral aneurysm growth2009In: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, ISSN 0148-0731, E-ISSN 1528-8951, Vol. 131, no 10, article id 101010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for saccular cerebral aneurysm growth, proposed by Kroon and Holzapfel (2007, "A Model for Saccular Cerebral Aneurysm Growth in a Human Middle Cerebral Artery," J. Theor. Biol., 247, pp. 775-787; 2008, "Modeling of Saccular Aneurysm Growth in a Human Middle Cerebral Artery," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 130, p. 051012), is further investigated. A human middle cerebral artery is modeled as a two-layer cylinder where the layers correspond to the media and the adventitia. The immediate loss of media in the location of the aneurysm is taken to be responsible for the initiation of the aneurysm growth. The aneurysmis regarded as a development of the adventitia, which is composed of several distinct layers of collagen fibers perfectly aligned in specified directions. The collagen fibers are the only load-bearing constituent in the aneurysm wall; their production and degradation depend on the stretch of the wall and are responsible for the aneurysm growth. The anisotropy of the surrounding media was modeled using the strain-energy function proposed by Holzapfel et al. (2000, "A New Constitutive Framework for Arterial Wall Mechanics and a Comparative Study of Material Models," J. Elast., 61, pp. 1-48), which is valid for an elastic material with two families of fibers. It was shown that the inclusion of fibers in the media reduced the maximum principal Cauchy stress and the maximum shear stress in the aneurysm wall. The thickness increase in the aneurysm wall due to material growth was also decreased. Varying the fiber angle in the media from a circumferential direction to a deviation of 10 deg from the circumferential direction did, however, only show a little effect. Altering the axial in situ stretch of the artery had a much larger effect in terms of the steady-state shape of the aneurysm and the resulting stresses in the aneurysm wall. The peak values of the maximum principal stress and the thickness increase both became significantly higher for larger axial stretches.

  • 37.
    Erlandsson, Anton
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kan främre korsbandsskador hos unga idrottande kvinnor förutspås med hjälp av biomekanisk screening? En litteraturstudie.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Simple tools to predict injuries in high risk sport would be an important development to reduce the amount of injuries and to develop preventative protocols. One such method is biomechanical screening tools where several methods have been developed. One type of injury that has been in focus of predicting is an injury in the anterioer cruciate ligament (ACL) which is located in the kneejoint. Studies have found that young female athletes in sports that involve jumps and cutting maneuvers are at increased risk of suffering this type of injury. Since the number of females engaging in sports is increasing, the incidence of ACL-injurys so do. Aim of the study: To grade the evidence for these clinical oriented screening tools in predicting the outcome of anterior cruciate ligament injury in a population of young female athletes, then state a grade of recommendation. Methods: A literature review of grading quality and evidence in scientific articles according to a validated checklist and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Results: All of the evaluated articles scored the highest grade possible for cohort studies, 2++. However, clinical oriented screening tools which measure biomechanical parameters in movement patterns got the lowest possible grade of recommendation, ’D’, since inconsistent results were shown. This meant that no specific recommendation could be done. Discussion: The outcome of an ACL-injury is affected by multiple factors and not only riskful movement patterns. There are many important confounders that could be adjusted for in finding the concluding factors. To be able to demonstrate the predictive value of the screeningtools and find consistent results it could require larger studies than yet available. Conclusion: The reviewed biomechanical screening tools showed insufficient results to state a grade of recommendation for clinical application.

  • 38.
    Faxe Borgryd, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Har energidryck någon kognitiv effekt i kombination med alkohol?: Med fokus på komponeneten koffein2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Energy drinks have been found in everyday-stores since 1997 and their popularity have increased over time. Consumtion of energy drinks takes place because of their ability to increase concentration and to decrease fatigue but also because of the popularity the drinks have got. Target groups for these stimulating beverages are adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks contain caffeine, taurine, glucuronolacton, carbohydrates and B-vitamins and voices have been raised about the eligibility for young people to ingest large quantities of these kinds of substances. Because of the properties of these substances it has become popular to mix energy drinks and alcoholic beverages to make up for the negative effects of alcohol and to be able to drink larger quantaties.

