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  • 1.
    Aaby, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. 1991.
    Carlsson, Henric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effektivisering av timmerplan på Kinnaredsågen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sågverken i Sverige letar kontinuerligt efter lösningar för att kunna effektivisera produktionen. I denna studie analyseras specifikt Derome Kinnareds sågens timmerplan. Genom en stopptidsanalys, undersökningar av nya tekniska lösningar, muntliga kommunikationer med personal samt arbetsledare och andra företag införskaffades underlag till analys. Åtgärder som kan utföras för att minimera produktionskostnaderna eller öka produktionen på timmerplan är att implementera ny teknik t.ex. fjärrmätning, digitalisera mätbesked med hjälp av SDC:s arkiv, omorganisera personalstyrkan samt införskaffa bemyndigad mätare. Förslagen indikerar att implementering av dem kan förbättra Kinnaredsågens ekonomi. Beroende på hur mycket företaget är villigt att investera kan det effektiviseras i olika grad. I samband med kommunikation med företagsrepresentanter kom man dock fram till att ny teknik kan vara bättre att implementera vid en nybyggnation.

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  • 2.
    Abbas, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Awais, Mian Muhammad
    Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan.
    Kurti, Arianit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Smart Forest Observatories Network: A MAPE-K Architecture Based Approach for Detecting and Monitoring Forest Damage2023In: Proceedings of the Conference Digital solutions for detecting and monitoring forest damage: Växjö, Sweden, March 28-29, 2023, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are essential for life, providing various ecological, social, and economic benefits worldwide. However, one of the main challenges faced by the world is the forest damage caused by biotic and abiotic factors. In any case, the forest damages threaten the environment, biodiversity, and ecosystem. Climate change and anthropogenic activities, such as illegal logging and industrial waste, are among the principal elements contributing to forest damage. To achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to forests and climate change, detecting and analyzing forest damages, and taking appropriate measures to prevent or reduce the damages are essential. To that end, we envision establishing a Smart Forest Observatories (SFOs) network, as shown below, which can be either a local area or a wide area network involving remote forests. The basic idea is to use Monitor, Analyze, Plan, Execute, and Knowledge (MAPE-K) architecture from autonomic computing and self-adaptive software systems domain to design and develop the SFOs network. The SFOs are planned to collect, analyze, and share the collected data and analysis results using state-of-the-art methods. The principal objective of the SFOs network is to provide accurate and real-time data to policymakers and forest managers, enabling them to develop effective policies and management strategies for global forest conservation that help to achieve SDGs related to forests and climate change.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Håkan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogstillståndet på ön Blå Jungfrun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the forest in the national park on the Blue Maiden Island and compare with mainland forest data. The study was made in a quantitative way. The results from the field measurement were related to data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory.

    Oak, Scots pine and Lime were the most common tree species and constituted 47, 18 and 16 % of basal area, respectively, on the island.

    The mean heigt was 7 m and the volume of living trees was on average 72 m³/ha and dead wood 30 m³/ha. The average age at breast height was 137 years and the oldest tree was an oak with the age of 335 years at breast height. The amount of dead wood constituted 40 % of the total volume. Disturbances have had influence on the forest on the Island. To what extent cannot be determined without further investigations.

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  • 4.
    Ackerfors, Viktoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Vilken inställning har Länsstyrelserna till naturvårdsbränningar i områden med fornlämningar och övriga kulturhistoriska lämningar?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbränderna har en stor betydelse för den biologiska mångfalden. Det brandpåverkade landskapet och dess dynamik skapar viktiga substrat och livsmiljöer för många pyrofila arter. På grund av att skogsbränderna har minskat i antal sedan 1800-talet, har kontrollerade naturvårdsbränningar utförts som ett komplement för dessa sedan 1980-talet. De kontrollerade naturvårdsbränningarna skapar de miljöer och substrat som många arter är beroende av. Eftersom tidigare mänsklig verksamhet satt prägel på skogarna återfinns idag ett stort antal fornlämningar och övriga kulturhistoriska lämningar i skogsmarkerna. Det är en utmaning att utföra naturvårdsbränningarna så att dessa lämningar inte skadas. Det råder också en brist på tydliga riktlinjer om hur Länsstyrelserna ska förhålla sig till naturvårdsbränningar i områden med lämningar. Denna studies syfte var att undersöka vilken inställning Länsstyrelserna har till naturvårdsbränningar i områden med fornlämningar eller övriga kulturhistoriska lämningar.

    Nyckelord: Naturvårdsbränningar, fornlämningar, övriga kulturhistoriska lämningar, Länsstyrelsen

    Keyword: Prescribed burnings, ancient remains, other cultural-historical remains, County Administrative Boards

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  • 5.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Νέες τεχνολογίες συγκοµιδής δασικών προϊόντων: [New technologies for harvesting forest products]2012In: "Harvesting, Supply and Trade of Woody Biomass". Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving (CRES) and Department of Forestry and Management of Natural Environment, TEI of Larissa, 19 October 2012, Karditsa, Greece, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Adusei-Fosu, Kwasi
    et al.
    Scion, New Zealand.
    Rolando, Carol A.
    Scion, New Zealand.
    Richardson, Brian
    Scion, New Zealand.
    van Leeuwen, Rebecca
    Scion, New Zealand;Plant Protection Chemistry NZ Ltd, New Zealand.
    Gaskin, Robyn
    Plant Protection Chemistry NZ Ltd, New Zealand.
    Bader, Martin K.-F.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Auckland Univ Technol AUT, New Zealand.
    Pathan, Amin K.
    Minist Primary Ind, New Zealand.
    Evaluating the efficacy of potential fungicide-adjuvant combinations for control of myrtle rust in New Zealand2021In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, ISSN 1861-3829, E-ISSN 1861-3837, Vol. 128, p. 1501-1515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myrtle rust is a serious fungal disease caused by Austropuccinia psidii affecting a number of Myrtaceae species in New Zealand and elsewhere. Control with fungicides or biologicals provides a mechanism to reduce the build-up of inoculum in the short-term while other strategies are being developed or deployed for long-term management. This study evaluated the efficacy of fungicides for control of myrtle rust under controlled conditions and identified adjuvants that would promote spreading of fungicidal active ingredients across the leaf surface. The spread of fungicide on detached M. excelsa leaves was assessed by applying three different adjuvants in combination with seven fungicides. Subsequently, M. excelsa plants were treated with three fungicides/mixes, (azoxystrobin + epoxiconazole, triademinol or a natural tea-extract) at a single rate followed by inoculation with A. psidii urediniospores on day 0, 7, 14 or 21 days after spraying. The response to infection in M. excelsa plants based on different inoculation timings at days 0, 7 and 21 significantly differed among fungicide treatments. The fungicide azoxystrobin + epoxiconazole was the most effective with infections significantly lower on the adaxial leaf surface than abaxial, despite good surface coverage of fungicide being achieved on both leaf surfaces. There were significant differences among fungicides based on the proportion of infected leaves on M. excelsa plants. Day 21 post-spray inoculation indicated a significant interaction between inoculation time and fungicide on leaf disease ratings. However, this was not the case at either 28 or 35 days post-inoculation. This research contributes to fungicide options for myrtle rust control in New Zealand.

