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  • 1.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Usage of Biofuels in Sweden2013In: CSR-2 Catalyst for renewable sources: Fuel, Energy, Chemicals Book of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibrisk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, p. 5-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, biofuels have come into substantial use, in an extent that are claimed to be bigger than use of fossil oil. One driving force for this have been the CO2-tax that was introduced in 1991 (1). According to SVEBIO:s calculations (2) based on the Swedish Energy Agency´s prognosis, the total energy consumption in Sweden 2012 was 404 TWh. If the figure is broken down on the different energy sources (figure 1) one can see that the consumption roughly distribute in three different, equally sized, blocks, Biofuels, fossil fuels and water & nuclear power. The major use of the fossil fuels is for transport and the water & nuclear power is used as electric power. The main use of the biofuels is for heating in the industrial sector and as district heating. In 2009 the consumption from those two segments was 85 TWh, and 10 TWh of bio power was co-produced giving an average biomass to electricity efficiency of 12%. This indicates a substantial conversion potential from hot water production to combined heat and power (CHP) production. in Sweden 2013 broken down on the different energy sources. In 2006 the pulp, paper and sawmill industry accounted for 95% of the bio energy consumption in the industrial sector, and the major biofuel consumed was black liquor (5). However, the pulp and paper industries also produced the black liquor in their own processes. The major energy source (58%) for district heating during 2006 was woody biomass (chips, pellets etc.) followed by waste (24%), peat (6%) and others (12%) (5). The use of peat has probably decreased since 2006 since peat is no longer regarded as a renewable energy source. While the use of biofuel for heating purpose is well developed and the bio-power is expected to grow, the use in the transport sector is small, 9 TWh or 7% in 2011. The main consumption there is due to the mandatory addition (5%) of ethanol to gasoline and FAME to diesel (6). The Swedish authorities have announced plans to increase the renewable content to 7.5 % in 2015 on the way to fulfill the EU’s goal of 10 % renewable transportation fuels in 2020. However the new proposed fuel directive in EU says that a maximum of 5% renewable fuel may be produced from food sources like sugars and vegetable oils. Another bothersome fact is that, in principle, all rape seed oil produced in Sweden is consumed (95-97%) in the food sector, and consequently all FAME used (in principle) in Sweden is imported as FAME, rape seed oil or seed (6). In Sweden a new source of biodiesel have emerged, tall oil diesel. Tall oil is extracted from black liquor and refined into a diesel fraction (not FAME) and can be mixed into fossil diesel, i.e. Preem Evolution diesel. The SUNPINE plant in Piteå have a capacity of 100 000 metric tons of tall oil diesel per annum, while the total potential in all of Sweden is claimed to be 200 000 tons (7). 100 000 tons of tall oil corresponds to 1% of the total diesel consumption in Sweden. in Sweden for 2010 and a prognosis for 2014. (6). Accordingly, the profoundest task is to decrease the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector, and clearly, the first generation biofuels can´t do this on its own. Biogas is a fuel gas with high methane content that can be used in a similar way to natural gas; for instance for cooking, heating and as transportation fuel. Today biogas is produced by fermentation of waste (municipal waste, sludge, manure), but can be produced by gasification of biomass, for instance from forest residues such as branches and rots (GROT in Swedish). To get high efficiency in the production, the lower hydrocarbons, mainly methane, in the producer gas, should not be converted into synthesis gas. Instead a synthesis gas with high methane content is sought. This limits the drainage of chemically bonded energy, due to the exothermic reaction in the synthesis step (so called methanisation). In 2011 0.7 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden by fermentation of waste (6) and there were no production by gasification, at least not of economic importance. The potential seems to be large, though. In 2008 the total potential for biogas production, in Sweden, from waste by fermentation and gasification was estimated to 70 TWh (10 TWh fermentation and 60 TWh gasification) (8). This figure includes only different types of waste and no dedicated agricultural crops or dedicated forest harvest. Activities in the biogas sector, by gasification, in Sweden are the Göteborgs energi´s Gobigas project in Gothenburg and Eon´s Bio2G-project, now pending, in south of Sweden. If the producer gas is cleaned and upgraded into synthesis gas also other fuels could be produced. In Sweden methanol and DME productions are planned for in the Värmlands metanol-project and at Chemrecs DME production plant in Piteå.