    Aim: The aim of this literature work was to investigate cognitive effects of the combination of caffeine in terms of energy drinks and alcohol and to determine if these effects could be harmful.

    Method: This literature work is based on five scientific articles retrieved from PubMed. Inclusion criteria for selection of the articles were examination of the effects of a combined use of alkohol and energy drinks.

    Results: A combination of energy drinks and alcohol can give a larger intake of alcohol and/or an overestimate of a persons abilities (for example to drive). Some effects can be seen in the perception of alcohol effects by simultaneous intake of alcohol and energy drinks because of the effect of caffeine.

    Discussion: There are many factors that can have an influence when it comes to effects of a combination of energy drinks and alcohol. Caffeine (in energy drinks) can have some impact on the perception of alcohol effects but also use of tobacco, contraceptives and energy states in the body can make a difference. Expectations that some substances could have an influence (placebo effect) might as well give an effect.

  • 39.
    Förare Lummi, Erica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kan fysisk aktivitet påverka aktiviteten i brun fettvävnad eller medföra en ökad bryning av vit fettvävnad?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Brun fettvävnad är en energiförbrukande fettvävnad som frisätter energi i formav värme genom att frikoppla elektrontransportkedjan med hjälp av uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Studier har även visat att förutom klassiska bruna fettceller i brun fettvävnad finnsdet brun-lika, beiga, fettceller i vit fettvävnad som frisätter energi på samma sätt som bruna fettceller. Tillsammans skulle dessa två energiförbrukande fettceller kunna regleraenergibalansen och därmed vara med i arbetet mot övervikt och överviktsrelaterade sjukdomar.

    Syfte: Syftet med arbetet var att undersöka om fysisk aktivitet kan öka aktiviteten av brunfettvävnad eller medföra en ökad bryning av vit fettvävnad.

    Metod: Arbetet är en litteraturstudie baserad på vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Resultat: PGC1α och FNDC5 ökade efter fysisk aktivitet i samtliga studier som undersöktnivåerna av dessa, i både djurstudierna och humanstudierna. Nivåerna av UCP1 syntes även dessa öka i de studier som undersökt det. Irisins funktion i människan är fortfarande oklar.

    Slutsats: Det verkar möjligt att fysisk aktivitet kan öka aktiviteten i brun fettvävnad samtkunna ha en brynande effekt på fettceller i vit fettvävnad. Tydligare resultat ses hos möss och råttor än hos människor. Ytterligare forskning måste göras för att fastställa resultaten.

  • 40.
    Gacic, Natasha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Metodjämförelse mellan instrumenten Vitros 5,1 FS och QuikRead CRP för analysen P-CRP2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In studies of serum, in the early 1930s, from patients with pneumonia, a factor was found. It could agglutinate certain pneumococcal species. This factor, which later became known as C-reactive protein (CRP), increased sharply during the early and middle stages of the disease. CRP was identified as an acute phase protein and found especially in bacterial infections. CRP is synthesized in the liver by stimulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6), which is produced by the monocytes, and consists of five non-covalently bound subunits.

    The aim of this study was to compare two different analytical instruments (Vitros 5.1 FS Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics and QuikRead CRP Orion Diagnostica) for CRP analysis. In this study, Vitros 5.1 FS is used as a reference instrument. QuikRead CRP is a small instrument intended for patient-near testing.

    Vitros 5.1 FS (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics a Johmon-Johmon Company, Rochester, NY, U.S.A) is a fully automated instrument for measuring various analytes of clinical importance in body fluids. For analysis of CRP, plasma is used. The amount of CRP is obtained by measuring turbidity at a specific wavelength in an Immuno-turbidimetric reaction. QuikRead CRP (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) is an immuno-turbidimetric test in which micro-particles coated with anti-human CRP are used to measure the amount of CRP in whole blood, plasma or serum.

