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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hermansson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilka faktorer upplevs som begränsande för unga kvinnors sexualitet utifrån ett genuspsykologiskt perspektiv?: En studie med tio intervjuer av kvinnor i åldrarna 25-30 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om och i sådana fall vilka faktorer som unga heterosexuella kvinnor upplevde som begränsande för sin sexualitet. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer undersöktes i denna kvalitativa studie hur dessa deltagare upplevde sin sexualitet utifrån tre huvudområden; sociala strukturer, normer samt psykisk hälsa. Teorin “sexual scripting theory” applicerades på de tre huvudområdena, då paralleller drogs mellan dessa och teorins tre huvudbegrepp “cultural scripts”, “interpersonal scripts” och “intrapsychic scripts”. Resultatet av denna studie visade att patriarkala strukturer, samhällsideal, jämförelser med andra, förväntningar och föreställningar om kvinnans utseende samt beteende var hämmande för deltagarnas sexualitet. Resultatet visade även att det fanns tydliga samband mellan sexualiteten och den psykiska hälsan. Negativa sexuella erfarenheter upplevdes påverka deltagarnas psykiska hälsa och blev hämmande för framtida sexuella upplevelser. Många begränsande faktorer identifierades utifrån resultatet i denna studie och en inblick i deltagarnas förhållande till sin sexualitet utforskades. 

  • 2.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Implicit obesity bias predicts real hiring discrimination in the labor market2011In: Annual meeting of The Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Moral concerns are greater for temporally distant events and are moderated by value strength2009In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 261-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research examines the impact of temporal distance on moral concerns in situations where selfish motives clash with altruistic considerations. Drawing upon Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) which posits that abstract, high-level features of events and social values take on more weight with greater temporal distance, we hypothesized that moral concerns should be higher for temporally distant situations. The results from five experiments supported this conjecture. People indicated they would be more likely to choose altruistic over selfish behaviors, reported they would feel more guilty about engaging in selfish behavior, thought acting selfishly would be more immoral, and were more likely to commit to altruistic behavior when thinking about distant versus near future events. Moreover, as predicted, temporal distance primarily enhanced moral concerns among individuals with high moral value strength. Support was also obtained in favor of the assumption that value salience was responsible for the temporal distance effect on moral concerns. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  • 4.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Temporal construal and moral motivation2013In: Handbook of Moral Motivation: Theories, Models, Applications / [ed] K. Heinrichs, F. Oser & T Lovat, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013, p. 181-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Temporal Distance and Moral Concerns: Future Morally Questionable Behavior is Perceived as More Wrong and Evokes Stronger Prosocial Intentions2009In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research on temporal construal has shown that core values become more salient when people think about distant- as compared to near-future events. The present research shows that greater temporal distance of an event also results in greater moral concern. More specifically, it was found that people make harsher moral judgments of others' distant-future morally questionable behavior than near-future morally questionable behavior. Moreover, it was shown that people increasingly attribute distant vs. near future behavior to abstract dispositional relative to concrete situational causes, and that this attribution bias is partially responsible for the temporal distance effect on moral judgments.

  • 6.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Why people with an eye toward the future are more moral: The role of abstract thinking2013In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do future-oriented people show greater moral concern than present-oriented people? Consistent with construal level theory (CLT; Trope & Liberman, 2003), we find that future-oriented people construe morally relevant actions at a higher level of abstraction, which clarifies their larger implications. Moreover, we show that level of construal partially explains the relationship between individual differences in temporal orientation and moral judgments. These findings support CLT and contribute to our understanding of moral psychology, as they are the first to show how individual differences pertaining to psychological distance relate to abstract thinking and moral judgments.

  • 7.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    The Effects of Time and Abstraction on Moral Concerns2009Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    The Influence of Temporal Distance on Justice and Care Morality2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.

