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  • 1.
    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz
    et al.
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Carcache, Peter J Blanco
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Matthew, Susan
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J
    Ohio State University, USA.
    New acyclic bis phenylpropanoid and neolignans, from Myristica fragrans Houtt., exhibiting PARP-1 and NF-κB inhibitory effects.2016In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 202, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bioassay-guided fractionation of the aril of Myristica fragrans (mace spice) yielded five phenolic compounds, one new acyclic bis phenylpropanoid (1) and four previously known phenolic compounds: compounds (1) (S) 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-(3-methoxy-5-(prop-1-yl) phenyl)-propan-1-ol, (2) benzenemethanol; α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propen-1-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-1-acetate, (3) odoratisol A, phenol, 4-[(2S,3S)-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-propenyl-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxy, (4) 1,3-benzodioxate-5-methanol,α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenoxy]ethyl]-acetate, (5) licarin C; benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl). An NMR tube Mosher ester reaction was used in an approach to characterize and determine the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new isolated chiral alcohol (1). The PARP-1 inhibitory activity was evaluated for compound (1) (IC50=3.04μM), compound (2) (IC50=0.001μM), compound (4) (IC50=22.07μM) and compound (5) (IC50=3.11μM). Furthermore, the isolated secondary metabolites were tested for NF-κB and K-Ras inhibitory activities. When tested in the p65 assay, compounds (2) and (4) displayed potent NF-κB inhibition (IC50=1.5 nM and 3.4nM, respectively).

  • 2.
    Amann, Laura
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for Phenolic Acid Extraction from Cereals and Quantification using HPLC-UV2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals are rich in phenolic acids, a group of secondary plant metabolites that are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. The objective was to develop and internally validate a method for extraction and quantification of phenolic acids in cereals using HPLC-UV and to apply this method for quantification of the content of phenolic acids in several species of Swedish cereals. Different procedures for extraction of phenolic acids from cereal grains using acid or base hydrolysis with and without subsequent enzymatic treatment were tested. Both the extraction procedure and the chromatographic conditions for quantification with HPLC-UV were optimized. Phenolic acids from 14 cereal samples, representing different cultivars of rye, wheat, barley, and oat, were extracted and analyzed under optimized conditions. Using the optimized method, 15 phenolic acids could be quantified with limits of detection and quantification ranging from 0.4 to 11.4 µg/g and from 1.3 to 38.0 µg/g, respectively. The hydrolysis procedure and further sample treatment showed a substantial effect on the yield of phenolic acids from cereals. The highest yield was achieved by 90‑minute base hydrolysis at room temperature using sodium hydroxide solution containing ascorbic acid and EDTA. Mean recoveries ranged from 88 to 108%. The following phenolic acids were found in the analyzed cereal grains with ferulic acid being the most abundant one: p‑hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, vanillin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4‑dihydroxybenzaldehyde. A further compound was p‑coumaric acid or the co‑eluting syringaldehyde or a mixture of both. The content of phenolic acids in Swedish cereals ranged from 6 µmol/g DM in rye to 3 µmol/g DM in oat and a barley cultivar. In conclusion, a simple and accurate method for extraction and quantification of phenolic acids in cereals was developed and successfully applied.

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    Master's Thesis
  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Hjalmarsson, Anton
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Utveckling av Steghållare: För yrkesmän med skåpbil2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The task given by Thule has the purpose of develop a new ladder holder for the product line Professional. Thule is obtaining a robust, safe, and easy to handle ladder holder with an attractive look. It is desirable to be able to load the ladder from behind and make loading standing on the ground possible even on top of higher vans. The ladder holder is supposed to be suited for professionals such as craftsmen and painters. This product is designed to reduce time waste and heavy lifts. It is also desirable to withstand corrosion and meet the environmental requirements.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 4. Arkbåge, Karin
    et al.
    Verwei, Miriam
    Havenaar, Robert
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Bioaccessibility of folic acid and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate decreases after the addition of folate-binding protein to yogurt as studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.2003In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 133, no 11, p. 3678-3683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Milk products are only moderate sources of folate. Nevertheless, they are of interest due to their content of folate-binding proteins (FBP), which in some studies have been reported to increase folate bioavailability. The effect of FBP on folate bioavailability has been widely discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccessibility of folic acid and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H4folate) from fortified yogurt using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model (TIM). In addition, the effect of FBP on folate bioaccessibility and the stability of FBP added to yogurt during gastrointestinal passage were investigated. Folate bioaccessibility was 82% from yogurt fortified with folic acid and 5-CH3-H4folate. The addition of FBP to yogurt decreased (P < 0.05) folate bioaccessibility. The lowering effect of FBP was more pronounced in yogurt fortified with folic acid (34% folate bioaccessibility) than from yogurt fortified with 5-CH3-H4folate (57% folate bioaccessibility). After gastrointestinal passage, 17% of the FBP in yogurt fortified with 5-CH3-H4folate and 34% of the FBP in yogurt fortified with folic acid were recovered. No difference in folate bioaccessibility was found between folate-fortified yogurt and folate-fortified pasteurized milk (P = 0.10), whereas the lowering effect of FBP was (P < 0.05) greater in yogurt compared with pasteurized milk. In conclusion, based on the high bioaccessibility of folic acid and 5-CH3-H4folate, yogurt without active FBP can be considered to be an appropriate food matrix for folate fortification.

  • 5.
    Arkbåge, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fonden, Rangne
    Arla Foods Innovation.
    Jägerstad, Margaretha
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Retention of vitamin B-12 during manufacture of six fermented dairy products using a validated radio protein-binding assay2003In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 13, no 2-3, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study vitamin B-12 retention during manufacture of six fermented dairy products. Careful validation of a commercial radio protein-binding kit showed this assay to be suitable after optimisation of sample pre-treatment and control of the kit for possible matrix effects. In fermented milks, vitamin B-12 concentrations decreased by 40-60%, compared with the starting milk, during storage of the final product at 4degreesC for 14 days, most likely attributed to consumption by starter cultures. In cottage cheese, hard cheeses and blue cheese, 18-56% of the vitamin B-12 originally present in the milk was retained. Removal of the whey fraction was the dominant factor reducing vitamin B-12 retention in cheeses, while the fermentation by starter cultures hardly affected vitamin B-12 concentrations.

  • 6. Augustin, K
    et al.
    Frank, J
    Augustin, S
    Langguth, P
    Öhrvik, V
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Rimbach, G
    Wolffram, S
    Green tea extracts lower serum folates in rats at very high dietary concentrations only and do not affect plasma folates in a human pilot study.2009In: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, ISSN 0867-5910, E-ISSN 1899-1505, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green tea catechins (GTC) have been shown to inhibit the activities of enzymes involved in folate uptake. Hence, regular green tea drinkers may be at risk of impaired folate status. The present experiments aimed at studying the impact of dietary GTC on folate concentrations and metabolism. In a human pilot study (parallel design) healthy men consumed for 3 weeks 6 capsules (approximately 670 mg GTC) per day (2 capsules with each principal meal) containing aqueous extracts of the leaves of Camellia sinensis (n=17) or placebo (n=16). No differences in plasma folate concentrations were observed between treatments. We further fed groups of 10 male rats diets fortified with 0, 0.05, 0.5, 1, or 5 g GTC/kg for 6 weeks. Only at the highest intake, GTC significantly decreased serum 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate concentrations in rats, while mRNA concentrations of reduced folate carrier, proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) remained unchanged in intestinal mucosa. Using an in vitro enzyme activity assay, we observed a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of DHFR activity by epigallocatechin gallate and a green tea extract. Our data suggest that regular green tea consumption is unlikely to impair folate status in healthy males, despite the DHFR inhibitory activity of GTC.