    Comparison between Vitros 5.1 FS and QuikRead CRP for the P-CRP analysis shows a good correlation (R= 0.997) of the mean value from the analysis I, II and III.  An intercept of -8.52 shows a decrease in the values of CRP for QuikRead comparatively Vitros 5.1 FS.  Bland-Altman-plot shows a slightly increased spread of results. Paired T-test shows that Vitros 5.1 FS and QuikRead CRP does not produces the same results.

    This study shows that QuikRead CRP is a user-friendly instrument that fits well in near patient testing. QuikRead CRP and Vitros 5.1 FS did not give the same results of P-CRP. This does not affect the results in regards to distinguish a viral infection (10-50 mg / L) from a bacterial infection (> 100 mg / L).

  • 41.
    Gränse, Agnes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan markörer för funktionellt järnstatus på Siemens Advia 2120 och Sysmex XN-1000 2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syre transporteras från lungorna, via blodet bundet till erytrocyternas hemoglobin, till kroppens alla celler. En hemoglobinkoncentration i blodet under referensintervallet definieras som anemi och påverkar hela kroppen och försämrar den fysiska prestationsförmågan. Järnbristanemi är en anemi med otillräcklig järntillförsel till benmärgen på grund av tomma järnförråd (absolut järnbrist) eller försvårat järnutnyttjande (funktionell järnbrist). Analysparametern HYPO på analysinstrumentet Advia 2120 (Siemens) mäter andelen hypokroma erytrocyter (erytrocyter med lågt hemoglobininnehåll) och anses vara en av de bästa parametrarna för att påvisa funktionell järnbrist. Analysparametern Hypo-He på analysinstrumentet XN-1000 (Sysmex) är en forskningsparameter för samma ändamål. Syftet med detta arbete var att jämföra markörer för funktionellt järnstatus och utvärdera om analysen HYPO på Advia 2120 kan ersättas med Hypo-He på XN-1000. Fyrtiofyra patientprover, på vilka HYPO var beställt, analyserades, först på XN-1000 och därefter på Advia 2120. En linjär regressionmodell gjordes för att beskriva korrelationen mellan analyserna HYPO och Hypo-He. Imprecisionen för analysen Hypo-He beräknades genom inom-serie- och total-serie-imprecision. Korrelationen mellan analyserna var måttligt stark (r = 0,7185 (absoluta värden) och r = 0,8081 (logaritmerade värden)), dock med många analysresultat inom det lägre området. Variationskoefficienten för Hypo-He beräknades till mellan 0 % - 9,5 %. För att kunna avgöra om Hypo-He kan ersätta HYPO som indikator på funktionell järnbrist krävs kompletterande studier på välkaraktäriserade patientprover med varierande analysvärden inkluderande värden för HYPO på mer än 10 %.

  • 42.
    Hamad, Osama A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lasaosa, Maria
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Ricklin, Daniel
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Lambris, John D.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Contribution of Chondroitin Sulfate A to the Binding of Complement Proteins to Activated Platelets2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 9, article id e12889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure of chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) on the surface of activated platelets is well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent CS-A contributes to the binding of the complement recognition molecule C1q and the complement regulators C1 inhibitor (C1INH), C4b-binding protein (C4BP), and factor H to platelets.Principal Findings: Human blood serum was passed over Sepharose conjugated with CS-A, and CS-A-specific binding proteins were identified by Western blotting and mass spectrometric analysis. C1q was shown to be the main protein that specifically bound to CS-A, but C4BP and factor H were also shown to interact. Binding of C1INH was dependent of the presence of C1q and then not bound to CS-A from C1q-depleted serum. The specific interactions observed of these proteins with CS-A were subsequently confirmed by surface plasmon resonance analysis using purified proteins. Importantly, C1q, C4BP, and factor H were also shown to bind to activated platelets and this interaction was inhibited by a CS-A-specific monoclonal antibody, thereby linking the binding of C1q, C4BP, and factor H to exposure of CS-A on activated platelets. CS-A-bound C1q was also shown to amplify the binding of model immune complexes to both microtiter plate-bound CS-A and to activated platelets.