  • 9.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Emotions in time: Moral emotions appear more intense with temporal distance2012In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 181-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University.
    Gender differences in implicit moral orientation associations: The justice and care debate revisited2011In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 17, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing new measures (Implicit Association Test) to study the classic issue of moralorientations, we predicted and found gender differences in implicit associations to the conceptsof justice and care. Specifically, we found that men more strongly associate justice vs. care withimportance and with themselves than women. However, participants’ explicit ratings did notreveal any clear patterns of gender differences, which is consistent with previous studies.Implications for social psychological theory and research on morality are discussed.

  • 11.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Look at yourself!: Visual perspective influences moral judgment by level of mental construal2013In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 42-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research (Libby, Shaeffer, & Eibach, 2009) has established that a third-person (external) visual perspective elicitsmore abstract processing than a first-person (inner) perspective. Because many moral principles constitute abstract psychological constructs,we predicted that they should weigh more heavily when people adopt a third-person visual perspective. In two experiments weshow that a third- (vs. first-) person visual perspective leads to harsher judgments of one’s own morally questionable actions. Moreover,we demonstrate that this effect can be partially explained by level of mental construal. The present research suggests that simple visualperspective techniques may be used to promote moral behavior.

  • 12.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold and Incompetent Eric: A harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold And Incompetent Eric: The Harsh Equation of Real-life Hiring Discrimination2012In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

  • 14.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

  • 15.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Descriptive social norms and charitable giving: the power of local norms2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By conducting a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., “this is what most people do”) leads to more charitable giving compared to industry standard appeals. Moreover, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one’s immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one’s local environment. University students received a charity organization’s information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimental descriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable giving than conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

  • 16.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using descriptive social norms to increase charitable giving: The power of local norms2016In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 52, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., "this is what most people do") increases charitable giving. Additionally, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one's immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one's local environment. University students received a charity organization's information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimentaldescriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable givingthan conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

  • 17.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Etnicitet och övervikt: implicita arbetsrelaterade fördomar i Sverige2007Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stening, Kent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Does physical pain impair abstract thinking?2017In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 748-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to think abstractly constitutes a fundamental dimension of human cognition. Although abstraction has been extensively studied, its emotional and affective antecedents have been largely overlooked. One experiment was conducted to examine whether physical pain affects abstraction. Drawing on Construal Level Theory [Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review117, 440–463] and Loewenstein’s [(1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes65, 272–292] visceral factors theory, we hypothesised that pain impairs abstraction because pain constricts people’s mental horizons and lead to a concrete, inward-focus toward oneself in the here and now. Physical pain was manipulated between subjects (N = 150). The participants either kept their left hand immersed in cold (painful) water or neutral (painless) water while we measured abstract versus concrete behaviour identification, categorisation, and perceptual processing. Bayesian statistical analyses indicate substantial evidence against the hypothesis that pain impairs abstraction. In contrast to many other previously studied cognitive outcomes (e.g. attention), abstraction appears to be largely immune to acute, experimentally induced pain.

  • 19.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Möller, Kristiina
    Archer, Trevor
    Moral reasoning:: The influence of affective personality, dilemma content and gender2006In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 1259-1276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the influence of affective personality, perfectionism, gender, arousal and dilemma content on moral reasoning. 264 participants were presented with moral dilemmas to which they had to provide a solution that reflected various degrees of justice and care. The results indicated that a) affective personality had an effect on moral reasoning, b) female participants reported higher levels of care morality than did male participants, c) gender interacted with perfectionism in the production of moral standpoints, d) dilemma content exerted a strong effect on the participants' use of moral strategy. It was concluded that although moral reasoning appears to be governed primarily by the dilemma content at hand, an individual's moral solutions are influenced by gender and affective state.

  • 20.
    Ahlström, Salina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anställningsformer och upplevd stress: Påverkar individers anställningsvillkor deras upplevda stressnivå?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan upplevd stress och anställningsform. Studien presenterade tre hypoteser: 1) Individer med fast anställning upplever mindre stress än individer med andra anställningsformer, 2) Anställningsform/anställningsvillkor påverkar upplevd stress i skalan PSS-14, 3) Kön, ålder, utbildning, arbetstid och familjesituation påverkar upplevd stress av arbetsförhållanden enligt stressskalan PSS-14. Studien genomfördes med hjälp av en kvantitativt enkätundersökning som distributerades online med stresskalan PSS-14 som underlag. Totalt besvarade 157 personer enkäten om stress och arbete, 122 deltagare angav att de var kvinnor och 34 män. T-test för oberoende variabler genomfördes. T-testen visade att det inte fanns signifikanta skillnader mellan anställningsform, ålders, civilstånd, kön eller arbetstid.