  • 7.
    Bouckaert, Kimberley P
    et al.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Slimani, Nadia
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Nicolas, Geneviève
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Vignat, Jérôme
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Wright, Anthony J A
    Food Databanks, Institute of Food Research, UK.
    Roe, Mark
    Food Databanks, Institute of Food Research, UK.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Finglas, Paul M
    Food Databanks, Institute of Food Research, UK.
    Critical evaluation of folate data in European and international databases: recommendations for standardization in international nutritional studies.2011In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 166-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SCOPE: The objective was to perform an inventory and critical evaluation of folate data in selected European and international databases. The ultimate aim was to establish guidelines for compiling standardized folate databases for international nutritional studies.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: An ad hoc questionnaire was prepared to critically compare and evaluate folate data completeness, quantification, terminologies, and documentation of 18 European and international databases, and national fortification regulations. Selected countries participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer project and European Food Information Resource Network (EuroFIR). Folate completeness was generally high. "Total folate" was the most common terminology and microbiological assay was the most frequently reported quantification method. There is a lack of comparability within and between databases due to a lack of value documentation, the use of generic or non-appropriate terminologies, folate value conversions, and/or lack of identification of synthetic folic acid.

    CONCLUSION: Full value documentation and the use of EuroFIR component identifiers and/or INFOODS tagnames for total folate ("FOL") and synthetic folic acid ("FOLAC"), with the additional use of individual folates, will increase comparability between databases. For now, the standardized microbiological assay for total folate and HPLC for synthetic folic acid are the recommended quantification methods.

  • 8.
    Büttner, Barbara E
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University.
    Effect of type of heat treatment of breastmilk on folate content and pattern.2014In: Breastfeeding Medicine, ISSN 1556-8253, E-ISSN 1556-8342, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Breastmilk is the recommended aliment for preterm infants. Milk banks provide donated breastmilk for the neonatal care of preterm infants when mother's own milk is not is available. To avoid pathogen transmission, donated breastmilk is heat-treated according to different procedures before administration. There is varying information on the effect of heat treatment on folate in breastmilk. Sufficient folate intake, however, is essential for normal growth and brain development. This study determined and compared the effects of different heat treatments on breastmilk folate content and pattern of individual folate forms.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Donated Swedish breastmilk samples were heat-treated according to three procedures: two low temperature treatments (57°C, 23 minutes; 62.5°C, 12 minutes) and a rapid high temperature treatment (heating to 73°C in boiling water). The folate content and pattern were determined before and after treatment by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    RESULTS: The folate content in 38 untreated Swedish breastmilk samples was 150±46 nmol/L. Two different folate vitamers were detected: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (78±7%) and tetrahydrofolate (22±7%). Heat treatment affected only tetrahydrofolate stability and decreased folate content by 15-24%; however, the effects on folate content did not differ among the investigated heat treatment procedures.

    CONCLUSIONS: Folate losses during heat treatment of human milk were considered acceptable. Yet, native folate content of heat-treated, non-fortified breastmilk supplied only 25% of the recommended daily intake for preterm infants.

  • 9.
    Büttner, Barbara E
    et al.
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Öhrvik, Veronica E
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Köhler, Peter
    German Research Center for Food Chemistry, Leibniz Institute Freising, Germany.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Rychlik, Michael
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Quantification of isotope-labeled and unlabeled folates and folate catabolites in urine samples by stable isotope dilution assay.2013In: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, ISSN 0300-9831, E-ISSN 1664-2821, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 112-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-label stable isotope dilution assays for the simultaneous quantification of isotopologic folates in clinical samples offer the perspective for differentiating between unlabeled folates from endogenous body pools and administered [13C5]-labeled folates from a test dose when performing bioavailability trials. In contrast to intact folates, this methodology could hitherto not be applied to the quantification of the folate catabolites, p-aminobenzoyl glutamate and p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate. In this study, [2H4]-p-aminobenzoyl glutamate, [2H4]-p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate, and unlabeled p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate were synthesized. The synthesis of the [2H4]-labeled compounds started at unlabeled p-aminobenzoic acid. For the formation of p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate, p-aminobenzoyl glutamate was acetylated. The new substances were applied successfully in stable isotope dilution assays for the simultaneous quantification of the [13C5]-labeled and unlabeled folate catabolites, p-aminobenzoyl glutamate and p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate, along with the predominant folate vitamers in urine. The assays were based on clean-up by strong anion exchange followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. Assay sensitivity was sufficient to detect the folate catabolites in physiologic concentrations. The limit of detection was below 0.4 and 0.3 nmol/100 g for p-aminobenzoyl glutamate isotopologues and p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate isotopologues in urine, respectively. The successful synthesis of [2H4]-p-aminobenzoyl glutamate, [2H4]-p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate, and unlabeled p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate and the implementation of these substances in stable isotope dilution assays allows dual-label designs that provide a more detailed insight into human folate metabolism.

  • 10.
    Büttner, Barbara E
    et al.
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Öhrvik, Veronica E
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Rychlik, Michael
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Quantification of isotope-labelled and unlabelled folates in plasma, ileostomy and food samples.2011In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 399, no 1, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New stable isotope dilution assays were developed for the simultaneous quantitation of [(13)C(5)]-labelled and unlabelled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid, folic acid along with unlabelled tetrahydrofolic acid and 10-formylfolic acid in clinical samples deriving from human bioavailability studies, i.e. plasma, ileostomy samples, and food. The methods were based on clean-up by strong anion exchange followed by LC-MS/MS detection. Deuterated analogues of the folates were applied as the internal standards in the stable isotope dilution assays. Assay sensitivity was sufficient to detect all relevant folates in the respective samples as their limits of detection were below 0.62 nmol/L in plasma and below 0.73 μg/100 g in food or ileostomy samples. Quantification of the [(13)C(5)]-label in clinical samples offers the possibility to differentiate between folate from endogenous body pools and the administered dose when executing bioavailability trials.

  • 11.
    Carlegård, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kokta äggs hållbarhet i rumstemperatur.: Studie av lipidoxidation och mikrobiell förekomst.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eggs are a popular food widely consumed worldwide, due to their nutrient density and shelf life even at room temperature. This study aimed to investigate if eggs keep better in the refrigerator than at room temperature post-boiling. The shelf life of boiled eggs stored at room temperature and refrigerated was analyzed regarding lipid oxidation and microbiological growth. Lipid oxidation was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid reaction substances (TBARS) at 532 nm, formed as the oxidation product malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid (TBA). Microbiological presence and growth were analyzed on egg yolk and egg white determining total counts of aerobic microorganisms on agar incubated for three days at room temperature. No difference in counts of aerobic microorganisms between boiled eggs stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator was detected for either lipid oxidation or microbiological growth. After 14 days, a difference in lipid oxidation was noted as compared to 7 days. The study found that boiled eggs have a long shelf life and can be stored at room temperature for 7 days.

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  • 12.
    Carlsson, Olof
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Gestalning av ett budskap2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Världen blir allt mindre och fler människors levnadsstandard runt om i välden blir allt mer påtaglig.

    Samtidigt lever vi i västvärlden i ett samhälle som strävar efter att bli individualistiskt. Vi i väst har

    aldrig tidigare varit så medvetna, kritiska och utbildade som nu, vilket även borde betyda en ökad

    sympati för våra medmänniskor. Men forskare säger annat. Våra handlingar bygger allt mer på vad

    som kommer att se bra ut i våra CV.

    Detta projekt försöker gestalta människans behov av medmänniskor och hennes behov av att

    känna sig behövd.

    Projektet producerade en artefakt i form av en golvlampa som ska förmedla projektets budskap.

