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  • 1.
    Arneson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Att motverka dehydrering hos äldre i teori och praktik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify similarities and differences in methods and aids used to prevent dehydraton in the elderly as identified from the scientific literature and from interviews with caretakers.

    Method: Literature studies was performed through the University Library search service ”OneSearch” and further from references in key papers. Three interviews were conducted on nursing assistants in two retirement homes and home care services, to offer some insight into the practical activities.

    Results : The following factors were identified as important in both literature and interviews: (1) knowledge of the elderly through documentation, (2) adapted approach when serving drinks after the elderly person's preferences and condition, (3) a homely environment with social interactions, (4) assessments of fluid intake, fluid balance and risk factors through attention, fluid registration and with the help of several other professional groups, and given the history of the elderly, (5) reminders for dementia and a accessibility of large amount of easily absorbed beverages consumed gradually during diarrhea and vomiting, (6) easy-to-use and specially designed drinking aids. For the following factors differences were obeserved between literature survey and interviews: (1) education for caregivers; limited to the investigated sites, (2) technical aids and swallowing therapy (dietary modifications, adapted head positions, swallowing training) in dysphagia; diet modification is used at the investigated sites (3) the importance of cup and jug colours; blue cups used in practice, no support in literature.

    Conclusions: Differences were found in terms of education and the use of swallowing therapy, assistive technology and infusions. Education, more frequent fluid registration and a complete swallowing therapy are improvement opportunites, some of them requires extra resources and/or clear guidelines. Acceptance of technical aids is not self-evident. Investigation of the effect of cup color and design that can encourage the elderly to drink could potentially be a way forward. The results of the interviews are not generalizable because they only aimed to give an insight into the practical activities. Most of the strategies that have been identified are "soft" in nature. It is difficult to get a clear picture of the efficiency of different methods. Methods that have been evaluated with good results in dysphagia and therefore offer potential to improve liquid intake, are swallowing therapy and stimulation of swallowing musculature.

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  • 2.
    Bergman, Ingrid-Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rosengren, K. Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Edfors, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    European wild boars and domestic pigs display different polymorphic patterns in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR2, TLR6, and TLR10 genes.2010In: International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health Paris, France, 31 May – 2 June 2010: The AGAH 2010 Abstract Book, 2010, p. 35-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Toll-like receptors (TLR) are vitally important pattern recognition receptors linking innate and adaptive immunity. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in human TLR genes have been associated with disease. There are few studies on associations between polymorphisms in TLR genes and disease in pigs, but the TLR2/TLR6 heterodimer is activated by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 is modulated in the presence of different Salmonella serovars. Porcine TLR1, TLR6, and TLR10 are located in a cluster on the p arm of chromosome 8, while TLR2 resides on the q arm. Previously, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for immune-related traits on pig chromosome 8, close to the KIT gene and the microsatellite S0225, respectively. In order to explore polymorphism in some TLR genes in European wild boars and domestic pigs, TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6 were sequenced in 25 wild boars, representing three populations, and in 15 domestic pigs of Hampshire, Landrace, and Large White origin. Similarly, TLR10 was sequenced in 15 wild boars and 15 domestic pigs. In TLR1 and TLR2, more SNP were present in the domestic pigs than in the wild boars. In TLR6, SNP numbers were similar in both animal groups, but the level of heterozygosity was higher in the domestic pigs than in the wild boars. In TLR10, again, more SNP were present in the domestic pigs, and a higher number of nonsynonymous SNP were detected in TLR10 compared to the other genes. This may suggest redundancy for TLR10 in pigs. 

  • 3.
    Doane, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    An eradication attempt of Mycoplasma spp. mastitis at a large dairy farm in NY State, USA2015In: IOCH 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Doane, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Antibiotic usage in 2013 on a dairy CAFO in NY State, USA2014In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, p. Articel ID: 24259-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial resistance is threatening humans and animals worldwide. Biosecurity and 1-year usage of antibiotics on a dairy concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in NY State, USA, were mapped: how much antibiotics were used, for what purpose, and whether any decrease could be warranted. Approximately 493 kg antibiotics was used, of which 376 kg was ionophores (monensin and lasalocides), 79 kg penicillin, 16.5 kg lincosamides, 8.0 kg aminoglycosides, 7.7 kg sulfamides, 3.4 kg cephalosporin, 2 kg macrolides, 0.7 kg amphenicols, and 0.1 kg fluoroquinolones. Usage reduction by 84% was realistic without compromising the animal welfare. Further reduction could be possible by improving the biosecurity and by utilizing antibiotic sensitivity testing.