  • 21.
    Ajdahi, Sami
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stolthet-statusmodellen och attityder till utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om hur gymnasielevers upplevelser av stolthet och social status korrelerar med deras attityder till utbildning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research by Cheng, Tracy and Henrich (2010) has identified relationships betweentwo facets of pride and two different strategies to attain social status. These relationships havebeen conceptualized to a pride-status model. The model has been tested on an Americanpopulation and only in one study has it been tested in a Swedish context. Moreover, there areno previous studies on the possible relationship between the pride-status model and positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education. Therefore, the purposes of this study were toinvestigate if the pride-status model is valid on a Swedish population and investigate how thedifferent status strategies and facets of pride relate to positive attitudes towards post-secondary education. In order to examine this, a convenience sample consisting of 609students in high school preparing for post-secondary education rated subjective experiences offacets of pride, social status strategies and attitudes towards post-secondary education. Thestudents’ ratings were correlated with each other and the difference between the correlationswas examined. The findings show that the pride-status model is partly valid on a Swedishpopulation and that the status strategies correlated significantly with positive attitudes towardspost-secondary education. The facets of pride were significantly correlated with positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education to some extent. Possible explanations of thefindings are discussed together with a methodology discussion and proposals for futureresearch within the area of the pride-status model and attitudes towards education.

  • 22.
    Al Nima, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Archer, Trevor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, S-40020 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e73265-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods: Two hundred and two university students (males = 93, females = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings: The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion: The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  • 23.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Qin, Jiang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Hong, Zhang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Mental Health in the left-behind Children in the Fujian Province of China2013In: Journal of Public Mental Health, ISSN 1746-5729, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - An increasing number of people are migrating within the borders of China. Some migrants have to leave their children behind, and 58,000,000 children are estimated to be living as left-behind children. Earlier studies have found severe mental problems in left-behind children, but different factors could influence their mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health of these left-behind children and to determine possible influencing factors.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were collected in one province of the P R of China with a validated instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to investigate behavior in 13- to 15-year old children.

    Findings - No significant difference was found in total difficulty score and in any subscale score of SDQ when we compared left-behind children with children who were not left behind. A significant difference in emotional difficulty subscale score was found between girls who were left behind and girls who were not. Some socio-economic factors such as poor family economy and living with relatives, friends or grandparents, were identified as risk factors.

    Originality/value - When strategies for support of the mental health in left-behind children are developed, they will need to be individualized according to the gender, social and economic situation and focused on emotional and conduct problems.

  • 24.
    Alexandersson, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress inom Räddningstjänsten: En studie om samband mellan krav, kontroll, socialt stöd och brandmäns upplevda stressnivå.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services have an important function in society and aims to deliver effective emergency response to the public's benefit. Meanwhile, the firefighting profession a high-risk profession where firefighters are exposed to diseases caused by the physical environment as various forms of cancers. They are also exposed to organizational health risks like negative stress, which is the focus of this paper. The aim of the thesis was to make clear whether there is a relationship between psychosocial work environment and perceived stress among firefighters. The issue was whether the levels of demands, control and social support can predict firemens perceived stress level? A total of 67 firefighters from two different cities in southern Sweden participated. The independent variables were demands, control and social support, measured with Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Swedish version of the Perceived Stress Scale. Demand and social support were significant predictors. Demand had a positive relationship with stress and social support was negative associated with stress. Control could not predict stress. This result is consistent to some extent with previous research.