    Projektet skiljer sig något från en konventionell designprocess då budskapet och berättelsen är

    beställaren. Processen bygger på ett förhållningssätt som har kommit att kallas konceptdesign.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Dueholm, Bjørn
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fonskov, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden;LM Agriculture, Sweden.
    Grimberg, Asa
    SSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Sandra
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Henriksson, Tina
    LM Agriculture, Sweden.
    Hammenhag, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Cookability of 24 pea accessions-determining factors and potential predictors of cooking quality2024In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cooking time and cooking evenness are two critical quantities when determining the cooking quality (termed cookability) of pulses. Deciphering which factors contribute to pulse cookability is important for breeding new cultivars, and the identification of potential cookability predictors can facilitate breeding efforts. Seeds from 24 morphologically diverse pea accessions were tested to identify contributing factors and potential predictors of the observed cookability using a Mattson cooker. Size- and weight-based measures were recorded, and seed-coat hardness was obtained with a penetrometer. Content of protein, starch (amylose and amylopectin), and phytate was also determined.RESULTS: Distinct differences were found between wrinkled and non-wrinkled seeds in terms of water-absorption capacity, seed-coat hardness, and plunger-perforation speed. Potential predictive indicators of cooking time and cooking evenness were seed-coat hardness (r = 0.49 and r = 0.38), relative area gained (r = -0.59 and r = -0.8), and percentage of swelled seeds after soaking (r = -0.49 and r = -0.58), but only for non-wrinkled seeds. Surprisingly, the coefficients of variation for the profile area of both dry and swelled seeds appeared to be potential cookability predictors of all pea types (correlation coefficients around r = 0.5 and supported by principal component analysis). However, no strong correlation was observed between cookability and protein, starch, or phytate levels.CONCLUSION: Using three types of instruments together with chemical components enabled the identification of novel cookability predictors for both cooking time and cooking evenness in pea. This study unveils the diverse quantitative aspects influencing cookability in pea. Considering both cooking time and cooking evenness, as well as seed-coat hardness, underscores the multifaceted nature of pulse cookability and offers important insights for future breeding strategies to enhance pea cultivars. (c) 2023 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  • 14.
    Engström, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Utveckling av metoder för mätning av stabilitet hos hydrokolloider – Metylcellulosa som konsistensgivare i köttersättningsmix.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emulsions are formed when two liquids that does not combine naturally are mixed with force to distribute one liquid in the other. To prevent these liquids from separating when the mixing ends emulsifiers can be added, for example polysaccharides such as hydrocolloids. Hydrocolloids are used in the food industry for their ability to influence the rheological properties of a food, such as viscosity and texture. Examples of hydrocolloids used in the plant based food industry are cellulose derivates, such as methylcellulose. Methylcellulose has properties such as solubility in water and thermoreversible gelatinization. This means that the solution containing methylcellulose after heating will form a gel, but as soon as the temperature drops, the viscosity will decrease and vanish completely.

    The main reason to why a study of the stability in hydrocolloids is of interest is today's increasing demand for plant-based protein alternatives that largely have similar properties to the animal alternatives. The stability of hydrocolloids has previously been difficult to evaluate, but as knowledge about sensory enhancers such as hydrocolloids grows, so does the possibility of producing better and more reconstructed protein alternatives. Thus attracting a larger consumer group.

    The experiments that was carried out aimed at the evaluation of properties of methylcellulose as a sensory enhancer in a meat substitute mix. A critical point in the preparation is to control the temperature. The initial temperature during preparation of the emulsions containing water, oil and methylcellulose was either below 4°C or above 4°C (10-15°C). In addition, experiments were also performed at pH 5 and pH 5.5. Methods to measure the stability of the emulsions were also developed. The data obtained were processed statistically and the results indicated that emulsions prepared below 4°C had a higher stability than those prepared at temperatures above 4°C. Difference in stability due to pH, on the other hand, was not significant, but since the experiments were carried out with emulsions only containing oil, water and methylcellulose it is not possible to say with certainty that pH has no significant effect in a product containing more components such as protein, starch and spices.

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  • 15.
    Fahlgren, Viktoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Utveckling av en C-vitaminberikad tofuprodukt: Studie av C-vitaminhalt under process och förvaring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tofu is a plant based product made from soybeans, water and a coagulant. The coagulant together with heating enables the formation of a soy curd (tofu). The proteins that dominates in soybeans are β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). The composition of the proteins differs between soybean cultivars, which also affects the formation of the tofu. The object in this study was to evaluate the vitamin C content and the stability of vitamin C during processing and storage in an ecological tofu-product after enrichment of Sea Buckthorn to increase the vitamin content. Furthermore, the use of germinated soy beans instead of soaked soybeans in the production of tofu was evaluated. When Sea Buckthorn was added to the soymilk it resulted in a decrease in pH from 6.3 to 5.5, which affected the formation of the soy curd negatively as the optimal pH is between 6.0 and 6.5. By adding alkali to reach pH 6.3 it was possible to achieve a soy curd when Sea Buckthorn powder was added. Sea Buckthorn increased the vitamin C content in the product to 32 mg/250 g but only 10% (about 3 mg) remained after four weeks storage. The loss of vitamin C was large in both processing and storage of the tofu. An additional loss of 7- 14% was detected during 10 minutes heating (60°C). Germination of soybeans did neither affect the amount of protein, nor the vitamin C content in tofu. To produce a tofu with more than 15% of RDI for vitamin C in one serving (100 g) the amount berry powder to be added in the production of 250 g tofu must not be less than 31 g (400 mg vitamin C), based on losses up to 90-95% during the process and storage. Hence the huge amount of berry powder that must be added, other ways to decrease the degradation of vitamin C is necessary to be investigated.

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  • 16.
    Ferawati, Ferawati
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    The development of novel foods from Swedish pulses: Raw material composition and processing effects2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A gradual shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet with a higher quantity of plant-based products is suggested to be one of the most efficient ways to alleviate environmental pressure from the current food system. Pulses could play a crucial role in this shift due to the multi-faceted benefits they have on the environment and human health. This thesis aims to study the suitability of Swedish grown pulses as the raw material for new pulse-based foods and ingredients. 

    Flour from locally grown pulses (yellow peas, grey peas, faba beans, and white beans) prepared using different treatments (boiling, roasting, and germination) were analysed for their functional properties, nutrient content, and volatile compound composition. Protein isolates from locally grown pulses were prepared at a pilot scale using an alkaline extraction method, followed by isoelectric precipitation and were then analysed for proximate composition, thermal properties, and water holding capacity. The suitability of pulse flour in the development of cheese analogues and pulse protein isolates to produce high-moisture meat analogues (HMMA) was examined. 

    The results showed that the functional properties and nutrient content of flour from pulses were significantly affected by treatments prior to milling. Different treatments also affected the volatile compound profile of pulse flour to varying degrees. Plant-based cheese analogues with a firm and sliceable texture were successfully prepared using flour from boiled and roasted yellow peas and faba beans. The pulse-based cheese analogues could be categorised as functional foods owing to the high content of dietary fibre (7-8 g/100 g). Moreover, meat analogues can be produced using protein isolates from yellow peas and faba beans using high-moisture extrusion cooking. The target moisture content and extrusion temperature needed to be adjusted depending on the botanical origin of the protein isolate. Pulse-based cheese and meat analogues made from locally sourced materials could be utilised to increase the consumption of pulses in Sweden, which is currently very low.  

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  • 17.
    Ferawati, Ferawati
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Flours from Swedish pulses: Effects of treatment on functional properties and nutrient content2019In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 4116-4126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the high nutritional profile in pulses, pulse consumption in Sweden is still low. However, the recent increase in consumption of sustainable and locally produced food in Sweden is driving demand for a versatile, functional pulse-based ingredient that can be incorporated into different food products. This study assessed different treatments (boiling, roasting, and germination) when preparing flour from domes- tically grown pulses (yellow pea, gray pea, faba bean, and white bean). Functional properties (water and oil absorption capacity, emulsion and foaming properties, and gelation concentration) of the flours produced following different treatments and their nutrient content (total dietary fiber, total choline, and folate content) were de- termined. Depending on pulse type, all treatments increased (p < .001) water ab- sorption capacity up to threefold and gelation concentration up to twofold, whereas emulsion activity and foaming capacity decreased by 3%–33% and 5%–19%, respec- tively, compared with flour made from raw pulses. All treatments also had a signifi- cant effect (p < .001) on nutrient content. Total dietary fiber increased (p < .02) by 11%–33%, depending on treatment and pulse type. Boiling decreased (p < .001) total choline and folate content in all pulse flours, by 17%–27% and 15%–32%, respec- tively. Germination doubled folate content (p < .001) in flour from both pea types compared with flour from the raw peas. In conclusion, treated pulse flours could be useful in food applications such as coating batter, dressings, beverages, or bakery goods, to improve the content of fiber, total choline, and folate.