  • 7.
    Agostinelli, Marta
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Cleary, Michelle
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Martín, Juan A
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Witzell, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pedunculate Oaks (Quercus robur L.) Differing in Vitality as Reservoirs for Fungal Biodiversity2018In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological significance of trees growing in urban and peri-urban settings is likely to increase in future land-use regimes, calling for better understanding of their role as potential reservoirs or stepping stones for associated biodiversity. We studied the diversity of fungal endophytes in woody tissues of asymptomatic even aged pedunculate oak trees, growing as amenity trees in a peri-urban setting. The trees were classified into three groups according to their phenotypic vitality (high, medium, and low). Endophytes were cultured on potato dextrose media from surface sterilized twigs and DNA sequencing was performed to reveal the taxonomic identity of the morphotypes. In xylem tissues, the frequency and diversity of endophytes was highest in oak trees showing reduced vitality. This difference was not found for bark samples, in which the endophyte infections were more frequent and communities more diverse than in xylem. In general, most taxa were shared across the samples with few morphotypes being recovered in unique samples. Leaf phenolic profiles were found to accurately classify the trees according to their phenotypic vitality. Our results confirm that xylem is more selective substrate for endophytes than bark and that endophyte assemblages in xylem are correlated to the degree of host vitality. Thus, high vitality of trees may be associated with reduced habitat quality to wood-associated endophytes.

  • 8.
    Agostinelli, Marta
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Diem
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Witzell, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Cleary, Michelle
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Mycobiome of Fraxinus excelsior With Different Phenotypic Susceptibility to Ash Dieback2021In: Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, E-ISSN 2624-893X, Vol. 4, article id 580514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last two decades, large-scale population decline of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) has occurred in Europe because of the introduction of the alien fungal pathogen, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, from East Asia. Since European ash is a keystone species having critical importance for biodiversity, and only a small percentage of the ash population appears to show some tolerance against the pathogen, the loss of ash trees means that other associated organisms, especially those with high or obligate associations to ash, are at risk of further species declines. In this study, we used high throughput DNA sequencing and multivariate analysis to characterize: (i) the mycobiome in aerial tissues (i.e., leaf, bark, and xylem) of ash trees showing different phenotypic response to ash dieback, (ii) the temporal variation in fungal communities across the growing season, and (iii) the similarity in fungal community structure between ash and other common trees species that may serve as an ecological niche substitute for ash microfungi. Results showed that fungal communities differed among the three tissue types, susceptibility classes, in time and between sites. Trophic analysis of functional groups using the FUNGuild tool indicated a higher presence of pathotrophic fungi in leaves than in bark and xylem. The share of pathotrophic fungi increased along a gradient of low to high disease susceptibility in both bark and xylem tissue, while the proportion of symbiotrophic fungi correspondingly decreased in both tissue types. Neighboring, alternative host trees did not share all the fungal species found in ash, however, most microfungi uniquely associated to ash in this study are generalists and not strictly host specific. The progressive disappearance of ash trees on the landscape imposes a high risk for extinction of Red-listed macrofungal species, and breeding for resistance against ash dieback should help sustain important biodiversity associated to ash. Microfungal diversity though may be less prone to such demise since most ash-associated endophytes appear to occur on a broad range of host species.

  • 9.
    Agu, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Vad tycker skogsägaren? En studie av kundnöjdhet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten var att undersöka hur Mellanskog arbetar med kundnöjdhet och hur de skogsägare som anlitar dem för avverkningsuppdrag upplever kundnöjdheten. Resultatet från enkätundersökningen visade att de flesta som anlitat Mellanskog för ett avverkningsuppdrag visade en hög grad av kundnöjdhet. Mellanskog arbetade inte själv aktivt med analyser av kundnöjdhet eller hade ett uttalat arbetssätt kring kundnöjdhet.

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  • 10.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Westling, Olle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Alveteg, Mattias
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thelin, Gunnar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Ann-Mari
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    The influence of N load and harvest intensity on the risk of P limitation in Swedish forest soils2008In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 404, no 2-3, p. 284-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen (N) is often considered to be the major factor limiting tree growth in northern forest ecosystems. An increased N availability, however, increases the demand for other nutrients such as base cations and phosphorous (P) which in turn may change which nutrient is the limiting factor. If P or base cations become limiting, N will start to leach which means a risk of increased eutrophication of surface waters. As many studies focus on base cations, this study instead aims at estimating P budgets on a regional scale for different harvesting scenarios relevant for Swedish conditions.

    P budget calculations were carried out for 14,550 coniferous sites from the Swedish National Forest Inventory, as weathering+deposition–harvesting–leaching. Three scenarios with different harvest intensities were used: 1) no harvesting, 2) stem harvesting and 3) whole-tree harvesting. The input data were derived from measurements and model results.

    The P budget estimates indicate that harvesting, especially whole-tree harvesting, result in net losses of P in large parts of Sweden. The highest losses were found in southern Sweden due to high growth rate in this area. In the whole-tree harvesting scenario the losses exceeded 1 kg ha− 1 y− 1 on many sites. N budget calculations on the same sites indicate that N generally accumulates in the whole country and especially in the southern parts. Consequently, the N and P budget calculations indicate that the forests in southern Sweden are in a transition phase from N-to P-limitation to growth. This transition will proceed as long as the accumulation of N continues. These results are important in a sustainable forestry context, as a basis for assessing the risk of future N leaching, and in designing recommendations for abatement strategies of N deposition and for application of wood ash recycling and N fertilization.

  • 11.
    Aksoy, Samet
    et al.
    Istanbul Technical University, Türkiye.
    Hasan Al Shwayyat, Shouq Zuhter
    Marmara University, Türkiye.
    Nur Topgül, Şule
    Istanbul Technical University, Türkiye.
    Sertel, Elif
    Istanbul Technical University, Türkiye.
    Ünsalan, Cem
    Marmara University, Türkiye.
    Salo, Jari
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Holmström, Anton
    Katam Technologies, Sweden.
    Wallerman, Jörgen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fransson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Forest Biophysical Parameter Estimation via Machine Learning and Neural Network Approaches2023In: IGARSS 2023 - 2023 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium: Pasadena, CA, USA, 2023, IEEE, 2023, p. 2661-2664Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first results of the ongoing development of new forest mapping methods for the Swedish national forest mapping case using Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data, utilizing the recent findings in machine learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. We used Random Forest (RF) and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) as ML models. In addition, Neural networks (NN) based approaches were utilized in this study. ALS derived features were used to estimate the stem volume (V), above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area (B), tree height (H), stem diameter (D), and forest stand age (A). XGBoost ML algorithm outperformed RF 1 % to 3 % in the R² metric. NN model performed similar to ML model, however it is superior in the estimation of V, AGB, and B parameters.