  • 25.
    Alic, Mona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur individen upplever sig själv efter att ha varit sjukskriven på grund av stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur individen upplever sig själv efter att ha varit sjukskriven på grund av stress. Detta undersöktes genom intervjuer med fyra deltagare och det transkriberade materialet analyserades med tematisk analys (TA). Det resulterade i fyra huvudteman som var: Otydliga gränser; Bilden utåt; Blicken inåt; Inre ledarskap. Resultatet visade att deltagarna upplevde en förändring hos sig själva efter senaste sjukskrivningen. Genom reflektion utvecklade de sin medvetenhet om vem de är som personer och vilka behov de har och då tydliggjordes även gränserna för hur höga krav de kunde ställa på sig själva. De upptäckte även var gränsen gick för deras egen kapacitet och behovet av återhämtning samt att självkontrollen ökade när de tillät sig visa sårbarhet. Resultatet bekräftar tidigare forskning om att individen kan bli starkare av motgångar och att samtal och reflektion hjälper individen att utvecklas.   

  • 26.
    Alic, Sabina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundberg, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Föräldrastress bland universitetsstuderande föräldrar: En jämförelse mellan mödrar och fäder2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Alijagic, Arnel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nessler, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gymnasielärares upplevelse av arbetsrelaterad stress: En kvalitativ studie i hur gymnasielärare upplever arbetsrelaterad stress och hur den stress hanteras2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan utgör en av samhällets största arbetsplatser och är en organisation under ständig förändring. Läroplaner speglar samhällets utveckling och därmed ställs krav på fortlöpande uppdatering av kursplaner och pedagogiska tillvägagångssätt. Trots behov av ständig utveckling är skolan ett av samhällets störst drabbade område gällande nedskärningar.

    Föreliggande studie avsåg att genom kvalitativ metod och semistrukturerad intervju undersöka gymnasielärares upplevelse av arbetsrelaterad stress och hur den arbetsrelaterade stressen hanterades.

    Föreliggande studie visade på tre huvudresultat. Ett resultat visade att lärare hade en upplevd ökad arbetsbelastning där ansvaret och arbetsuppgifterna ökat och där stor tidsbrist rådde gällande planering och uppföljning. Studien visade även att flertalet av lärarna upplevde, eller har upplevt både fysiologiska och psykiska stressreaktioner av olika slag som resultat av arbetsrelaterade stress. Slutligen visade studien att flera utav de deltagande lärarna använde sig av aktiva copingstrategier både i form av problemfokuserad- och känslofokuserad coping för att hantera yrkets arbetsrelaterade stress.

  • 28.
    Amang, Joan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Syskonplacering, förändringsbenägenhet och konfliktbenägenhet på arbetsplatsen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan syskonplacering med föränd-ringsbenägenhet och konfliktbenägenhet i arbetslivet. 214 arbetstagare från 8 olika arbetsplat-ser deltog i en enkätundersökning, varav 102 män och 112 kvinnor med en medelålder på 32,62 år (sd=10,64). Frågeställning och hypoteser konstruerades utifrån Sulloways (1996) teorier om syskonplacering. Man antar specifika nischer för att få föräldrarnas maximala uppmärksamhet i strävan för överlevnad och detta i sin tur påverkar formningen av vår per-sonlighet. Förutom demografiska frågor kombinerades två färdigkonstruerade enkäter (WCS och RTC) som var avsedda att mäta konfliktbenägenhet och förändringsbenägenhet. Resulta-tet visade signifikant samband mellan konfliktbenägenhet och förändringsbenägenhet, med andra ord ju mer konfliktbenägen man var desto mindre förändringsbenägen var man. Vidare samspelade syskonplacering med de beroende variablerna där det visade sig att endabarn hade signifikant högre konfliktbenägenhet och var mindre förändringsbenägna i denna studie. Ju senare man var född i syskonskaran desto mer konfliktbenägen var man på arbetsplatsen med undantag av yngstabarn som efterliknade äldstabarn. Vad gäller förändringsbenägenhet fanns det endast signifikant skillnad för mellanbarn det vill säga att mellanbarn var mer föränd-ringsbenägna på arbetet. Därmed fanns det stöd för Sulloways teori om syskonplacering och dess påverkan på personlighetsutveckling.