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  • 18.
    Ferawati, Ferawati
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Östbring, Karolina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    The Application of Pulse Flours in the Development of Plant-Based Cheese Analogues: Proximate Composition, Color, and Texture Properties2021In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 2208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the many benefits of pulses, their consumption is still very low in many Western countries. One approach to solving this issue is to develop attractive pulse-based foods, e.g., plant-based cheeses. This study aimed to assess the suitability of different types of pulse flour, from boiled and roasted yellow peas and faba beans, to develop plant-based cheese analogues. Different stabilizer combinations (kappa- and iota-carrageenan, kappa-carrageenan, and xanthan gum) were tested. The results showed that firm and sliceable pulse-based cheese analogues could be prepared using all types of pulse flour using a flour-to-water ratio of 1:4 with the addition of 1% (w/w) kappa-carrageenan. The hardness levels of the developed pulse-based cheese analogues were higher (1883–2903 g, p < 0.01) than the reference Gouda cheese (1636 g) but lower than the commercial vegan cheese analogue (5787 g, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the crude protein (4–6% wb) and total dietary fiber (6–8% wb) contents in the developed pulse-based cheese analogues were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than in the commercial vegan cheese analogue, whereas the fat contents were lower. In conclusion, flours from boiled and roasted yellow peas and faba beans have been shown to be suitable as raw materials for developing cheese analogues with nutritional benefits.

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  • 19.
    Ferawati, Ferawati
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Bergström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Characterization of volatile compounds in Swedish yellow and gray peas: implications for new legume‐based ingredients2020In: Legume Science, E-ISSN 2639-6181, Vol. 2, no 4, article id e55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for alternative protein‐source ingredients from domestically cultivated pulses in Europe, including Sweden. However, the use of legumes as a food ingredient is limited by the presence of a distinct beany flavor. Mapping the volatile compounds composition in a standardized approach will aid in comparing different legume varieties and processing treatments. The composition of volatile compounds in flour from yellow and gray peas (raw and boiled) was investigated and compared. Volatile compounds were isolated by headspace solid‐phase microextraction (HS‐SPME) and analyzed using gas chromatography‐mass spectrophotometry (GC‐MS). A total of 43 volatiles were identified, consisting mostly of aldehydes, followed by alkanes, alcohols, ketones, alkenes, furans, terpenes, aromatics, and sulfur‐containing compounds. Boiling led to a marked reduction in alcohols and an increase in aldehydes. Several markers of beany flavor, such as 1‐octen‐3‐ol, 2‐pentylfuran, and 3,5‐octadien‐2‐one, were significantly decreased after boiling. The composition of volatiles collected from yellow and gray peas was comparable, but boiled yellow pea had a higher abundance of beany flavor as compared to gray pea. Gray pea is an interesting variety to be explored further as a potential alternative to the well‐known yellow pea.

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  • 20.
    Ferawati, Ferawati
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Zahari, Izalin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Barman, Malin
    Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Ahlström, Cecilia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Östbring, Karolina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    High-Moisture Meat Analogues Produced from Yellow Pea and Faba Bean Protein Isolates/Concentrate: Effect of Raw Material Composition and Extrusion Parameters on Texture Properties2021In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yellow pea and faba bean are potential candidates to replace soybean-based ingredients due to their suitability for cultivation in the northern hemisphere, non-genetically modified organisms cultivation practice and low risk of allergenicity. This study examined the functionality of local yellow pea and faba bean protein isolates/concentrate as meat analogue products. The most critical factors affecting the texture properties of meat analogue were also determined. Extrusion was used to produce high-moisture meat analogues (HMMAs) from yellow pea and faba bean protein isolates/concentrates and HMMAs with fibrous layered structures was successfully produced from both imported commercial and local sources. The texture properties of the HMMA produced were mainly affected by the ash, fiber and protein content and water-holding capacity of the source protein. Three extrusion process parameters (target moisture content, extrusion temperature, screw speed), also significantly affected HMMA texture. In conclusion, functional HMMA can be produced using protein isolates derived from locally grown pulses.

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  • 21. Finglas, P M
    et al.
    Wigertz, K
    Vahteristo, L
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, UK.
    Southon, S
    de Froidmont-Gortz, I
    Standardisation of HPLC techniques for the determination of naturally-occurring folates in food1999In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 245-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to evaluate current in-house HPLC procedures for the determination of naturally-occurring folates in food, and to identify problem areas for further improvement. Five intercomparison studies were completed over the period 1990-1997 in which nine participants from six countries took part. Through careful validations and detailed discussions held at evaluation meetings, possible biases and sources of systematic error have been identified and reduced. The use of ascorbic acid and nitrogen flushing during extraction, sample clean-up using strong anion exchange columns, spectrophometrically calibrated standards and fluorescence detection are all recommended. Both in-house hog kidney and human plasma deconjugase enzymes gave similar results to the circulated common hog kidney enzyme which was prepared from fresh pig's kidneys. The most consistently reported values were for 5-CH3H4-PteGlu, and to a lesser extent, for H(4)PteGlu. Four candidate reference materials (CRM 121, wholemeal flour; CRM 421, milk powder; CRM 485, lyophilised mixed vegetables, and CRM 487, lyophilised pig's liver) have been proposed with both indicative values (mean +/- uncertainty) for 5-CH3H4-PteGlu in CRM 421 (0.25; +/- 0.02 mg/kg) and CRM 485 (2.14; +/- 0.42 mg/kg), and information values (mean; range) for 5-CH3H4-PteGlu in CRh4 121 (0.04; 0.03-0.08 mg/kg) and CRM 487 (2.6; 1.9-3.8 mg/kg), Certified values are also given for total folate by microbiological assay: CRM 121 (0.50; +/- 0.07 mg/kg), CRM 421 (1.42; +/- 0.14 mg/kg), CRM 485 (3.15; 0.28 mg/kg), and CRM 487 (13.4; 1.3 mg/kg). Average recovery of 5-CH3H4-PteGlu, added prior to extraction and deconjugation, was 91% (84-95%) for the four CRMs. The average within- and between-laboratory variations were 6 and 15% for the determination of 5-CH3H4-PteGlu by HPLC, and 9 and 18% for the determination of total folate by microbiological assay. These CRMs will be used for quality control of folate measurements for nutritional labelling, and validation of new techniques. Further methodology work is required for the HPLC analyses of folate forms other than 5-CH3H4-PteGlu. 

  • 22. Finglas, Paul M
    et al.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Vahteristo, Liisa
    Wright, Anthony J A
    Southon, Susan
    Mellon, Fred A
    Ridge, Brian
    Maunder, Peter
    Use of an oral/intravenous dual-label stable-isotope protocol to determine folic acid bioavailability from fortified cereal grain foods in women.2002In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 132, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Folic acid fortification, mandatory in the United States, is currently being considered by the UK. The hypothesis that the matrix of some cereal-product vehicles may result in low fortificant bioavailability was tested using a dual oral/intravenous (i.v.) isotopic-label approach, which was evaluated concurrently. Fifteen women received 225 microg oral folate (capsules, fortified white bread and fortified branflakes), mainly as folic acid labeled with (13)C on 6 carbons of the benzoyl ring ((13)C(6)-PteGlu), followed by i.v. injection of 100 microg folic acid labeled with (2)H on 4 hydrogens of the glutamic acid group ((2)H(4)-PteGlu). The urinary excretion ratio (UER) in intact folate of the percentage of labeled oral dose excreted divided by the percentage of i.v. dose excreted was used as the primary index of absorption. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) UER for folic acid capsules was 3.68 (1.90, 7.14) at 24 h and 2.18 (1.24, 3.83) at 48 h. Because these were significantly in excess of 1.0, indicative of 100% absorption of the oral dose, it was concluded that oral and i.v. labeled folic acid are handled differently by the body and that "absolute" absorption cannot be calculated. Compared with the 48-h UER for folic acid capsules, the "relative" 48-h UER for white bread and branflakes was 0.71 and 0.37, respectively, indicating that some cereal-based vehicles may inhibit absorption of fortificant. However, even the validity of this "relative" approach is questioned.