  • 12.
    Albaugh, Timothy J
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Stape, José Luiz
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Allen, H Lee
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Linder, Sune
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Do biological expansion factors adequately estimate stand-scale aboveground component biomass for Norway spruce?2009In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 258, no 12, p. 2628-2637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed site specific component (stem, branch, and foliage) biomass functions for two sites in Sweden (64° and 57° North latitude) where four treatments (control, irrigated, fertilized, irrigated plus fertilized) were applied in the existing Norway spruce stands (Picea abies L. Karst.) for 17 years. We tested for site effects in the component biomass equations and compared site specific biomass estimates to those generated using published functions ( Lehtonen et al., 2004 and Wirth et al., 2004). Site effects were significant for all components and indicated it would be unlikely to generate equations that well estimate biomass across the Norway spruce range as implicitly indicated in our efforts to generate species biomass expansion factors. We rejected our hypothesis that the published functions would well estimate component biomass for control plots. The published functions did not compare well with site specific component biomass estimates for the other treatments; both published functions well estimated stem mass up to stem mass of 25 Mg ha−1, beyond which stem mass was overestimated, and both functions over and under estimated foliage and branch mass. Nor did the published functions compare well with each other, with stem, foliage and branch mass estimate differences of 12, 55, −8% and 11, 77, and 59% for the southern and northern sites, respectively, when averaged over all treatments and years. Adding limiting resources through fertilization increased stem, foliage and branch mass 57, 11, 18% and 120, 37, and 69% at the southern and northern sites, respectively, which would increase carbon sequestration and available stemwood and bioenergy materials. We recommend that more effort is spent in process-based modeling to better predict mass at a given site and ultimately provide better estimates of carbon sequestration and bioenergy material production changes.

  • 13.
    Algotsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Östman, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Svensk contortatall (Pinus contorta) på en amerikansk marknad?2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tack vare vissa önskade egenskaper gjordes en storsatsning på contortatall (Pinus contorta) i Sverige på 70-talet. Idag finns cirka 600 000 ha i Sverige som det gjorts provsågningar på och är nu dags att hitta användningsområden till. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka skillnaden i utbyte mellan contortatall och gran (Picea abies) efter hyvling. Målet var att undersöka om sidobrädor av contortatall kan vara ett substitut till sidobrädor av gran vid hyvling ämnat för den amerikanska marknaden.Efter skanning av brädor samt manuell visuell sortering visade det sig att 92 % av granbrädorna var utan defekt medan 24 % av contortatallen var det. 34 % av contortatallen nedklassades för hål och 3 % av granen. Slutsatsen av studien visar att mängden och storleken på kvistarna är ett problem för contortatallvirket. För att få ett högkvalitativt virke behövs en djupare översyn av tillvägagångssättet för torkning och trädens tillväxtförhållanden.

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  • 14.
    Alvskog, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Rotstock av tall: Hur blir den framtida virkeskvaliteten?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the quality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saw timber has decreased. It is especially due to increased labour cost that has led to rational and effective forest management.

    This study investigated the quality of Scots pine and the potential to produce high quality stems in 9 stands in Bergslagen, Sweden. Two different stand types were investigated: Pruned stands and conventional managed stands. The outcome was a high percentage of valuable stems in the pruned stands (72-94 %), and 46-56 % in the conventional managed stands. It is possible to produce high quality timber of Scots pine with active management, for example by pruning and careful selection of stems in thinnings.

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  • 15.
    Amiandamhen, Stephen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kumar, Anuj
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden;Czech university of life sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bioenergy production and utilization in different sectors in Sweden: A state of the art review2020In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 9834-9857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the continual desire to reduce the environmental footprints of human activities, research efforts to provide cleaner energy is increasingly becoming vital. The effect of climate change on present and future existence, sustainable processes, and utilizations of renewable resources have been active topics within international discourse. In order to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions from traditional materials and processes, there has been a shift to more environmental friendly alternatives. The conversion of biomass to bioenergy, including biofuels has been considered to contribute to the future of climate change mitigation, although there are concerns about carbon balance from forest utilization. Bioenergy accounts for more than one-third of all energy used in Sweden and biomass has provided about 60% of the fuel for district heating. Apart from heat and electricity supply, the transport sector, with about 30% of global energy use, has a significant role in a sustainable bioenergy system. This review presents the state of the art in the Swedish bioenergy sector based on literature and Swedish Energy Agency’s current statistics. The review also discusses the overall bioenergy production and utilization in different sectors in Sweden. The current potential, challenges, and environmental considerations of bioenergy production are also discussed

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Adrian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Faktorer som bidragit till nyetablering av ädellövskog i Dalsland2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sett över hela landet växer ädellövskog endast på en procent av den produktiva skogsmarken. I det studerade området Dalsland utgörs virkesförrådet uppskattningsvis av tre procent ädla lövträd. Dess förekomst är därför att betrakta som relativt sällsynt. Denna studie hade för avsikt att intervjua markägare som har valt att nyetablera med ädellövskog och genom det förstå vad det är som bidragit till att de föryngrat med dessa trädslag.

    Undersökningen utfördes genom att sex individer som nyetablerat med ädellövskog intervjuades. Resultatet sammanställdes därefter genom att se på gruppen som en helhet och lyfta fram samtliga påverkande faktorer. Utifrån resultatet kunde 13 faktorer identifieras som bidragande och en förståelse kring dem redogöras för. 

    Det kan konstateras att ett flertal faktorer påverkat markägarna i valet att plantera ädellövskog.

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    Ädellövskogsbruk
  • 17.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hur noggrant skattar Katam DGV och GY jämfört med ALS?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skattning av skogliga variabler är inte längre begränsade till datainsamling genom manuell fältmätning. Numera kan skattningar göras genom insamling av data från såväl laserskanning (Airborne Laser Scanning, ALS) som mobilapplikationen Katam Forest (KF) som företaget Katam utvecklat. Dessutom kan varje enskilt träd skattas genom att kombinera Katam Treemap (KT), som använder sig av fotogrammetri för att mäta trädhöjd och identifiera träd, med KF (KF+KT) . I denna studie jämfördes skattningar av grundytevägd medeldiameter (DGV) och grundyta (GY) utförda med manuell fältmätning, ALS, KF samt KF+KT, i tre olika grandominerande bestånd. KF+KT beräknades felaktigt varför inga slutsatser kan dras om metoden. KF visade ett lägre relativt RMSE än ALS, 7,8 % jämfört med 9,6 % vid skattning av DGV. För GY var relativ RMSE 22,5 % vid KF, och 23 % vid ALS. KF bedöms med fördel kunna användas likvärdigt med manuell fältmätning.

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  • 18.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Davidsson, Adrian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hur mycket står risskotare stilla på grund av kommunikationsproblem?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The communicative interaction between contractor and subcontractor of residue forwarder plays a crucial role in the efficiency of handling forest residue. Since that type of work is at the end of the harvesting process, it may be that it is not as prioritized as the previous harvesting measures. The study investigates the communicative interaction between subcontractor that drives a residue forwarder and contractor and its connection to work-related production stops. The study was accomplished by a web-based survey and quantitative interviews conducted with eight selectively selected residue forwarder drivers in southern Sweden. The result of the survey showed that the average of all total production stops was one hour and 52 minutes under an average stop period of 25 working days. Most of the stops were caused by other work-related problems. Communication problems accounted for 20% of the number of production stops and the average stop duration was one hour and five minutes. The time when a residue forwarder was inactive seventeen minutes per day. In conclusion, the communicative problems are not the main reason to inactivity for residue forwarders. However, communication plays an important role in productive harvesting and represent the biggest possibility for improvement in the communication between residue forwarder drivers and contractor, which could lead to fewer production stops.  

     

    Residue Forwarders, Communication Problems, Production Stop and Forest residue. 