  • 29.
    Amarasinghe, Jayathu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Saying Hejsan or Suffering in Silence?: What experiences do International Students have of mental health issues while studying in Sweden?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine international students’ experiences of mental health issues during their studies in Sweden. These experiences are seldom represented in academic literature, and thus this paper aims to recount international students’ experiences of mental health issues, the methods in which they handle those issues and the role that Swedish culture, people and institutions have played in those experiences. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with international students currently enrolled at the Linnaeus University in Växjö, Sweden – and subsequently analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. The results were summarized in four main themes; Acculturation, Mental Health, Under-utilization of Healthcare Facilities and Loneliness. The study concludes that international students may suffer from mental health issues that go undetected by university officials and mental health resources, and that universities may benefit from investing in programs to identify and offer support towards students in general, and international students in particular.

  • 30.
    Anderson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sahlberg, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Den emotionella intelligensens betydelse för konflikthantering hos studenter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict management is an area, which is relatively poorly researched especially in a university environment. In the present study, the effect of level of emotional intelligence on preference for varying styles of conflict management is investigated. The research instruments “The Assessing Emotion Scale” and “The Dutch Test for Conflict Handling” were given to 100 students in order to assess level of emotional intelligence and preference for conflict management style. Results indicated that neither level of emotional intelligence nor conflict management styles were statistically significantly influenced by gender. A strong association between “Problemsolving” and “Compromising” to level of emotional intelligence was seen in women. In men, this association was not seen. The results of this study indicate that styles to resolve conflict were not directly gender related, but rather related to the qualities shown by each individual. Additionally, individuals with a higher level of emotional intelligence preferred “Problemsolving” and “Compromising” in conflict management.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Allis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Jensdotter, Stinne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lika barn...: Könsskillnader i attityder till okända människor beroende på kön och etnicitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien, vilken omfattade 177 svenskfödda studenter, utvecklades och kontrollerades enegenkonstruerad enkät: SAPS. Även könsskillnader i fördomar mot okända personers etnicitetoch kön samt könsskillnader i Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) undersöktes. Fördomarmättes med SAPS och SDO mättes med en svensk översättning av SDO scale (Pratto et al.,1994). SDO scale användes också som validitetskontroll av SAPS. Statistisk prövning medSpearmans Rho visade på en negativ korrelation mellan SAPS och SDO scale. ANCOVAvisade en stark tendens till interaktionseffekt mellan bedömarens kön och objektets etnicitet,och en huvudeffekt av kön återfanns. Ingen interaktionseffekt återfanns mellan bedömarensoch objektets kön vid testning med ANOVA. Mann-Whitney U-test visade på signifikanthögre värden på SDO hos de manliga deltagarna än hos de kvinnliga. Resultaten diskuterasmed stöd i tidigare forskning om fördomar.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Second language acquisition in 6- to 8-year-old native Spanish-speaking children: ERP studies of phonological awareness, semantics, and syntax2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people in the world and about a fifth of all school-aged Americans speak at least two languages. Nevertheless, little is known about second language (L2) processing in development, even though language proficiency is strongly related to success in almost all domains. Whereas behavioral studies of L2 acquisition in children are abundant, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing typically are limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. Research on bilingual adults suggests that age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency have different effects on different aspects of L2 processing. The present study therefore recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to index processes of phonological awareness (Rhyming effect: RE), semantics (N400), and syntax (LAN, P600) in bilingual and monolingual children 6-8 years of age. Even though behaviorally, bilingual children with an average AoA of 4 years had lower English proficiency than monolingual children, proficiency predicted similar differences in ERPs across groups: greater proficiency was linked with shorter latencies and higher amplitudes of all ERP components. Latency in these cases represents speed of processing while amplitude of ERP effects in children can be thought of as an indication of detection of the introduced violations. The appearance of the anterior rhyming effect, latency of the posterior rhyming effect, along with the distribution of the anterior ERP effect for phrase structure violations were related to AoA. More specifically, bilingual 6- to 8-year olds of higher English proficiency processed rhyming nonwords slower than 3- to 5-year-old monolingual children, which could have a strong impact on later vocabulary acquisition. Differences across lingualism groups in distribution of the anterior negativity elicited by phrase structure violations could indicate different neural generators for processing of syntax. Noteworthy is that differences in processing as illustrated by these ERP effects were recorded even though in both these cases bilingual children's English proficiency were within the normal range expected of monolingual children of similar age. Early acquisition was thus important for processing of rhyming and for more automatic syntactic processing as revealed by differences in the anterior negativity.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Monolingual and bilingual 6-8 year old children display N400 responses mediated by proficiency and age of acquisition2009In: 2009 SRCD Biennial Meeting, Society for Research in Child Development: Denver, Colorado, USA, April 2-4, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Monolingual and bilingual 6-8 year old children display N400 responses differentially mediated by proficiency and age of acquisition2009In: NLC 2009 Scientific Program: The Neurobiology of Language Conference, Marriott Downtown Hotel, 540 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, US, 2009, p. 45-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have consistently found an N400 effect elicited by violations of semantic expectancy in monolingual adults (Kutas & Hilllyard, 1980), bilingual adults (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) and monolingual children (Holcomb, Coffey, & Neville, 1992). In adults, when the second language is acquired before the age of 11 years, no differences are found in the amplitude, latency, or distribution of the N400 effect when compared to monolinguals. However, if the age of acquisition (AOA) is later than 11 years, an increase in peak latency is often reported (e.g. Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996). Studies of semantic processing in monolingual children have found a more widely distributed N400 effect compared to monolingual adults’. In addition, both the amplitude and onset latency are found to decrease with age (Holcomb, Coffey, & Neville, 1992).