  • 5.
    Edfors, Inger
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Torremorrel, M
    Univ Minnesota.
    Escherichia coli and Salmonella in pigs2010In: Breeding for Disease Resistance in Farm Animals / [ed] RFA Axford, S Bishop, F Nicholas, JB Owen, Walllingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 2010, 3rd, p. 232-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diarrhoea due to bacterial infections is a problem mainly in the young growing animal, including the pig. Among the bacteria that cause diarrhoea in pigs are various strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Considerable genetic variation in resistance/susceptibility has been found for both neonatal and post-weaning diarrhoea caused by E. coli carrying F4 fimbriae and post-weaning diarrhoea and oedema disease due to E. coli strains with F18 fimbriae. The loci for the receptors of both types of fimbriae have been mapped: the F4 receptor(s) to chromosome 13 (SSC13) and the F18 receptor to chromosome 6 (SSC6). Several candidate genes have been suggested for the F4 receptor, among them different mucine genes (MUC4, MUC13), and a very close association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase gene (FUT1) and the F18 receptor has been identified.Resistance to Salmonella infections in mice is associated with the antimicrobial activity of macrophages, and some studies have suggested that it is linked with polymorphism in the Nramp1 gene. The gene has been identified in several species including the pig, but data are so far lacking concerning association between polymorphism in the porcine gene and resistance-susceptibility to Salmonella infection. Using transcriptome profiles, several porcine genes that are differentially up or downregulated during Salmonella infection have been identified. Further studies of associations between polymorphisms in these genes and the outcome of Salmonella infection may facilitate the development of tools to identify carrier pigs, and lead towards identification of markers that can be used to select for resistant pigs.Breeding for increased disease resistance can be potentially performed in several ways; excluding susceptible breeding of animals after exposure, marker-assisted selection (MAS) based on closely linked loci or direct selection based on polymorphism in the causative gene. The rapid development in molecular genetics has provided dense genome maps and the tools to identify and study individual genes, both at the deoxyribonuclease acid (DNA) and the expression level. Overall use of genetic markers influencing disease traits is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. This number will grow as large-scale accurate disease phenotypes are collected in pedigreed populations. It is likely that many disease markers will contribute additively to the selection criteria and will be used as part of complex selection indices that will balance other economically significant traits.

  • 6.
    Haftor, Darek
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mirijamdotter, AnitaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Information and Communication Technologies, Society and Human Beings: Theory and Framework (Festschrift in honor of Gunilla Bradley)2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technologies, Society and Human Beings: Theory and Framework addresses the extensive area of effects of ICT on human beings and the interaction between ICT, individuals, organizations, and society. This premier reference source features contributions from over 45 distinguished researchers from around the world, each presenting high quality research on social informatics, human computer interaction, organizational behavior, and macro-ergonomics. This unique publication is perfect for students, teachers, researchers, engineers, practitioners, managers, policy-makers, and media alike.

  • 7.
    Idberg, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ulbaek, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Äldre kvinnors sexuella välbefinnande2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sexuality among older persons are just as important to quality of life as it is to younger people. The sexual ability and sexual needs will continue up in years. An active sex life is good for the sexual satisfaction.

    Objective: The objective was to examine factors that have a positive impact on older women's sexual satisfaction.

    Method: A quantitative method was used on already collected material, consisting of extensive surveys collected during the years of 2000-2003. The main variable sexual satisfaction has been tested against several relevant variables. The analytical methods used were chi-square test, univariate analysis and finally a multivariate analysis. We chose to examine the positive odds ratio, (POR), that affects the sexual satisfaction positively. Results: Among the respondents 25% estimated that they had very good sexual satisfaction. The results indicates to be appreciated at home and happy with ones own body affected the sexual satisfaction positively. Having a good mood and not have passed menopause also have a positive affect of the older womens sexual satisfaction.

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  • 8. Jacobsen, M
    et al.
    Kracht, SS
    Esteso, G
    Cirera, S
    Edfors, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Archibald, AL
    Bendixen, C
    Anderson, L
    Fredholm, M
    Jorgensen, CB
    Refined candidate region specified by haplotype sharing for Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility alleles in pigs.2010In: Animal Genetics, ISSN 0268-9146, E-ISSN 1365-2052, Vol. 41, p. 21-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P>Infection of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac is a major welfare problem and financial burden for the pig industry. Natural resistance to this infection is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, and a polymorphism in the MUC4 gene segregating for susceptibility/resistance is presently used in a selection programme by the Danish pig breeding industry. To elucidate the genetic background involved in E. coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs, a detailed haplotype map of the porcine candidate region was established. This region covers approximately 3.7 Mb. The material used for the study is a three generation family, where the founders are two Wild boars and eight Large White sows. All pigs have been phenotyped for susceptibility to F4ab/ac using an adhesion assay. Their haplotypes are known from segregation analysis using flanking markers. By a targeted approach, the candidate region was subjected to screening for polymorphisms, mainly focusing on intronic sequences. A total of 18 genes were partially sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in GP5, CENTB2, APOD, PCYT1A, OSTalpha, ZDHHC19, TFRC, ACK1, MUC4, MUC20, KIAA0226, LRCH3 and MUC13. Overall, 227 polymorphisms were discovered in the founder generation. The analysis revealed a large haplotype block, spanning at least 1.5 Mb around MUC4, to be associated with F4ab/ac susceptibility.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Betydelsen av den preanalytiska tiden vid analys av koncentration ammoniak hos hund och katt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ammoniak (NH3) är en kvävehaltig gas som genereras vid nedbrytning av proteiner, nukleinsyror och urea. NH3 elimineras till största del i levern genom ureacykeln och avlägsnas sedan via urinen. Normal fastekoncentration av NH3 i plasma hos hund och katt är < 98 μmol/L resp. < 95 μmol/L. Vid vissa sjukdomar som exempelvis leversjukdom kan det leda till hyperammonemi och livshotande tillstånd, därför är analysen av NH3-koncentrationen i plasma av klinisk relevans. Analys av koncentrationen NH3 i plasma är dock komplicerad då koncentrationen av analyten succesivt ökar in vitro. En vanlig avsatt tid för centrifugering och analys av NH3 är 15 minuter eftersom det har visat sig att koncentrationen av NH3 annars kan komma att bli starkt tidsberoende. Syftet med studien var att utvärdera hur koncentrationen av NH3 i plasma påverkas med tiden, från provtagning till centrifugering och analys av NH3.