  • 2.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola .
    Leveau, Andreas
    Biofuel-Solutions AB.
    Selective Catalysts for Glycerol Dehydration2013In: CRS-2, Catalysis for Renewable Sources: Fuel,Energy,ChemicalsBook of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     There has been an increased interest over the last decade for replacing fossil based feedstock’s with renewable ones. There are several such feedstock’s that are currently being investigated such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, triglycerides etc. However, when trying to perform selective reactions an as homogeneous feedstock as possible is preferable. One such feedstock example is glycerol, a side-product from biofuels production, which is a tri-alcohol and thus has much flexibility for reactions, e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, addition reactions etc. Glycerol in itself is a good starting point for fine chemicals production being non-toxic and available in rather large quantities [1-2]. A key reaction for glycerol valorisation is the dehydration of glycerol to form acrolein, an unsaturated C3 aldehyde, which may be used for producing acrylic acid, acrylonitrile and other important chemcial products. It has recently been shown that pore-condensation of glycerol is an issue under industrial like conditions, leading to liquid-phase reactions and speeding up the catalyst activity and selectivity loss [3]. To address this issue, modified catalyst materials have been prepared where the relevant micro and meso pores have been removed by thermal sintering; calculations have shown that pores below 45 Å may be subject to pore condensation. The catalyst starting material was a 10% WO3 by weight supported on ZrO2 in the form of beads 1–2 mm and it was thermally treated at 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 700°C, 800°C, 850°C, 900°C and 1000°C for 2 hours. The catalysts were characterised using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), Raman spectroscopy and ammonia temperature programmed desorption. The thermal sintered catalysts show first of all a decreasing BET surface area with sintering commencing between 700°C and 800°C when it decreases from the initial 71 m2/g to 62 m2/g and at 1000°C there is a mere 5 m2/g of surface area left. During sintering, the micro and meso-porosity is reduced as evidenced by MIP and depicted in figure 1. As may be seen in the figure, sintering decrease the amount of pores below and around 100 Å is reduced at a sintering temperature of 800°C and above. The most suitable catalyst based on the MIP appears to be the one sintered at 850°C which is further strengthened by the Raman analysis. There is a clear shift in the tungsten structure from monoclinic to triclinic between 850°C and 900°C and it is believed that the monoclinic phase is important for activity and selectivity. Further, the heat treatment shows that there is an increase in catalyst acidity measured as mmol NH3/(m2/g) but a decrease in the acid strength as evidenced by a decrease in the desorption peak maximum temperature.

     

  • 3.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund University .
    Poisoning of SCR Catalysts used in Municipal Waste Incineration Applications2017In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 60, no 17-18, p. 1306-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial vanadia, tungsta on titania SCRcatalyst was poisoned in a side stream in a waste incinerationplant. The effect of especially alkali metal poisoningwas observed resulting in a decreased activity at long timesof exposure. The deactivation after 2311 h was 36% whilethe decrease in surface area was only 7.6%. Thus the majorcause for deactivation was a chemical blocking of acidicsites by alkali metals. The activation–deactivation modelshowed excellent agreement with experimental data. Themodel suggests that the original adsorption sites, fromthe preparation of the catalyst, are rapidly deactivated butare replaced by a new population of adsorption sites dueto activation of the catalyst surface by sulphur compounds(SO2, SO3)in the flue gas.

  • 4.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    A Process for Producing Acrolein2012Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a process for dehydrating glycerol into acrolein over an acidic catalyst in gas phase in the presence of hydrogen, minimizing side reactions forming carbon deposits on the catalyst.

  • 5.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB ( Lund University/ Chemical Engineering) .
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Method for Hydrogenating 1,2-Unsaturated Carbonylic Compounds2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a method of hydrogenating an1,2-unsaturated carbonylic compound to obtain the corresponding saturated carbonylic compound in the presence of a palladium catalyst with heterogeneous distribution of palladium

  • 6.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution I Malmö AB (Lund University/ Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Process for Preparing Lower Hydrocarbons from Glycerol2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a process of preparing hydrocarbons from oxygenated hydrocarbons by use of at least two catalysts.

  • 7.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-solution i Malmö AB.
    Woods, Richard Root
    Primafuel Inc. (US).
    Porter, Brook
    Primafuel inc. (US).
    Gas Phase Process for Monoalcohol Production from Glycerol2008Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method of producing short chain alcohols from glycerol generated as a byproduct of biodiesel production is provided.