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  • 19.
    Andersson, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Utvärdering och utveckling av Fiskarhedens Trävaru AB:s traktdirektiv för slutavverkning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gross felling has accelerated in recent decades, and as a consequence, the requirements for forestry have increased. Today a comprehensive environmental consideration needs to be taken. This also imposes higher demands on the contractors. In order for contractors to be able to live up to the requirements, it is important that the customer of the service hands over a work instruction in connection to the removal of region assignments. This work instruction and work order is created in the form of a region directive. A qualitative region directive is considered important for Fiskarhedens Trävaru AB and for their contractors. A case study has been conducted to evaluate and describe the company's current region directive. The results show that the current region directive is sometimes inadequate due to that they are poorly completed. Important content is therefore not communicated as needed. A proposal of a new improved region directive, where the content is intended to be filled in better, has therefore been developed. With the help of this region directive, Fiskarheden can maintain sustainable forestry.

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  • 20.
    Andersson, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Noggrannhet och precision vid beståndsuppskattning av mobilapplikationen KATAM2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to evaluate the mobile application KATAM of accuracy, time, precision and practical use in comparison to volume estimation with data Digital Caliper and harvester report. The result of the diameter comparison showed similar estimates from KATAM and the Digital Caliper respectively. KATAM had a higher mean basel area, 7% and coarser mean diameter, 3.7%, compared to the Digital Caliper. KATAM also had overestimations in volume as compared to the harvesting report and the Digital Caliper concerning the mean stem, from 2.5% to 17.6%, depending on which sample areas were included and which version of KATAM was used. However, the basis of volume estimates was small and had error sources, which made the results of the measurements uncertain. Although the study shows an overestimation of the diameter, the mutual precision indicates that KATAM could be an alternative to the Digital Caliper when estimating the mean diameter.

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  • 21.
    Andersson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kolkrediters påverkan på den enskilde skogsägarens ekonomi och kolsänkan i skogen2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogen spelar en viktig roll för att minska framtida klimatförändringar. Genom att enskilda skogsägare förlänger omloppstiden på skogsbestånd som uppnått lägsta slutavverkningsålder kommer skogen att bidra till att mer koldioxid binds upp. Detta scenario kan komma att hjälpa till så att Sverigesnår klimatmålet netto noll i koldioxidytsläpp till år 2045.Syftet med denna studie var därför att undersöka vilken ekonomiskt ersättning en enskild skogsägare kan få vid en förlängd omloppstid på 20 år men även om en förlängning av omloppstiden leder till att skogen blir en kolkälla i stället för att vara en aktiv kolsänka.Resultaten visade att vid högre ståndortsindex ökande och koldioxidinlagringen vilket genererade en högre subvention. Under den förlängda omloppstiden var skogen en aktiv kolsänka men att dess kapacitet att binda in koldioxid hade börjar minska. 

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  • 22.
    Andersson, Haidi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. 1965.
    Hur upplevs estetik i skogsbruket?: How is aesthetics in forestry perceived?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 23.
    Andersson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Distansskogsägares nöjdhet med Södras tjänsteutbud och kvalité på tjänster2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of technology and the mechanization in the Swedish forestry has during the last 60 years resulted in depopulation of the country side and due to that the amount of distance forest owners has increased. Therefore the forest companies need to make some adjustments in order to keep the distance forest owners as customers and to attract new ones. The purpose of this essay was to examine and analyze the distance forest owners satisfaction with Södras service offering and quality of service and further develop some proposals for action. A web-based survey was sent out to 634 distance forests owners in Stockholm, Sweden, all members of Södra. 269 respondents participated in the survey and of them, 27 did also participate in a follow-up telephone interview. The results show that the members generally was satisfied with the service offering and the quality of service. Suggestions for improvement regarding the service offering is all about implementing forest management courses in Stockholm and including providing financial and generational counseling, also on location in Stockholm. The quality of service can be improved if the inspector changes the way of working towards an even more customer adapted way and also improve the dialogue with the entrepreneurs. Further suggestions for improvement is to a greater extent welcome complaints and to give some compensation and/or apologize when it is motivated.

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  • 24.
    Andersson, Isac
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Riskhantering vid naturvårdsbränning: En critical incident studie (CIT)2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsbränning är en åtgärd som avser att återskapa effekterna avnaturliga skogsbränder genom att påverka det ekologiska systemet. Trotsfördelarna föreligger risker, såsom oönskad eskalering och spridning av eld,rök och glöd, vilket kan negativt påverka mark, människor och samhällen.Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur ansvariga inom Länsstyrelsen hanterarrisker genom identifiering av kritiska incidenter utifrån Critical IncidentTechnique (CIT) baserad på intervjuer, samt att bidra till att öka den allmännakunskapen kring åtgärden.Resultatet visade att naturvårdsbränningsansvariga tar stor hänsyn till riskeroch arbetar kontinuerligt för att minimera dem. Dock identifierades treförbättringsområden inom riskhanteringsarbetet: säkerhet under bränningar,kommunikation under bränningar och kommunikation med samhället.Förbättringar inom dessa områden kan minimera risker under bränningar,minska oron i samhället och antalet falsklarm samt öka tryggheten igenomförandet för allmänheten och naturvårdsbränningspersonal vidnaturvårdsbränningar.

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    Riskhantering vid naturvårdsbränning
  • 25.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Föryngring med tallsådd- ett underskattat alternativ?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of forest owners to direct sowing of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and also why so few have used the method. The study also aimed to identify reasons for forest owners to use or not to use the method. A questionnaire was sent to 240 non-industrial private forest owners (NIPFs) all over Sweden. As a complement, interviews were performed with forest companies from the north and middle parts of Sweden. The results showed that 15 % of the NIPFs respond that they had used the method direct sowing of pine at some occasion in the past. No forest owner origination from Götaland had used the method though. It was more common among those who owned a forest property of 100 hectares or more than among those who owned 49 hectares or less. Most of those who had used direct sowing in the past were satisfied with the outcome of the regeneration, 92 %, and 73 % were willing to use the method again. They also showed a more positive attitude to direct sowing, 86 %, compared to those who had not tried the method, where 23 % were positive and 69 % were neither positive nor negative. The main reason for not have used the method showed to be that the NIPFs answering this questionnaire had not thought about it. Of the companies interviewed in this study, Sveaskog and Holmen were the ones that have used direct sowing the most: Sveaskog sow 27 % of the yearly pine regeneration area and Holmen just over 20 % of the yearly pine regeneration area, including lodge pole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon). The main reason to why the companies have used direct sowing was that they consider the method cost effective. The also appreciate that the method results in a lot of stems per hectare which has been positive in areas where browsing is a problem. The results from the questionnaire showed that those had sown pine in the past tended to have a more positive attitude to the method than the forest owner that had not sown. This indicates that they have had a positive experience of the method. Nearly half of those who had not sown had neither a positive nor a negative attitude to it. One possible reason for it is that they had no experience of the method and therefore no opinion. Direct sowing works well to combine with other methods and can be adapted to different conditions. In a time when damage from browsing can cause big problems to regenerations of pine, sowing could be an important tool in the toolbox.