  • 23. Forssén, K M
    et al.
    Jägerstad, M I
    Wigertz, K
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Folates and dairy products: a critical update.2000In: Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Print), ISSN 0731-5724, E-ISSN 1541-1087, Vol. 19, no 2 Suppl, p. 100S-110SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, folates have come into focus due to their protective role against child birth defects, for example, neural tube defects. In addition, folates may have a protective role to play against coronary heart disease and certain forms of cancer. During the last few years most countries have established increased recommended intakes of folates, for example, between 300-400 microg per day for adults. This review of folates in milk and dairy products compares some recent data based on high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and radioprotein-binding assays, with previous data based on microbiological assays. All three methods show similar ranges for folates in cow's milk, 5-10 microg per 100 g, the variation being due to seasonal variations. Data on folates in fermented milk (buttermilk and yogurt) are also similar for these methods. Different starter cultures, however, might explain some of the variations in folate content and folate forms. Most cheese varieties contain between 10 microg and 40 microg folate per kg, with slightly higher values for whey cheese. Ripened soft cheeses may contain up to 100 microg folate per 100 g. Most previous and recent studies using HPLC indicate that 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF) is the major folate form in milk, but more studies are needed concerning folate forms in other, especially fermented dairy products. Relatively new data on actual concentrations in different dairy products show folate-binding proteins (FBP) to occur in unprocessed milk, but also in pasteurised milk, spray-dried skim milk powder and whey. In contrast, UHT milk, fermented milk and most cheeses only contain low levels or trace amounts.

  • 24.
    Grip Börjesson, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Framställning av alkoholbas i samarbete med Spendrups Bryggeri AB: Fermentering av tre olika sackarider med hjälp av jästsvampen Saccharomyces cerevisiae2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spendrups Bryggeri AB manufactures and sells FAB – Flavoured Alcoholic Beverages. These drinks are made through a blend of wine along with ethanol and they often have an alcohol content of 4.5%. The latest addition to the category is Hard Seltzer, which is a dry, colourless and carbonated beverage whose alcohol base is made of pure ethanol. Since the price of ethanol is relatively high and that it gives a rather sharp taste to the product, the purpose of the work was to investigate whether it is possible, via fermentation with the help of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an alcohol base that can replace ethanol in future products. The aim of the work was to investigate which of the sugars sucrose, dextrose and fructose is best suited to produce an alcohol base as neutral as possible in terms of taste, aroma and colour, with an alcohol content between 12 - 13%, within eight days. The work included four experiments, two of which aimed to compare the sugars and two with regard to optimizing the yield of ethanol. To follow the fermentation process, measurements of temperature, pH, alcohol content and sugar content of the mixtures were carried out during the course of the experiments. The alcohol content was analyzed using infrared spectroscopy within the region of 800-2500nm (NIR) and the sugar content was analyzed using a density meter indicating the sugar content in the unit °BRIX, which is the same as 1 g / 100 g of solution. The results showed that all sugars can be used to produce an alcohol base with an alcohol content of about 12% within eight days, via fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The highest alcohol content was achieved in mixtures made from sucrose, where the alcohol content exceeded 13%, followed by fructose with a final alcohol content of 12,3%. The mixture that generated the lowest alcohol content was the one made using dextrose where the final alcohol content was about 11,5%. All mixtures underwent a filtration with activated carbon to remove substances that give rise to unwanted colour and aroma. The mixtures made from sucrose and dextrose became completely transparent after filtration, while the mixtures made from fructose exhibited a slightly yellowish color. Sucrose gave rise to mixtures with a sharp aroma of alcohol and wine, dextrose gave rise to mixtures with a more neutral alcohol scent without hints of wine while fructose gave rise to mixtures with a more fruity aroma. The hypothesis that dextrose should be the most suitable sugar to be used for fermentation using S. cerevisiae due to the yeast's preference for it is not supported with regard to the alcoholic strength achieved during these trials. Dextrose, on the other hand, gave rise to mixtures with a more neutral alcohol scent than those produced with sucrose and fructose were used, but in terms of colour dextrose did not differ from sucrose.

    The conclusion was that all sugars evaluated can be used for fermentation using S. cerevisiae to make an alcohol base with an alcohol content above 11% within eight days. Sucrose generated the highest alcohol content followed by fructose and last dextrose. However, further experiments need to be carried out in order to determine which sugar is best suited for making an alcohol base with as neutral a taste, aroma and colour as possible. These trials should include a sensory analysis of all mixtures.  

  • 25.
    Gurinovic, Mirjana A.
    et al.
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Oshaug, Arne
    Akershus Univ Coll, Norway.
    Finglas, Paul
    Inst Food Res, UK.
    Glibetic, Maria
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hollman, Peter
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Hulshof, Paul J.
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Porubska, Janka
    VUP Food Res Inst, Slovakia.
    Tepsic, Jasna
    Capacity building in food composition data base in central and eastern Europe, Middle east and North Africa countries: Successful collaboration between EUROFIR and other networks2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, no Supplement 1, p. 565-565, article id P127-04Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Gurinović, Mirjana
    et al.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Tepšić, J
    Ranić, M
    Hulshof, P J M
    Hollman, P C
    Porubska, J
    Gohar, A
    Debeljak-Martačić, J
    Petrović-Oggiano, G
    Novaković, R
    Glibetić, M
    Oshaug, A
    Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.2010In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 64 Suppl 3, p. S134-S138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised.

    RESULTS: Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia and Estonia.

    CONCLUSIONS: EuroFIR has created training activities that complement national activities. Collaboration with other networks has provided an overview of FCDB status and training needs, providing directions for CD activities in those countries. This provides a platform for new funding and further development and networking for CD, which would be conducive to European Commission objectives and public health strategies for CD.

  • 27.
    Gustavsson, Andreas
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Emballage för prefabricerade väggar och bjälklag, en studie i hållbarhet. 2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet på kandidatnivå resulterar i en undersökning av Derome AB:s nuvarande emballage till prefabricerade väggar och bjälklag. Dagens emballage för prefabväggar och bjälklag följer inte med i utvecklingen. I arbetet undersöks möjligheterna att gå från plastemballage till pappemballage genom materialstudier och med den hållbara utvecklingen i åtanke.

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  • 28. Havenaar, R
    et al.
    Verwei, M
    Olivares, A B
    Arkbage, K
    Ros, G
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Walker, C
    Carnovale, E
    Kariluoto, S
    Finglas, P
    Folate bioaccessibility from various food products studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.2003In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 133, no 11, p. 3862S-3863SArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Amann, Laura S.
    Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    A HPLC-UV Method for the Quantification of Phenolic Acids in Cereals2019In: Food Analytical Methods, ISSN 1936-9751, E-ISSN 1936-976X, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 2802-2812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals are a good source of phenolic acids, most of which are present in bound form. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying total phenolic acids in cereals that includes a robust step for hydrolysis of bound forms. Different hydrolysis procedures were evaluated. Acid hydrolysis, even with subsequent use of enzymes, proved unsuitable for releasing bound phenolic acids from the cereal matrix. Base hydrolysis (3 M, 90 min) resulted in the highest extractability, with average recoveries of 88-108% for cereal phenolic acids. The phenolic acid content in cereals (two cultivars each of rye, barley, and oats, and eight cultivars of wheat) varied up to 2-fold between cereal genotypes and 1.5-fold within genotypes. The highest content was found in rye, followed by wheat, barley, and oats. Ferulic acid dominated in all cereals, amounting to 48-72% of total phenolic acid content.