    Conclusions: This study supports the concept that CS-A contributes to the binding of C1q, C4BP, and factor H to platelets, thereby adding CS-A to the previously reported binding sites for these proteins on the platelet surface. CS-A-bound C1q also seems to amplify the binding of immune complexes to activated platelets, suggesting a role for this molecule in immune complex diseases. 

  • 43.
    Hammar, Tora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyström, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. Apoteket AB (National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies), Stockholm.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rydberg, Tony
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Swedish pharmacists value ePrescribing: a survey of a nation-wide implementation2010In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, ISSN 1759-8885, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To evaluate Swedish pharmacists’ attitudes towards ePrescribing, including thetransfer of ePrescriptions, electronic storing of prescriptions and mail-order prescriptions.

    Method

    This study was conducted as a web-based survey among 500 randomly selectedSwedish community pharmacists. The questionnaire included open-ended questions,multiple-choice questions and statements to which respondents gave their degree ofagreement on a six-point Likert-type rating scale. Free-text answers were categorized intothe most commonly mentioned opinions. Differences in respondents’ general characteristicsand their level of satisfaction with ePrescribing were tested for significance using χ2test. The survey had a response rate of 52% (259/500). 96% (248/259) of the respondentswere female, and 76% (196/259) were aged 40–64 years.

    Key findings

    Swedish community pharmacists were generally satisfied with ePrescribing(98%, 253/259). No significant (P > 0.05) difference in the general satisfaction could beexplained by the respondents’ age, gender or years in practice. A majority of the respondentsregarded ePrescriptions and electronic storing of prescriptions as being safe for patients (95 and93% respectively), providing patient benefits (96 and 95% respectively), being cost-effectivefor the pharmacy (92 and 91% respectively) and contributing to better communication andrelationships with both patients and prescribers (62–88%). The positive aspects of ePrescribingmost frequently mentioned in free-text answers were being safe (72%, 187/259) and timesaving(55%, 143/259). However, several weaknesses with ePrescribing were also describedby the respondents, as well as suggestions for improvement.

    Conclusion

    Our nationwide survey of Swedish community pharmacists’ attitudestowards ePrescribing shows that pharmacists are generally satisfied with it, including thetransfer of ePrescriptions, electronic storing of prescriptions and to a lower degree mailorderprescriptions.

  • 44.
    Hamrin, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Låg fysisk aktivitetsnivå har inget samband med ökad risk för undernäring hos äldre2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Undernäring och felnäring är en stor problematik bland äldre människor och efterföljande sjukdomar kan orsakas av energiunderskott, obalans i kosten eller brist på specifika mikro- eller makronutrienter. Problemen med undernäring hos äldre drabbar inte enbart individen utan hela hälso- och sjukvårdssystemet och det råder en efterfrågan på studier gällande förebyggande åtgärder mot undernäring. Fysisk aktivitet har mentala, fysiologiska och sociala hälsoeffekter och en inadekvat fysisk aktivitetsnivå kan leda till negativa effekter såsom sarcopeni, försämrad funktionell förmåga och utveckling av sjukdomar. Sarcopeni leder till utveckling av svaghet och en destruktiv cykel av svaghet kan uppstå där en minskad fysisk aktivitet leder till kronisk undernäring, minskad basalmetabolism och inducerad sarcopeni. Syfte: Med bakgrund av den rådande efterfrågan av studier gällande förebyggande åtgärder mot undernäring är syftet med denna studie att undersöka hypotesen att en lägre fysisk aktivitetsnivå har ett samband med ökad risk för att drabbas av undernäring hos äldre samt redogöra för om risken att drabbas för undernäring skiljer sig mellan kvinnor och män. Metod: För att testa hypotesen användes en bearbetad datafil med 130 personer i åldrarna 79-88 år där näringsstatusen uppmätts med det fullständiga Mini nutritional Assesment (MNA) och där frågeställningar inom fysisk aktivitet ställts. Samtliga variabler för fysisk aktivitet samt den totala fysiska aktivitetsnivån testades i en binär logistisk regression i IBM SPSS 21 för att undersöka ett eventuellt samband med näringsstatus. Resultat: Den binära logistiska regressionen visade inget samband mellan näringsstatus och de enskilda variablerna för fysisk aktivitet eller för den totala fysiska aktivitetsnivån. Samtliga variabler saknade signifikans (p>0,05). Resultatet visade inte på någon skillnad mellan könen gällande risk för undernäring. Konklusion: Trots flera indikationer på att en låg fysisk aktivitetsnivå kan leda till effekter som exempelvis minskad energiförbrukning, ökad risk för sarcopeni och kronisk undernäring kunde i denna försöksgrupp inget samband ses som indikerar på en bättre näringsstatus hos de försökspersoner som ägnar sig åt en högre fysisk aktivitetsnivå. Hypotesen om att en lägre fysisk aktivitetsnivå har ett samband med en ökad risk för undernäring förkastas. De hälsofördelar som finns kopplade till fysisk aktivitet bör dock inte förminskas som följd av avsaknaden av detta samband.