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  • 26.
    Andersson, Jonatan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Jämförelse av betesskador på sådda och planterade tallplantor - under en tvåårsperiod i södra Östergötland2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har jämfört betesskadorna i sådda och planterade tallbestånd över en tvåårsperiod. Totalt inventerades sex olika bestånd, varav tre sådda och tre planterade, enligt samma metod som ÄBIN. Resultatet visar en trend mot mindre andel skador i de sådda bestånden men endast en signifikant skillnad i år tvås mätningar för andelen gamla skador och andelen obetade stammar. Skadenivåerna för ÄFO 5 Kinda i Östergötlands län är också enligt ÄBIN betydligt högre än vad studiens resultat visar.

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hur påverkas vårt välmående av korta vistelser i skogen?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa är det vanligaste hälsoproblemet i Sverige och framför allt bland unga. Det är alarmerande siffror som ses öka. Brist på regelbunden återhämtning kan vara en orsak och leda till psykisk ohälsa och utmattning.Vårt ursprung nära naturen påverkar oss även idag och i skogen finns många hälsofördelar att hämta. Där får hjärnan vila från alla intryck vi dagligen utsätts för och vi kan få känna lugn och ro.Denna studie undersökte om och hur korta skogsvistelser påverkar välmående. 10 deltagare fick göra korta skogsvistelser och besvara enkäter före och efter skogsvistelsen för att skatta olika aspekter på välmående. Studien visade att korta skogsvistelser hade en momentan positiv effekt på alla efterfrågade aspekter. Efter 15 min i skogen kände deltagarna sig mer avspända, glada, harmoniska lugna och klartänkta än innan. Långtidseffekter sågs främst på koncentrationsförmåga. Samtliga deltagare uppger att de har fått ett förbättrat välmående efter sina skogsvistelser och åtta av tio uppger ett förbättrat välmående efter studien.

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  • 28.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Naturkultur för bättre kvalitet i rotstocken i tallungskog?: Utvärdering av röjningsförsök i Kråkerödjan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) form a large part of Swedish forestry and has many alternative end-use areas with different requirements for quality. The ability to influence the quality is high in the initial planting and juvenile forest phase, as studies have shown relationships between good quality and dense planting, where competition between trees has a good impact on timber quality. Competition can also be achieved by shading from above, through seed trees or multi-layered forest. Interest in continuous cover forestry grows, and investigating differences in future timber quality between layered and clear cutting treatments can therefore be valuable. Such a method is “Naturkultur”, which aims to optimize the net present value at every point in the forest. The purpose of this study is to highlight the question of whether layered forests methods similar to “Naturkultur” can be used for higher timber quality in pine forests in a cleaning trial in southern Östergötland, Sweden. The goal is to find out if any difference in timber quality exists in the future butt log between the different cleaning treatments, layered (Uneven) and conventional (Even). The survey was limited to studying only the Kråkerödjan pre-commercial thinning trial, located on the property Kråkerödjan between Småland and Östergötland. Parameters for quality estimation were delimited to knot quantity and knot thickness. In order to answer the purpose, a field survey was conducted with quantitative assumptions where data about stem quantity, tree species distribution, height, diameter, height of the living crown, number of knots and diameter for the thickest knot from the base of the trunk up to 2 m on the trunk were collected. The result showed that the number of stems per ha was significantly higher in Uneven than in Even while the volume was next to the same. The average diameter was about 4 cm in Uneven and about 10 cm in Even. The tree species distribution was the same for trees with a diameter > 5 cm a breast height (bh) in both parcels,> 95% pine. For trees <5 cm bh, the distribution in Uneven was 14 % pine, 10 % spruce and 76 % deciduous, in Even there were almost exclusively deciduous trees. When examining pine > 5 cm at bh, there was a significant difference in the knot quantity with fewer knots/m in Uneven than in Even. The thickest knot was smaller in Uneven than in Even, but the difference was only significant when the data without dominants was examined. The thickest knot was slightly smaller relative to the diameter of the trunk in bh in Uneven but the difference was not significant. The average diameter in pine > 5 cm at bh was slightly less in Uneven, 10.7 cm, than in Even, 10.8 cm. The survey gives an indication that the layered forest according to the method of “Naturkultur” in the parcel Uneven, where dominants shades smaller trees, may be used for a better timber quality in pine in the investigated premises. However, the results are not sufficiently clear, if this is due to the fact that the quality difference is small or if it is because quality differences have not yet occurred V cannot be read in the survey. Estimating timber quality early in the rotation period is difficult as a lot can happen until final felling. However, the survey has been valuable as more data is needed in the area in question. Follow-up of the survey is needed to further explore the relationships between stock treatments and quality development.

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  • 29.
    Andertun, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Aptering för högre medellängder på massavedssortimenten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att transporterna skall bli mer ekonomiska och samtidigt ha en liten miljöpåverkan krävs det att maximera transporterna viktmässigt och minimera avstånden. Ett tillvägagångssätt för att utnyttja lastkapaciteten är att ha en hög medellängd på virket för att transportera mindre luft i den begränsade volymen på lastbilen. Den här studien undersöker medellängder på massaved hos Sydved. Sydved har ett miljömål där 90% av volymen skall hålla minst 4,2 m medellängd på barr, gran och lövmassaved. En ökad medellängd på massaveden får inte påverka timmerutbytet eftersom det primära skall vara att aptera för bästa ekonomi för markägaren. Studien undersöker om och hur aptering för en ökad medellängd på massaved av gran påverkar timmerutbytet. Studien resulterar i att aptera massaveden till högre medellängder för att nå miljömålet kan påverka timmerutbytet både positivt och negativt.

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  • 30.
    Arnerup, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lind, Mårten
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Olson, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Elfstrand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    The pathogenic white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum triggers non-specific defence responses in the bark of Norway spruce2011In: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 1262-1272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] is one of the economically most important conifer species in Europe. The major pathogen on Norway spruce is Heterobasidion parviporum (Fr.) Niemelä & Korhonen. To achieve a better understanding of Norway spruce's defence mechanisms, transcriptional responses in bark to H. parviporum infection were compared with the response to wounding using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism. The majority of the recovered transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) showed a similar expression pattern for infection and wounding treatment, although inoculated samples showed an enhanced reaction. Genes related to systemic acquired resistance, e.g., PR1, accumulated after H. parviporum infection. Simultaneously, several transcripts involved in various aspects of jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-mediated signalling accumulated. Genes involved in the ubiquitin/proteasome system were also regulated. Expression patterns have been confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression patterns of the isolated TDFs suggest that infection with H. parviporum in Norway spruce induces a broad defence, with many similarities to non-specific defence responses in angiosperms. The parallel induction of salicylic acid- and JA/ET-mediated pathways implies spatially separated responses in different cell layers, with and without hyphal contact. A set of TDFs were analysed in an independent experiment with unrelated material treated with wounding or with inoculation with H. parviporum or Phlebiopsis gigantea, verifying the original observations and underlining the non-specific defence responses. In addition, our data suggest that rerouting of carbon in secondary metabolism is an integral part of Norway spruce induced defence. We report the sequences of three 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase genes (PaDAHP1, PaDAHP2 and PaDAHP3) and their relative expression in response to wounding and infection with H. parviporum and P. gigantea. The results clearly indicate differential regulation of the three DAHPs in the induced defence responses in Norway spruce. This study gives insights into the central mechanisms in the induced defences in Norway spruce.