  • 30.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Bergström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Lennqvist, Torbjörn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Simultaneous quantification of trimethylamine N-oxide, trimethylamine, choline, betaine, creatinine, and propionyl-, acetyl-, and L-carnitine in clinical and food samples using HILIC-LC-MS2021In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 413, p. 5349-5360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiome-derived metabolite from the metabolism of choline, betaine, and carnitines, is associated to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A method suitable for routine quantification of TMAO and its precursors (trimethylamine (TMA), choline, betaine, creatinine, and propionyl-, acetyl-, and l-carnitine) in clinical and food samples has been developed based on LC-MS. TMA was successfully derivatized using iodoacetonitrile, and no cross-reactions with TMAO or the other methylamines were detected. Extraction from clinical samples (plasma and urine) was performed after protein precipitation using acetonitrile:methanol. For food samples (meatballs and eggs), water extraction was shown to be sufficient, but acid hydrolysis was required to release bound choline before extraction. Baseline separation of the methylamines was achieved using a neutral HILIC column and a mobile phase consisting of 25 mmol/L ammonium formate in water:ACN (30:70). Quantification was performed by MS using external calibration and isotopic labelled internal standards. The assay proved suitable for both clinical and food samples and was linear from approximate to 0.1 up to 200 mu mol/L for all methylamines except for TMA and TMAO, which were linear up to 100 mu mol/L. Recoveries were 91-107% in clinical samples and 76-98% in food samples. The interday (n=8, four duplicate analysis) CVs were below 9% for all metabolites in clinical and food samples. The method was applied successfully to determine the methylamine concentrations in plasma and urine from the subjects participating in an intervention trial (n=10) to determine the effect of animal food ingestion on methylamine concentrations.

  • 31.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt ; Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand.
    McEntyre, Christopher
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Lever, Michael
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Otago Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Slow, Sandy
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Otago Christchurch, New Zealand.
    A Simple HPLC Method with Fluorescence Detection for Choline Quantification in Foods2015In: Food Analytical Methods, ISSN 1936-9751, E-ISSN 1936-976X, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 2401-2408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-performance liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was developed and validated for choline quantification in foods. Samples were extracted by homogenizing in chloroform/methanol/water and hydrolyzing in HCl-acetonitrile. Choline was derivatized using 1-naphthyl isocyanate and quantified by HPLC-fluorescence detection. Average recovery using choline iodide as the standard (n = 6) ranged from 84 ± 6 % for whole-wheat flour to 106 ± 5 % for milk. Recovery after addition of dietary lecithin to two different food matrices faba beans and for whole-wheat flour (n = 6) was 83 ± 5 %. The precision of the analysis (coefficient of variation) ranged from 2 to 13 %. Accuracy was evaluated by analyzing dietary lecithin using HPLC-FLD, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance, which across the different methods agreed within 15 %. This method was applied to quantify the choline content in different food matrices, and provides a simple, inexpensive method that could be widely used.

  • 32.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt ; Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand.
    McEntyre, Christopher
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Lever, Michael
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Otago Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Slow, Sandy
    Canterbury Health Laboratories, New Zealand ; University of Otago Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Validation of HPLC-UV Methods for the Quantification of Betaine in Foods by Comparison with LC-MS2016In: Food Analytical Methods, ISSN 1936-9751, E-ISSN 1936-976X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 292-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of dietary betaine is increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to develop a simple high-performance liquid chromatography with standard ultraviolet spectrometric detection (HPLC-UV) method for betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) determination in foods after derivatization. Two methods were used for betaine derivatization. Thereafter, derivatized betaine was quantified using HPLC-UV, and the results were compared with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The established derivatizing agent 2′-naphthacyl triflate and a novel derivatizing agent 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone produced the same cationic derivative when they react with betaine. The calibration curves were linear up to 1000 μmol/L (R 2 = 0.9974 for 2′-naphthacyl triflate and 0.9995 for 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone). The limit of detection was 1 μmol/L for both methods (2′-naphthacyl triflate and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone), confirming sufficient sensitivity for betaine quantification in foods. The average recovery from different food matrices (wheat flour and spinach) (n = 12) was 99 ± 9 %, 95 ± 10 %, and 101 ± 8 % for LC-MS, 2′-naphthacyl triflate, and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone, respectively. Inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) in the control samples (whole wheat flour) were below 10 %. Quantitative results for foods analyzed using 2′-naphthacyl triflate and 2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone were comparable to LC-MS (R 2 = 0.992 and 0.990), respectively. The highest betaine content (~160 mg/100 g) was found in spinach followed by faba bean, wheat flour, and beetroot. These methods can be widely used for betaine quantification because of the simplicity of the derivatization procedures, and the commercial availability of the derivatizing reagent (2-bromo-2′-acetonaphthone) or through the relatively easy synthesis of 2-naphthacyl triflate.

  • 33.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Schaller, Franziska
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Betaine, choline and folate content in different cereal genotypes2018In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 80, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of dietary methyl donors, e.g. betaine, choline and folate, is increasingly being recognised. This study examined variations in methyl donor concentrations in different cereals grown in Sweden. Fourteen cereal samples, representing different genera and cultivars, were analysed using HPLC- UV/FLD. The content of methyl donors in the cereals varied significantly due to cereal genotype. Betaine content varied most, with 28 mg/100 g DM in oats and 176 mg/100 g DM in rye. Total choline varied less, with 67 mg/100 g DM in rye and 149 mg/100 g DM in naked barley. In wheat, the lowest concentration of folate with 36 mg/100 g DM was found, and the highest of 91 mg/100 g DM in barley. Esterified choline was the major contributor to total choline content (80e95%) in the cereals. Free choline was less abundant, ranging from 3 to 27mg/100g DM. 5-CHO-H4folate was the dominant folate form in all cereals, amounting to approx. 35e50% of the sum of folates, as determined after pre-column conversion. Due to the limited number of available cultivars, no interpretation regarding effects from cultivar can be made. In conclusion, the studied cereal genotypes are good sources of methyl donors, but concentrations show considerable variation between different cereals.

  • 34.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Shalaby, Mohamed T.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Mohamed, Rasha A.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Elwa, Ahmad M.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effect of a 12-Week Dietary Intervention with Folic Acid or Folate-Enhanced Foods on Folate Status in Healthy Egyptian Women2016In: Food and Nutrition Sciences, ISSN 2157-944X, E-ISSN 2157-9458, Vol. 7, p. 1339-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Egyptian government introduced wheat-flour fortification with iron and folic acid to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects, but suspended it for technical reasons. We previously developed novel legume foods with enhanced folate content. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of 12-week intervention with folate-en- hanced foods versus folic acid supplement in improving folate status in Egyptian women. A randomized, parallel intervention trial with two active groups (n = 19, n = 18) and one blinded control group (n = 20) was executed over 12 weeks. Volunteers received either germinated legume foods and orange juice (≈250 μg/d folate) or folic acid supplement (500 μg/d) or apple juice (0 μg/d folate). Folate status was assessed by erythrocyte and plasma folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) at day 0, and after 8 and 12 weeks of intervention. After 12 weeks, mean plasma folate increased by 14 (P < 0.0001) and 12 (P < 0.0001) nmoL in the folic acid and food group, respectively. Erythrocyte folate concentration increased in the folic acid group from 614 to 912 (P < 0.0001) and in the food group from 631 to 914 nmoL (P < 0.0001). After 12 weeks, 90% of subjects in the folic acid group and 70% in the food group had erythrocyte folate concentrations exceeding 906 nmol/L. tHcy concentration was decreased by 20% (P = 0.007) and 18% (P = 0.006) in the folic acid and food group, respectively, but remained unchanged in the control group during intervention. Folate-enhanced foods effectively improve folate status in women of reproductive age. These foods could be used as a complement to folic acid fortification 

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  • 35.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Shalaby, Mohamed T
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) - effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing2015In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  • 36.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Thomsson, Anette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Bread making with sourdough and intact cereal and legume grains - effect on glycaemic index and glycaemic load2021In: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, ISSN 0963-7486, E-ISSN 1465-3478, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of glycaemic index (GI) has led to efforts to develop low-GI foods. Bread contributes around one-quarter of carbohydrate intake in the Swedish diet. In this study, we sought to develop low-GI bread prototypes and examined the effects of bread making on content of total dietary fibre (TDF) and resistant starch (RS). Five bread prototypes were made in a commercial bakery, using sourdough fermentation and intact cereal and legume kernels. Predicted (p-GI) andin vivoGI values were determined, and TDF and RS were quantified. The p-GI value of the five prototypes was between 56 and 68. The confirmedin vivoGI value was 65 and 67 for two of the breads. The TDF content (>= 17%) was not affected by bread making, but RS content was increased by three-fold. All breads were categorised as medium-GI, but with low glycaemic load (GL).