  • 45.
    Harnebjer, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Detektion av ESBL-CARBA med MALDI TOF-MS2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste tio åren har man globalt sett en snabb spridning av karbapenemas (ESBL-CARBA)-producerande bakterier, bakterier som har förmågan att bryta ner alla betalaktamantibiotika inklusive karbapenemer. Detta är synnerligen allvarligt eftersom bakteriestammar med karbapenemas-produktion dessutom ofta har andra resistensfaktorer vilket kan innebära att de inte är behandlingsbara överhuvudtaget. Med en ökad prevalens behövs en snabb och tillförlitlig metod för detektion av karbapenemas-producerande stammar för att begränsa spridningen samt för att få lämplig information om initial behandling av infektioner orsakade av ESBL-CARBA. Syftet med det här arbetet var att sätta upp och utvärdera en kliniskt användbar metod för konfirmering av misstänkt karbapenemas-producerande bakterier vid det kliniska laboratoriet på Länssjukhuset i Kalmar. I första hand gjordes försök att detektera karbapenemasproduktion genom att efter inkubation av bakteriestam tillsammans med ertapenem analysera nedbrytningsprodukter av ertapenem med MALDI-TOF MS enligt Vogne et al. 2014. Trots att ertapenem-toppar kunde detekteras och upprepade försök med både provokation med ertapenem vid uppodling av stammar samt längre inkubationstid så gick det inte att erhålla en märkbar skillnad mellan resistenta och känsliga stammar samtidigt som repeterbarheten var låg. För jämförelse utfördes även en diffusionsmetod för karakterisering av karbapenemasaktivitet med typ-specifika karbapenemas-hämmare i tablettform. Diffusionsmetoden uppvisade både repeterbarhet och riktighet då uppmätta resultat stämde överens med redan genetiskt bekräftade karbapenemastyper.

  • 46.
    Hedman, Ellinore
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Probiotika som prevention mot urogenitala sjukdomar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    About 10 % of the adult women population in Sweden are treated annually for urinary tract infections. The increasing bacterial resistance towards antibiotics is classified by WHO (World Health Organization) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) as one of the greatest treats for human health in a global perspective. To find alternatives scientists are studying the possibility to use probiotics to reduce the frequency of recurring urinary tract infections. This literature study examines five randomized double blinded placebo controlled studies where different strains of Lactobacillus have been used as a prophylactic to women suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections and bacterial vaginosis. Overall the studies do not display enough promising results to recommend the use of probiotics as a prophylax or cure.

  • 47.
    Hellsten, Janna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Förekomst av Extended spectrum β-lactamase -producerande E.coli och K.pneumoniae hos måsfåglar i Spanien2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Henriksson Karlsson, Jinnie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Framtagning av normalt referensintervall för RDW och retikulocyter på hematologiinstrumentet ADVIA 21202012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Erythropoiesis is a complex and carefully controlled process which is mainly regulated by erythropoietin. Using flow cytometry cells in a blood sample can be analyzed one by one. ADVIA 2120 using flow cytometry for analysis of red blood cells (RBC) and reticulocytes. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a component of the RBC method. RDW indicates size variation on erythrocytes and is measured as a percentage of the mean cell volume (MCV). By measuring the RDW anemia can be divided into makrocytic, microcytic or normocytic. Reticulocytes refract light more strongly than red blood cells because they contain some cellular debris. The number of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood reflects erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. 