  • 31.
    Arnerup, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nemesio-Gorriz, Miguel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundén, Karl
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden;Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Center, Canada.
    Asiegbu, Frederick O
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Elfstrand, Malin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    The primary module in Norway spruce defence signalling against H. annosum s.l. seems to be jasmonate-mediated signalling without antagonism of salicylate-mediated signalling2013In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 237, no 4, p. 1037-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key tree species for the forest industry in Europe is Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. One of its major diseases is stem and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion parviporum (Fr.) Niemelä & Korhonen, which causes extensive revenue losses every year. In this study, we investigated the parallel induction of Norway spruce genes presumably associated with salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated signalling pathways previously observed in response to H. parviporum. Relative gene expression levels in bark samples of genes involved in the salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated signalling pathways after wounding and inoculation with either the saprotrophic biocontrol fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea or with H. parviporum were analysed with quantitative PCR at the site of the wound and at two distal locations from the wound/inoculation site to evaluate their roles in the induced defence response to H. parviporum in Norway spruce. Treatment of Norway spruce seedlings with methylsalicylate, methyljasmonate and inhibitors of the jasmonic acid/ethylene signalling pathway, as well as the Phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid were conducted to determine the responsiveness of genes characteristic of the different pathways to different hormonal stimuli. The data suggest that jasmonic acid-mediated signalling plays a central role in the induction of the genes analysed in this study irrespective of their responsiveness to salicylic acid. This may suggest that jasmonic acid-mediated signalling is the prioritized module in the Norway spruce defence signalling network against H. parviporum and that there seems to be no immediate antagonism between the modules in this interaction.

  • 32.
    Aronsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bergenheim, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Trender i Sveriges skogar baserat på uppmätta fältdata åren 1983-20202022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies mål var att generera en tydlig bild av hur skogens tillstånd utvecklats med avseende på ålder, diameter och träslagsfördelning, mellan åren 1983-2020. Dessutom har studien för perioden 2016-2020 undersökt ägoslag med avseende på medelålder och medeldiameter, samt skogar med naturinriktad och produktionsinriktad skötsel för skog tillhörande Sveaskog. Detta har utförts med stöd av data från Riksskogstaxeringen och Sveaskog. Studien visade att nationellt sett ökar andelen träd äldre än 120 år. Resultatet för diameterklasserna visade att grova träd (45+) ökar nationellt och har gjort så för alla perioder. För Norrland och Sveland ökade andelen grova träd väsentligt. Sett till träslagsfördelningen har av andelen barrträd och lövträd sammantaget förändrats mycket lite nationellt sett. Analys av data erhållen från Sveaskog visade att medelåldern var något högre för skogar brukade med en naturinriktning, medan skogar brukade med produktionsinriktning visade en högre medeldiameter. 

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  • 33.
    Azizi, Soghra
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Iran.
    Kouchaksaraei, Masoud Tabari
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Iran.
    Hadian, Javad
    Shahid Beheshti Univ, Iran.
    Abad, Ali Reza Fallah Nosrat
    Agr Res Educ & Extens Org AREEO, Iran.
    Sanavi, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres
    Tarbiat Modares Univ, Iran.
    Ammer, Christian
    Georg August Univ Gottingen, Germany.
    Bader, Martin K.-F.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Auckland Univ Technol, New Zealand.
    Dual inoculations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria boost drought resistance and essential oil yield of common myrtle2021In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 497, article id 119478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are increasingly being used to enhance crop abiotic stress resistance. Common myrtle is an economically important essential oilproducing plant but knowledge about its drought resistance mechanisms and the drought mitigation potential of AMF and PGPR is scant. Here, we investigated the effects of single and dual AMF (Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus irregularis) and PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida) inoculation on seedling survival, growth, physiology, and biochemical traits under soil water deficit (100%, 60%, and 30% of field capacity). Under severe drought, all inoculations increased survival compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Drought-related growth impairment was more strongly compensated belowground than aboveground, especially in dual-inoculated plants, indicating prioritized resource allocation to roots probably linked to AMF- and PGPR-induced phytohormone changes. Particularly dual inoculation significantly improved leaf physiology, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and proline concentrations and mitigated oxidative pigment losses under drought through upregulation of the antioxidant defense as evidenced by (non-)enzymatic antioxidant accumulation, including essential oils. Our findings indicate similarly significant AMF- and PGPR-mediated boosts in myrtle drought resistance through enhanced water and nutrient supply and stimulation of the antioxidant defense. Dual inoculations proved most effective and provide a low-cost approach to optimizing myrtle cultivation and restoration programs.

  • 34.
    Bader, Martin K.-F.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Green Sustainable Development.
    Scherrer, Daniel
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Switzerland.
    Zweifel, Roman
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Switzerland.
    Körner, Christian
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Less pronounced drought responses in ring-porous than in diffuse-porous temperate tree species2022In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 327, article id 109184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tree species differ in their physiological responses to drought, but the underlying causes are often unclear. Here we explored responses of radial growth to centennial drought events and sap flow (Fs) to seasonal drought in four mixed forests on either moist or drier sites in northwestern Switzerland. While the diffuse-porous species (Fagus sylvatica, Prunus avium, Tilia platyphyllos) showed marked growth reductions in 1976 and 2003, two known marker years for severe drought, growth of the two ring-porous species (Quercus petraea and Fraxinus excelsior) was less severely affected. During a dry early to midsummer, diffuse-porous species strongly reduced Fs at the two drier sites but not (or less so) at the two moister sites. Regardless of soil moisture availability, the deep- rooting, ring-porous trees invariably down-regulated Fs to 60–70% of their maxima in response to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and maintained similar fluxes across sites, irrespective of upper soil moisture conditions. A generalised additive model of normalised Fs as a function of VPD and soil matric potential yielded a drought- sensitivity ranking of Fs led by the two insensitive ring-porous species followed by the diffuse-porous trees (ordered by increasing sensitivity: Fraxinus excelsior < Quercus petraea < Prunus avium < Acer pseudoplatanus < Fagus sylvatica < Tilia platyphyllos). In conclusion, ring-porous tree species exhibited stronger VPD-driven stomatal control over Fs, and tree-ring formation was less sensitive to severe drought than in their neighbouring diffuse-porous species. The Fs regulation explained the greater drought tolerance of the ring-porous trees.

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  • 35.
    Bahr, Adam
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ellström, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Wallander, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nitrogen leaching and ectomycorrhizal nitrogen retention capacity in a Norway spruce forest fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus2015In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 390, no 1-2, p. 323-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To estimate the production of external ectomycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) in Norway spruce forests with varying nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels, and to relate this to the N retention capacity of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and N leaching.

    Methods

    Seasonal changes in EMF production (in ingrowth mesh bags) and soil water N (in suction lysimeters) were analyzed after fertilization with N or N combined with P. The EMF N retention capacity was estimated by the addition of isotopically labeled N to the mesh bags.

    Results

    No relationship was found between the seasonal variation in EMF growth and N leakage from the soil. However, in the mesh bags, the total assimilation of 15N by EMF was almost halved by N fertilization, while twice as much 15N leached through.

    Conclusions

    We found a high specific N assimilation capacity per unit weight of EMF mycelia. This was unaffected by N fertilization, but the total assimilation of N by EMF was drastically reduced due to reduced production of EMM. However, N-retaining processes other than N assimilation by EMF must be taken into account to explain the losses of N after fertilization.