  • 37.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Effect of germination and subsequent oven-drying on folate content in different wheat and rye cultivars2012In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 374-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals are recognised as an important food source of folate, and germinated cereals are reported to contain even more folate. This study examined the effects of germination and oven-drying on folate content in different wheat and rye cultivars. The native folate content in four wheat cultivars ranged from 23 to 33 μg/100 g dry matter (DM) and that in six rye cultivars from 31 to 39 μg/100 g DM. Mean folate content in rye was 25% higher than in wheat. Germination of both cereals resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in folate content, depending on cultivar and duration of germination. The highest folate content in both cereals was found after 96 h of germination and was 181 μg/100 g DM for cv. Kaskelott (rye) and 155 μg/100 g DM for cv. Kosack (wheat). Germination increased the amount of 5-CH 3-H 4folate in both cereals from 45 to 75%. Oven-drying of germinated wheat grains (for 48 and 72 h) at 50 °C did not affect the folate content. In conclusion, germination increases the folate content in wheat and rye cultivars, while subsequent oven-drying does not affect the folate content. Germination can therefore be recommended for producing bakery ingredients with increased folate content. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 38.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Egyptian Legumes and Cereal Foods: Traditional and New Methods for Processing2016In: Mediterranean Foods: Composition and Processing / [ed] Rui M. S. Cruz, Margarida C. Vieira, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2016, p. 102-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legumes and cereals play an important role in the traditional diet in several regions of the world (Messina 1999). In egypt, cereals occupy the first place in the human diet as a source of calories, with proteins and legumes as the second (FaO 2011). public health authorities around the world recommend the consumption of cereals and legumes because of health benefits deriving from their chemical composition, e.g., a low content of saturated fat and a high content of essential nutrients and phytochemicals (anderson 2004, Messina 2014).

  • 39.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala;Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread.2012In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi) bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination) has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF).

    METHODS: Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined.

    RESULTS: Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 µg/100 g DM (dry matter). The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 µg/100 g DM compared with 30 µg/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF).

    CONCLUSION: Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 µg.

  • 40.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Folate content in processed legume foods commonly consumed in Egypt2014In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 337-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial food processing and household cooking are reported to affect folate content. This study examined the effects of industrial and household processing methods on folate content in traditional Egyptian foods from faba beans (Vicia faba) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum). Overnight soaking increased folate content by ∼40–60%. Industrial canning including soaking, blanching and retorting did not affect folate content (p = 0.11) in faba beans, but resulted in losses of ∼24% (p = 0.0005) in chickpeas. Germination increased folate content 0.4–2.4-fold. Household preparation increased the folate content in germinated faba bean soup (nabet soup) one-fold and in bean stew (foul) by 20% (p < 0.0001). After deep-frying of falafel balls made from soaked faba bean paste, losses of 10% (p = 0.2932) compared with the raw faba beans were observed. The folate content (fresh weight) in the traditional Egyptian foods foul and falafel and in the beans in nabet soup was 30 ± 2, 45 ± 2 and 56 ± 6 μg/100 g, respectively. The traditional Egyptian foods foul, falafel and nabet soup are good folate sources and techniques like germination and soaking, which increase the folate content, can therefore be recommended.

  • 41.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Increasing the folate content in Egyptian baladi bread using germinated wheat flour2011In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 706-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to increase the folate content in Egyptian baladi bread using germinated wheat flour (GWF). The effect of germination temperature and drying conditions on the folate content of wheat grains was studied. Wheat flour was substituted with unsieved and sieved GWF at different levels and the effects on folate content and the rheological properties of dough were determined. Germination of wheat grains resulted in a 3- to 4-fold higher folate content depending on the germination temperature. Maximum folate content (61 mu g/100 g dry matter (DM)) occurred at 30 degrees C. Drying did not affect folate content in germinated grains. After replacement with GWF, folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5- to 4-fold depending on the level of replacement. Rheological properties of dough were adversely affected by increasing replacement level (as determined by farinograph). While the folate content in bread was as high as 66 mu g/100 g DM at complete replacement of flour with sieved GWF, the bread was dark and layers were not separated. After replacement of half of the flour with sieved GWF (50 g/100 g), the baladi bread was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation. The folate content in this bread was 50 mu g/100 g DM, compared with 30 mu g/100 g DM in bread without GWF (0 g/100 g). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci ; Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Öhrvik, Veronica
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tabekha, Mohamed
    Mansoura Univ, Egypt.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Folate content in foods commonly consumed in Egypt2010In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 540-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The folate content in some Egyptian foods was determined using RP-HPLC-FL. Trienzyme treatment was used for legumes, dienzyme treatment for cereals and starchy vegetables, and monoenzyme treatment for vegetables and fruits. The highest folate content (633 mu g/100 g) was found in dried Jew's mellow due to low water content, followed by legumes (e.g. 150 mu g/100 g for chick peas) and leafy vegetables (100 mu g/100 g). For other foods, folate content ranged from 10-90 mu g/100 g. In all foods, the predominant folate form was 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate, except for dried Jew's mellow, which contained more than 80% 10-HCO-PteGlu. Using folate data from our own analyses and food tables and food consumption data, the dietary folate intake per capita in Egypt was estimated. However, representative and validated food composition data for folate in Egyptian foods are needed for estimating and evaluating the adequacy of the population's folate intake. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Hollman, Peter C. H.
    et al.
    RIKILT Inst Food Safety, Netherlands ;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Busstra, Maria C.
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Elburg, Lucy
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Hulshof, Paul
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Training aspects in the use and production of food composition databases. The EuroFIR experience2009In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 842-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of national food databases have been published on the internet. However, these internet databases can only be searched individually, and the data have been compiled at a national level, resulting in incompatibilities. To resolve these problems, the Network of Excellence EuroFIR develops an internet based platform for online access to various national authoritative sources of food composition data in Europe. Training is essential for its use, and for the development of harmonised procedures of data production, evaluation, compilation, and retrieval. The training program developed within EuroFIR consists of individual training, supported by exchange grants, and a collection of workshops and training courses. Supportive E-learning modules are under construction. Procedures for the evaluation of each training activity have been made to measure its efficacy, and to learn about new training needs. Attention is given to special training needs of compilers in central and eastern European countries. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Echart, Arantzazu Santamaria
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Gabilondo, Nagore
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Eceiza, Arantxa
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Modification of Pea Starch and Dextrin Polymers with Isocyanate Functional Groups2018In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pea starch and dextrin polymers were modified through the unequal reactivity of isocyanate groups in isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer. The presence of both urethane and isocyanate functionalities in starch and dextrin after modification were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR). The degree of substitution (DS) was calculated using elemental analysis data and showed higher DS values in modified dextrin than modified starch. The onsets of thermal degradation and temperatures at maximum mass losses were improved after modification of both starch and dextrin polymers compared to unmodified ones. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of modified starch and dextrin were lower than unmodified control ones, and this was more pronounced in modified dextrin at a high molar ratio. Dynamic water vapor sorption of starch and dextrin polymers indicated a slight reduction in moisture sorption of modified starch, but considerably lower moisture sorption in modified dextrin as compared to that of unmodified ones.

  • 45.
    Jastrebova, Jelena
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Grahn, Anders
    ChromTech.
    Svensson, Ulla
    Procordia Food.
    Jagerstad, Margaretha
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    HPLC determination of folates in raw and processed beetroots2003In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 579-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection and gradient elution has been developed for the determination of folates in vegetables. The method involved extraction of folates from food matrix by heat treatment, deconjugation of folate polyglutamates to monoglutamates by incubation with hog kidney conjugase and purification of food extracts by solid-phase extraction with strong-anion exchange cartridges. The chromatographic separation of folates was achieved on Zorbax SB C-8 column, which was found to be superior over conventional C-18 column in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. Validation of the method included linearity tests, the addition of standard folates for the determination of recovery, repeatability and stability tests. The method developed was applied to analysis of raw and processed beetroots; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was found to be the main folate form in beetroots. Cultivar differences and growing conditions were found to have a pronounced effect on the folate content in beetroots. Processing resulted in considerable losses of folates, whereas losses during storage appeared to be moderate.