    Koncentrationen av NH3 analyserades på lithium-heparin plasmaprover från 20 hundar och 7 katter i olika åldrar och kön. Tidsintervall för centrifugering och analys efter provtagning var 10 minuter, 1 timme och 6 timmar. Analyserna utfördes på instrumentet Catalyst Dx (Idexx laboratories, inc. Westbrook, Maine, USA) och genom en torrkemisk metod och analysbricka innehållandes ett reagens (bromfenolblått), som genom en reaktion med analyten gav ett blått färgomslag, intensiteten av detta avlästes spektrofotometriskt vid 587 nm. Resultaten visade att koncentrationen av NH3 i plasma ökade vid provförvaring över 1 timme hos både hund och katt. Prover som förvarades ocentrifugerade visade en högre koncentration av NH3 än de prover som centrifugerats direkt och förvarats som plasma. Därav vikten att hålla den avsatta analystiden.

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  • 10.
    Persson, Johanna
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Hälsoundervisning: Elevers syn på hälsa inom ämnet Idrott och hälsa2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fler unga människor än någonsin är idag överviktiga och stress och stressrelaterade symptom drabbar idag allt fler unga. Därför är det viktigt att unga människor får kunskaper om hur de på bästa sätt kan ta hand om sig själva.

     Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur elever som läser gymnasiets kurs Idrott och hälsa A ser på den hälsoundervisning de får.

    Detta är relevant för alla som arbetar som idrott och hälsa lärare för att kunna hitta en jämkning mellan kursplan och elevernas tankar och förkunskaper.

     Genom intervjuer och fokusintervjuer kom jag fram till att eleverna vill lära sig mer om stress och hur man hanterar stress samt om kost. Eleverna tycker däremot att idrottsläraren inte är rätt person att lära ut kunskaper om tobak.

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  • 11.
    Stedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Kalmar County Hospital;Uppsala University.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    McMahon, Barry J.
    University College Dublin, UK.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala University;Östersund Hospital.
    Carriage of CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in gulls across Europe2015In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), a group of enzymes conferring resistance to third generation cephalosporins have rapidly increased in Enterobacteriacae and pose a major challenge to human health care. Resistant isolates are common in domestic animals and clinical settings, but prevalence and genotype distribution varies on a geographical scale. Although ESBL genes are frequently detected in bacteria isolated from wildlife samples, ESBL dissemination of resistant bacteria to the environment is largely unknown. To address this, we used three closely related gull species as a model system and collected more than 3000 faecal samples during breeding times in nine European countries. Samples were screened for ESBL-producing bacteria, which were characterized to the level of ESBL genotype groups (SHV, TEM), or specific genotypes (CTX-M). Results: ESBL-producing bacteria were frequently detected in gulls (906 of 3158 samples, 28.7 %), with significant variation in prevalence rates between countries. Highest levels were found in Spain (74.8 %), The Netherlands (37.8 %) and England (27.1 %). Denmark and Poland represented the other extreme with no, or very few positive samples. Genotyping of CTX-M isolates identified 13 different variants, with bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(CTX-M-14) as the most frequently detected. In samples from England, Spain and Portugal, blaCTX-M-14 dominated, while in the rest of the sampled countries blaCTX-M-1 (except Sweden where bla(CTX-M-15) was dominant) was the most frequently detected genotype, a pattern similar to what is known from studies of human materials. Conclusions: CTX-M type ESBLs are common in the faecal microbiota from gulls across Europe. The gull ESBL genotype distribution was in large similar to published datasets from human and food-production animals in Europe. The data suggests that the environmental dissemination of ESBL is high from anthropogenic sources, and widespread occurrence of resistant bacteria in common migratory bird species utilizing urban and agricultural areas suggests that antibiotic resistance genes may also be spread through birds.

  • 12.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. marknadsföring.
    cooperation, competition and health care refrom: Challenges and opportunities for health care officials, professionals and patents2007Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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