  • 36.
    Beetz, Sabine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ericsson, Hillevi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Identifiering av granbarkborreskador med hjälp av satellitdata från Sentinel-22021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 37. Belbo, Helmer
    Efficiency of accumulating felling heads and harvesting heads in mechanized thinning of small diameter trees2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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  • 38.
    Benjaminsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Åslund, Victor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Höstplantering av tall - Ett komplement till vårplantering?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project was conducted in spring 2017, commissioned by Södra forest association, to investigate whether autumn planting of pine gives a good regeneration result and can be seen as an equivalent alternative to planting in spring. Traditionally, most of the plantings is completed in spring, but in order to achieve a more even distribution of labor over the year, it is interesting to investigate whether or not the autumn planting of pine can be successful.

    The survey was carried out as a survey study, where plants planted both in autumn 2014 and in spring 2015, formed the basis of data collection. A total of 38 sites were investigated, half of study object were planted in spring and half in autumn Sites were then compared in pairs regarded to plant type, site index, game treatment, soil moisture and blockiness. On each site 20 plots were laid out with a radius of 2.82, which gives a sample area of 25 m2. In each sample area following characteristics for each plant were measured; stem diameter, leeding shot length, total length, possible damage and possible dead plants and cause of plant death.

    Autumn planting of pine had a higher mortality than spring plantations, and the pine weevil caused highest mortality, followed by wildlife grazing and drought. The plantation grew slightly better for spring-planted seedlings, but it was only the leeding shot length that had a significant higher growth. The damage caused by pine weevil was similar for planting in autumn and spring, while the wildlife grazing was twice as high in autumn-planted areas compared to the spring planted. 

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  • 39.
    Bennmarker, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effektivare beslutsprocesser för ökat uttag av grot2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Biobränsle är viktigt för vår gröna omställning då det ger möjlighet att ersätta fossilt bränsle med förnyelsebart. Det finns en stor potential för att ökat uttag av grot, som är en form av biobränsle, i det svenska skogsbruket. I skogsbranschen har ett ökat fokus på minskade markskador förändrat skördarförarnas arbetssätt. Ris används i större omfattning till markförstärkning, vilket påverkar uttag av grot negativt. Anledning till att grot lämnas kvar på hugget kan vara både påverkbart och ej påverkbart. Genom att intervjua en fokusgrupp visar resultatet att en anledning till minskat uttag är att det inte i något beslutsled får någon konsekvens eller blir ifrågasatt om uttaget av grot inte blir som planerats. Det innebär att en stor mängd förnyelsebar energi i form av grot lämnas kvar i skogen. 

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  • 40.
    Berg, Linus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogsägares och jägares syn på älgbetesskador i Jönköpings län2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an important food source for the moose (Alces alces) during winter. Scots pine is also one of the most important tree species for the Swedish timber- and pulpwood industry. The debate between hunters and forest owners, their thoughts about the magnitude of the moose population, and the extent of browsing damage, is background to this study that examined how the groups forest owners who hunts, forest owners who doesn’t hunt and hunters who doesn’t own any forest land thought about browsing damages and its consequences in Jönköping County, Sweden. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyses were made on answers from 258 respondents. The results showed that the assessment of the extent of browsing damage differed significantly between the groups, where forest owners who doesn’t hunt assessed the extent of browsing damage the highest, hunters who doesn’t own any forest land assessed the extent as lowest, while forest owners who hunt was intermediate between the two other groups. The results also showed that there was a relation between how the respondents assessed the extent of browsing damage and their thoughts about how large the moose population should be.

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    Skogsägares och jägares syn på älgbetesskador i Jönköpings län
  • 41.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogsbruk2015In: Klimatsäkrat Skåne / [ed] Hall, M, Lund, E & Rummukainen, M, Lund, Sweden: Centrum för miljö- och klimatforskning, Lunds Universitet , 2015, p. 111-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Blennow, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Erika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Effekter av ett förändrat klimat på skogen och implikationer för skogsbruket: Bilaga B 19, Arbetsrapport 342007In: Sverige inför klimatförändringarna: hot och möjligheter, Fritzes, 2007, p. 1-71Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att klimatet kan komma att förändras påverkar svenskt skogsbruk. Skogen har i sig en direkt inverkan på klimatet samtidigt som skogsbruket kan behöva anpassas till de nya förhållandena. Ett osäkert klimat sätter brukandet av skogen i ett nytt läge som vi inte har någon tidigare erfarenhet av. Scenarier för framtida klimatutveckling är behäftade med stor osäkerhet och de förväntade effekterna på skogen blir således ännu mer osäkra. Trots detta kan man ändå förutsäga några sannolika huvuddrag i effekterna på den svenska skogen vid ett framtida ändrat klimat. En ökad potential för biomassaproduktion kan förväntas, liksom ökade möjligheter att använda nya arter i skogsbruket. Samtidigt ökar sannolikt risken för vissa typer av skador.

    Att väga eventuella fördelar i form av ökad produktion och ökade möjligheter i trädslagsval mot ökade risker för skador är viktigt för att ge samhället ett helhetsperspektiv och för att en större grupp ska ha möjlighet att ta till sig frågan. Det är också viktigt att i största möjliga mån kvantifiera eller ge ramarna i ekonomiska termer för hur det förändrade klimatet kan tänkas påverka skogsbruket. Vidare kan det vara styrande för prioritering av fortsatta forskningsarbeten och riskbedömning och för att prioritera åtgärder. Därför har vi försökt utifrån befintlig kunskap idag, konstruera en Tabell över den ekonomiska betydelsen och forskningsbarheten för olika risk/ämnesområden (se Tabell 17 sidan 39). De kanske största effekterna av ett förändrat klimat på ekonomin inom skogsbruket skulle vara om vi lyckas utnyttja den ökade produktionspotentialen. Det förutsätter att vi kan bemästra de negativa effekterna i första hand av en ökad risk för vindfällning, skadeangrepp från insekter och svampar. Mot bakgrund av skogsbrukets stora betydelse som naturresurs och industriell bas, så finner vi att det är viktigt att vi står rustade inför en framtid med såväl ökade hot som nya möjligheter.

    I denna skrift försöker vi beskriva och analysera tänkbara effekter av ett förändrat klimat på skogen och bedömt deras implikationer för produktionsskogsbruket. Andra aspekter än produktionsaspekter på skogsbruket har inte behandlats. Analysen sker i fyra steg. Vi inleder med att, så långt nuvarande kunskapsläge tillåter, kvantifiera effekterna på den skogliga primärproduktionen – tillväxten i skogen. I ett andra steg omsätts dessa effekter till effekter på produktionsekonomin i ett bestånd. Därefter analyseras tänkbara effekter på risken för stormfällning i skogen. I ett sista steg breddas diskussionen till en något mera spekulativ bild av tänkbara effekter på skogsbrukets ekonomi.