  • 46.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Reproducerbarhet av fetthalt enligt van Gulik, undersökning av Volhard-metoden samt proten- och vattenhaltbestämningar på ost: Analyser av Emåmejeriets ost Hagelsrum Kloster 31 % och 15 %2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Johansson, Madelene
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bruce, Ake
    National Food Administration.
    Jägerstad, Margaretha
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Study of wheat breakfast rolls fortified with folic acid: The effect on folate status in women during a 3-month intervention2002In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 279-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Folate has come into focus due to its protective role against child birth defects such as neural tube defects (NTD). Swedish authorities recommend all fertile women to increase their folate intake to 400 microg/day by eating folate-rich foods. Because not all women follow these recommendations, there is a discussion today about whether Sweden should introduce folic acid fortification in wheat flour and sifted rye flour. This decision needs knowledge about the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified foods.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate effects of two folic acid fortification levels on folate status in healthy female volunteers and to study the folic acid stability during the baking procedure and storage of the fortified breakfast rolls.

    METHOD: Twenty-nine healthy women were recruited. Folic acid-fortified wheat breakfast rolls were baked with the purpose to contain 200 microg folic acid/roll (roll L) and 400 microg folic acid/roll (roll H). Fourteen women were given one roll/day of roll L (group L) and 15 one roll/day of roll H (group H) during 12 weeks of intervention. Fasting venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Serum homocysteine concentrations were determined using an immunoassay. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were analysed using a protein-binding assay with fluorescent quantification. The folic acid concentration in the breakfast rolls was analysed by HPLC on days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Total folate concentration was measured with microbiological assay on day 45.

    RESULTS: Group L Group L had initially an average erythrocyte folate concentration of 577 +/- 93 nmol/L. After 90 days of intervention, an increase of 20 % (p < 0.05) was observed. At day 0, mean serum folate concentrations were 16.9 +/- 4.3 nmol/L. The mean serum folate concentrations increased by 30 % (p < 0.001) after 90 days. At day 0, mean serum homocysteine concentrations were 9.1 +/- 2.0 micromol/L, which decreased by 20 % (p < 0.01) after 30 days. Group H Group H had an initial erythrocyte folate concentration of 784 +/- 238 nmol/L. After 90 days, an increase of 26 % (p < 0.05) was observed. Serum folate increased at least 22 % after 30 days, from a level of 18.7 +/- 4.8 nmol/L at day 0. Thereafter, all women of group H had serum concentrations at or above the upper limit of quantification (23 nmol/L). At day 0, mean serum homocysteine concentrations were 8.4 +/- 1.7 micromol/L, which decreased by 16 % (p < 0.05) after 30 days. The baking procedure resulted in 20-25 % loss of fortified folic acid in the rolls used in the present study. The size of the rolls affected the retention of folic acid during baking. No significant loss was seen in folic acid concentration in the rolls during the intervention period.

    CONCLUSION: The present study showed that in healthy women, subjected to a 12-week intervention with breakfast rolls fortified with either 166 microg or 355 microg folic acid, serum homocysteine concentration decreased (p < 0.05) and erythrocyte folate increased (p < 0.05). The lower level of fortification seems to be sufficient to improve the folate status. Together with the average daily intake of natural folates, these women reach the recommended intake of 400 microg/day. Folic acid is stable in fortified bread for 90 days storage at -20 degrees C.

  • 48.
    Kadam, Prachi
    et al.
    Symbiosis Institute of Technology, India.
    Pandya, Sharnil
    Symbiosis Institute of Technology, India.
    Phansalkar, Shraddha
    MIT-ADT University, India.
    Sarangdhar, Mayur
    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, USA.
    Petkar, Nayana
    Symbiosis Institute of Technology, India.
    Kotecha, Ketan
    Symbiosis Institute of Technology, India.
    Garg, Deepak
    Bennet University, India.
    FVEstimator: A novel food volume estimator Wellness model for calorie measurement and healthy living2022In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 198, article id 111294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the calorific value of food requires a correct estimate of its volume and size dimensions. The food volumetric estimation can be done rationally and efficiently by measuring the food dimensions in terms of surface parameters. Food volume estimation can be effectively implemented with a computer vision-based application. The food image size can be estimated for its volumetric and calorific calibration with food area measures. However, studies in this area are limited to finding dimensions of a food item with geometrically regular, irregular, amorphous, and solid food shapes. There is a particular challenge with amorphous food items which do not have any shape and are usually calibrated with subjective container sizes by the dietitians and hence cause relative measures. Instance segmentation techniques are implemented at the pixel level and classify a pixel into a food type leading to higher accuracy in classification and segmentation of food over the background. In this work, mask-based RCNN is employed that helps accurate segmentation of food images with regular and irregular shapes in multi-food dish scenarios. The RCNN based food segmentation is applied as a volume estimator model. It is developed by fine-tuning the pre-trained ResNet model and trained over a dataset of 8 different classes of Indian breakfast food images in all shapes. The estimator model yields a precision of 90.9% for convex-shaped food images, 90.46% for amorphous food images in regular serving containers, and 98.5% to 98.9% for regular shaped (square and circle) food items. The accuracy of the presented volume estimator thus opens opportunities for further research with diverse food types and shapes.

  • 49.
    Kaleva, Marina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Carpe, från bricka till serveringsvinge2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet avser att med uppdrag från kostchef Kristina Sjöholm på restaurang Kosthållet och med Design med omtanke som projektform och stöd, utforma en serveringsbricka med tonvikt på form och akustik. Brickan ska anpassas för rummet och brukaren på ett nytänkande sätt och vara anpassad för det som ska transporteras på den.

    Mycket av utmaningen ligger i att få brickan anpassad till en restaurang trots att den i mångas ögon inte anses höra hemma där.

    DMO förändrar miljöer och produkter där människor möts och de gör det med omtanke om människor och natur. Genom en tydlig breif och ett gott samarbete med den tillsatta gruppen, har resultatet nått sitt mål. Brickan har fått gå igenom en omfattande produktutvecklingsprocess och genom den fått både nya funktioner och

    egenskaper. Eftersom vissa av de generella element som utmärker en bricka tagits bort har den fått ett nytt uttryck. Detta var viktigt eftersom ett av kraven var att gå ifrån matsalskänslan och då få brickan att smälta in i restaurangkontexten. I slutresultatet finns lösningar på samtliga områden.

    Det som var svårast att lösa var att ge brickan en ljudabsorberande förmåga men redan nu har goda resultat visat sig och metoden ska nu testas ytterligare för att se om eventuell patentsökning kan vara aktuellt.

  • 50.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    et al.
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    George, Navomy
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Sobti, Bhawna
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    AlRashidi, Nouf
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Ghnimi, Sami
    Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Ali, Abdul Aziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Andersson, Annica A. M.
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Roger
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Antony, Asha
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Hamed, Fathalla
    United Arab Emirates Univ, United Arab Emirates.
    Dietary fiber components, microstructure, and texture of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera, L.)2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-11, article id 21767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Date fruits vary widely in the hardness of their edible parts and they are classified accordingly into soft, semi-dry, and dry varieties. Fruit texture, a significant parameter in determining consumer acceptance, is related to the tissue structure and chemical composition of the fruit, mainly the ratio of sucrose to reducing sugars. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the chemical composition, microstructure, and texture profile of 10 major Emirati date fruits. The soluble sugars, glucose and fructose, represent ca 80 g/100 g of the fruits on the basis of dry weight (DW) while the dietary fiber contents varied 5.2-7.4 g/100 dg D.W. with lignin being the main determinant of the variability. The textures of the samples were studied using instrumental texture profile analysis. While no correlation was found between the soluble sugar and texture parameters in this study, the different fiber constituents correlated variably with the different parameters of date fruit texture. Lignin, arabinoxylan, galactomannan, and pectin were found to correlate significantly with fruit hardness and the related parameters, gumminess and chewiness. Both lignin and arabinoxylan correlated with resilience, and arabinoxylan exhibited a strong correlation with cohesiveness.

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