    The purpose of this project was that by approved methods to establish reference ranges for the parameters, RDW and reticulocyte counts.

    The individuals who participated in the study, n=124, were considered healthy and had varying ethnicity. Reference subjects had not donated blood the last six months and participation in the study was voluntary.

    The statistic evaluation includes examination of distribution, and reference ranges for both men and women were established using the 2.5:t and 97.5:t percentiles. The calculated reference interval for RDW was between 12.0 – 14.3% and the calculated reference interval for reticulocytes was between 38.0 – 112.8 x109 cells/L. The results showed a significant difference between males and females for the parameter reticulocytes was seen. The difference indicates that different reference ranges should be established for men and women (p<0,0001). No significant difference between males and females were seen for RDW (p=0,74) indicating that the same reference ranges can be used for both men and women. 

  • 49.
    Hildingsson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Antidepressiva läkemedels effekt på frakturrisk, hjärt-kärlsystemet och sjukdomsprognos2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is an illness that 15-20% of all people at some point will suffer from. In thetreatment of depression antidepressants are used but also psychotherapy and electroconvulsivetherapy. Most drugs affect serotonin reuptake, but since serotonin has an effect on other parts of thebody than the brain it may cause side effects. In the case of many or prolonged episodes ofdepression it may be necessary with long-term treatment. The risks of long-term treatment are notfully known, and therefore, in this study the effects of long-term treatment with antidepressants wasexamined. This was done by means of a literature study based on the questions "what is the impactof long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs on the cardiovascular system and fracture risk?"and "has long-term treatment with antidepressants any effects on the prognosis of depression?" Thestudy shows that antidepressants may increase the risk of fractures and affect the cardiovascularsystem, and that the mechanisms behind these are still unclear.

  • 50.
    Hovmark, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fysiologiska och farmakologiska faktorer som predisponerar för falltendens och fallskador hos äldre ≥75 år.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige avlider, varje dag, cirka tre äldre människor till följd av en fallolycka. Cirka 17 000 äldre människor drabbas per år av höftfrakturer till följd av fallolyckor. Uppgifter från 2014 visar att fallolyckor hos äldre kostar samhället cirka 14 miljarder kronor per år. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att hitta fysiologiska och farmakologiska faktorer som predisponerar för falltendens och fallskador hos människor, ≥75 år. Metod: Denna studie baserades på journaldata som extraherats från den pågående studien: ”Betydelsen av bra D-vitaminstatus för äldres hälsa” och omfattar tre patientgrupper: 100 patienter som ramlat och fått fraktur, 96 strokepatienter, 148 friska kontroller med avseende på följande parametrar: andel patienter med: hypoglykemi, hypotoni, D-vitaminbrist, sänkt njurfunktion och antal läkemedel på ordination. Resultat: Denna studie visar att gruppen patienter med fraktur som har ramlat har högst andel med hypotoni, hypoglykemi, D-vitaminbrist och försämrad njurfunktion. I genomsnitt fick frakturpatienter 5,6 läkemedel/dag, strokepatienter 5,5 läkemedel/dag och kontrollgruppen 2,3 läkemedel/dag. Flertalet läkemedel hade biverkningar som kan kopplas till fall och fallskador. Slutsats: Studien visar att det var vanligare bland de som drabbats av färsk lågenergifraktur att ha predisponerande riskfaktorer för fall och därmed fallskador jämfört med strokegruppen och kontrollgruppen. Studier på läkemedel och dess biverkningar visade att flertalet läkemedel i denna studie kan kopplas till falltendens och fallskador. Flera av de läkemedel som studerades kan även påverka de olika parametrarna som undersökts i de olika studiegrupperna.

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