  • 8.
    Parsland, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Nickel-substituted Ba-hexaaluminates as catalysts stem-reforming of tars2013In: CRS-2, Catalysis for Renewable sources: Fuel. Energy, Chemicals Book of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, p. 62-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification of woody biomass converts the solid organic material into a gaseous product with a higher energy value and by this mean provide a more carbon neutral gaseous fuel than the common fossil ones. The produced raw gas mainly contains H2, CO, CO2, CH4, H2O and N2 together with organic (tars) and inorganic (alkali) components and fine particulates. The amount of impurities in the raw gas is dependent of the fuel properties and the gasification process technology and the quality of the resulting product gas determines its suitability for more advanced purposes. One of the major general concerns within the gasification processes is the formation of tars. Tars are a vast group of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and there are a number of definitions. On an EU/IEA/US-DOE discussion meeting in Brussels 1998, a number of experts agreed on a simplified classification of tars as “all organic contaminants with a molecular weight larger than benzene” [1]. The aim of this work is to investigate the steam reforming ability of a catalytic material not previously tested in this type of application in order to achieve an energy-efficient and high-quality gasification gas. The physical demands for an optimal tar-cracking and steam reforming catalyst is a high surface area, thermal stability, mechanical strength and a capacity to withstand high gas velocities, poisons such as H2S or NH3 and other impurities. Additionally it has to resist the process steam, as steam is well known to enhance sintering of porous materials. Nickel is a familiar catalyst for steam reforming. Hexaaluminate is a well-known catalyst support with properties that may answer to the requests of a non-abrasive, high-temperaturestable and steam-resistant catalytic material. It is a structural oxide where the general formula for the doped unit cell is MIMII(x)Al12-xO19-d where MI represents the mirror plane cation and MII is the aluminum site in the lattice where substitution may occur. MII is often a transition metal ion of the same size and charge as aluminum. MI is an ion located in the mirror plane of the structure and it is a large metal ion, often from the alkaline, alkaline earth or rare earth metal group. The stability and activity of these materials are often being related to the properties of MI and MII. The activity is highly dependent on the nature of the Al-substituted metal and partially by the nature of MII [2]. In our experiments we have tested the catalytic capacity of Ni-substituted Ba-hexaaluminates synthesised by the sol-gel method [3], both in a model set-up and in a gasification plant. In the lab-scale set-up different catalyst-formulae was tested under various temperatures for reforming of methyl-naphthalene. The results show a good catalytic activity for tar-breakdown. As expected the substitution level of Ni is clearly coupled to the reaction temperature. With the most highly substituted Ni-Bahexaaluminate at 900 °C all of the methyl-naphthalene has been broken downtogether with all of the resulting hydrocarbons. The Ni-Bahexaaluminate catalyst has recently also been tested in real process-gas.

    These results are still to be evaluated, but indicate a positive result.

     

     

  • 9.
    Svensson, Helena
    et al.
    Chemical Engineering, Lund University.
    Tunå, Per
    Chemical Engineering, Lund University.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Chemical Engineering, Lund University.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Modeling of soot formation during partial oxidation of producer gas2013In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 106, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soot formation in a reverse-flow partial-oxidation reactor for reforming of gasifier producer gas has been studied. The process was modeled using a detailed reaction mechanism to describe the kinetics of soot formation. The numerical model was validated against experimental data from the literature and showed good agreement with reported data. Nine cases with different gas compositions were simulated in order to study the effects of water, hydrogen and methane content of the gas. The CO and CO2 contents, as well as the tar content of the gas, were also varied to study their effects on soot formation. The results showed that the steam and hydrogen content of the inlet gas had less impact on the soot formation than expected, while the methane content greatly influenced the soot formation. Increasing the CO2 content of the gas reduced the amount of soot formed and gave a higher energy efficiency and methane conversion. In the case of no tar in the incoming gas the soot formation was significantly reduced. It can be concluded that removing the tar in an energy efficient way, prior to the partial oxidation reactor, will greatly reduce the amount of soot formed. Further investigation of tar reduction is needed and experimental research into this process is ongoing.

  • 10.
    Wollak, Birte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Evaluation of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) as substrate for biogas production in Kalmar County (Sweden)2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 111, p. 96-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is an over-fertilized inland sea; the blue mussels have potential to absorb nutrients as well as being a source of renewable energy in the form of biogas. The aim of this study was to evaluate technology to utilize blue mussels for biogas production in a pilot scale. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were anaerobically digested in a two-stage digestion process (430 L), consisting of a percolation bed and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Frozen mussels with shells were placed in the percolation bed and digestion was performed at 36 oC during 37 days. The methane potential achieved with this technique was 310 L kg-1 volatile solid substances (273.15 K, 101.3 kPa). This result suggests that blue mussels can be efficiently digested in a larger scale and have the potential of contributing to a sustainable energy mix in the Baltic region and at the same time decrease the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea.  No addition of nutrients and no pretreatment of the mussels (peeling) were needed.

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