  • 43.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Johansson, U
    Nilsson, U
    Sallnäs, O
    Är anpassning av skogsskötseln nödvändigt i dagsläget för att minska skogsskador i ett förändrat klimat? Del 1 – analyser på bestådsnivå2012Report (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Johansson, Ulf
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Lund University.
    Lagergren, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Lundström, Anders
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Är anpassning av skogsskötseln nödvändigt i dagsläget för att minska skogsskador i ett förändrat klimat?: Del 2 –analyser på regional nivå2012Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Allen, H Lee
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Long-term responses of Scots pine and Norway spruce stands in Sweden to repeated fertilization and thinning2014In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 320, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent investigations have shown that annual wood production in Sweden can be increased by 30 million m3 per year in a long-term perspective (>50 years) by using new forest management methods such as new tree species or seedling materials. However, to meet the increased demands during the next 20 years, Sweden will have to rely on silvicultural methods available today. Growth in boreal and cold temperate forest is with only few exceptions limited by nutrients availability, primarily nitrogen, and one way to satisfy the increased demands in a short-term perspective is nitrogen fertilization. A set of thinning and fertilization experiments were started in the 1960’s in Scots pine and Norway spruce stands over the whole of Sweden representing different soil, moisture and vegetation types. We used data from these experiments to examine the long-term effects of repeated fertilization in thinned stands on growth, stand development, and yield. The 34 Scots pine sites and 13 Norway spruce sites included in our analyses had at least four treatment plots (no thinning, repeated light thinnings, repeated light thinnings with repeated N fertilization, and repeated light thinnings with repeated N + P fertilization). In northern Sweden, 100 kg N ha−1 and 150 kg N ha−1 were applied at each fertilization event for Scots pine and Norway spruce stands, respectively. In southern Sweden, 150 kg ha−1 N was applied in Scots pine stands and 200 kg ha−1 N in Norway spruce stands. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 100 kg ha−1. Several sites also included non-thinned fertilized plots. Pine stands but not spruce stands were responsive (up to 25% more growth depending of the attribute assessed) to repeated fertilization. Surprisingly, the non-thinned pine stands showed strong continuing response to fertilization throughout the 30+ year observation period resulting in higher cumulative volume response than the thinned stands. In thinned stands incremental volume response to fertilization continued but slowly diminished with time indicating that fertilization and thinning effects were less than additive. However, thinning and fertilization effects were additive for diameter growth. Fertilization accelerated stand development with significant shifts in diameter distributions to larger and potentially more valuable trees. Conclusively, repeated nitrogen fertilization is a silvicultural practice that will result in significant and sustained increases in Scots pine production.

  • 46.
    Bergh, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Kjartansson, Bjarki
    Karlsson, Matts
    Impact of climate change on the productivity of Silver birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine stands in Sweden with economic implications for timber production2010In: Ecological Bulletins, ISSN 0346-6868, Vol. 53, no 16, p. 185-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Berglind, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Skogsägares uppfattning om tillväxtdata i skogsbruksplaner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Skogens tillväxt är naturligtvis en central och grundläggande aspekt i skogsbruk

    och själva grunden för ett lönsamt skogsägande. Frågan är i vilken utsträckning

    skogsägare använder sig av data om tillväxt i skogsbruksplaner, och om de

    upplever att dessa uppgifter är väsentliga och användbara. Eller kan det finnas

    alternativa sätt att presentera tillväxt och kanske även annan typ av information i

    skogsbruksplanerna som bedöms som minst lika värdefull?

    Denna studie försökte främst ta reda på vilken tilltro skogsägarna fäster vid data

    om tillväxt i skogsbruksplaner. Svaren pekade mot att skogsägarna hyste en

    relativt stor tilltro till tillväxt angivet som ett numeriskt värde (3,47 av 5 poäng)

    och även till dess substantiella informationsvärde, men att även annan

    beståndsinformation som exempelvis åtgärdsförslag bedömdes som minst lika

    viktig.

    Felkällorna vid bestämning av ståndortsindex och bonitet kan vara ganska

    betydande, och det mest osäkra är vid översättning från ståndortsindex till

    bonitet. Detta kan sedan bidra till att ge en felaktig bild av värden på tillväxt,

    liksom det faktum att kvaliteten på, och användbarheten av inventeringsdata

    tydligt försämras över tid.

    Det är tydligt att det är svårt att sätta en sann siffra på kommande skoglig

    tillväxt. Kanske är det mest tillförlitligt att ange tillväxt som ett relativt värde i

    procent av aktuell stående volym, och som uppskattas för exempelvis fem år

    framåt? Att ange tillväxten i m3sk/ha och år kan ses som mera oprecist och

    momentant. Visarprocent kan vara en användbar indikator i skogsbruksplaner på

    den tillväxt som finns i bestånden, och som avser att genom rangordning jämföra

    olika bestånds räntabilitet. Ett annat sätt att beskriva beståndens utveckling mot

    timmerträd kan vara att skapa ett värde för formtalsutvecklingen, och att

    skogsägaren därmed på sikt kan jämföra dessa värden med tidigare mätningar.

    Det kan vara intressant för en skogsägare med en nyupprättad plan att få muntlig

    information om begreppen bonitet, tillväxt, visarprocent och formtal, och hur de

    konkret kan kopplas till den egna skogsmarken på både bestånds- och

    fastighetsnivå vid inventeringstillfället. Det bör vara ett bra läge vid den

    tidpunkten att erbjuda dessa upplysningar, troligen som en debiterad

    tilläggstjänst i samband med planläggningen.

    En tydlig insikt av studien är att det är just den säkerställda kvaliteten på

    beståndsdata, liksom hur färska inventeringsdata är, som är de enskilt viktigaste

    faktorerna för att få högkvalitativ information om inte minst skoglig tillväxt i

    skogsbruksplaner

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  • 48.
    Berglund, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Röjningsformen och stamantalets effekt på höjd- och diametertillväxt i toppröjda och konventionellt röjda tallbestånd.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Topping is a precommercial thinning (PCT) method where secondary stems are cut higher above the ground compared to conventional PCT. The secondary stems continue to live for a period and are supposed to compete with the main stems and promote their quality.

    The objective of the study was to compare the effect of PCT on height and diameter growth between topping and conventional PCT. The study also analysed the relationship between height and diameter growth and the number of stems after PCT.

    Nine topped stands and six conventional precommercially thinned stands were visited between February 28th and March 5. One sample plot per hectare was laid out in the investigated stands. In every sample plot the number of stems was counted and five main stems were measured for height, height growth since PCT, diameter and diameter growth since PCT.

    The results showed significantly higher effect on height growth after topping as compared to conventional PCT but no significant difference in the effect of diameter growth between topping and conventional PCT. After PCT the H/D quote (height/diameter quote) was higher (less taper) in topped stands and lower (larger taper) in conventional PCT.

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  • 49.
    Berglund, Mattias
    et al.
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Karin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    FRAS är avslutat – men det kommer mer2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Bergman, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Användning av det digitala läromedlet Skogslektioner2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En enkätstudie för lärare och elever gjordes för att undersöka

    användarupplevelsen av det digitala läromedlet Skogslektioner och barnens

    intresse för skog.

    Studien visade att 28% av fr 25 lärarrespondenterna använder läromedlet

    regelbundet och det är mest i naturvetenskapliga ämnen. Det var enbart en av

    24 svarande i lärarenkäten som var negativ till Skogslektioner och 84% angav

    att de trodde att materialet kan öka intresset för skogen os eleverna.

    I elevenkätens resultat framkom det att pojkarna var ute i skogen oftare än

    flickorna och de var även mer positiva till att jobba inom skogen i framtiden.

    Det gick inte att dra några slutsatser om boendesituationen påverkar deras

    intresse för skogen då alla de svarande eleverna är bosatta på landsbygden.

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