    In order to begin investigating the factors important in establishing normal semantic processing in bilinguals, we compared the N400 responses to semantic anomalies in 6-8 year old monolingual English speakers and in native Spanish speaking children who began acquiring English at about 4 years of age. To examine the effects of proficiency, each group was divided into higher and lower proficiency groups. In addition bilinguals and monolinguals individually matched on age and proficiency were compared. ERPs were recorded while children listened to naturally spoken English sentences that were either canonical or that were semantic anomalies (p = .5) and watched an accompanying claymation movie. 

    Analyses of the N400 mean amplitude indicated a typical N400 response for both groups, though that of monolingual children was larger, more widespread, and had an earlier onset (180msec) in comparison with that of bilingual children (320msec). Though these children were matched on age they differed in proficiency (Receptive Language) and Socioeconomic status (SES; as measured by maternal education). When dividing children by proficiency within each group similar relationships with amplitude, distribution, and onset were found. (Higher and lower proficiency bilingual groups did not differ on AOA). When comparing monolingual and bilingual children that were individually matched on age and proficiency, N400 onset latency was similar (320msec) but the distribution differed across groups. More specifically, monolingual children showed a larger and more widespread effect that was largest over medial central sites while bilingual children had an effect that was largest over posterior sites. These results suggest that speed of semantic processing in children between 6 and 8 years of age is affected by proficiency rather than AOA, while the distribution of the effect could be affected by differences in AOA and/or SES across groups. No differences in the N400 effect are found comparing monolingual adults and bilingual adults who began acquiring their second language before age 11 (Weber-Fox, & Neville, 1996). Therefore, we are continuing to study the development of semantic processes indexed by the N400 in bilingual children in order to determine at what proficiency level and/or years of experience of the second language does the difference between monolingual and bilingual late learners disappear.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    The role of age of acquisition and proficiency on nonword rhyming in 6- to 8-year-old bilingual children2013In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 20th Annual Meeting, April 13-16, 2013, Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California: 2013 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2013, p. 75-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech signals change rapidly and timing differences as small as 50 ms can be critical for distinguishing between minimal pairs (e.g., bat-pat). Thus, fast phonological processing is important for understanding speech. Strong and positive relationships between phonological awareness (PA, e.g., the ability to recognize rhymes) and vocabulary size have been widely reported in both monolingual and bilingual children. Though PA has been explored with behavioral studies in bilingual children, online processing of phonology has not. ERPs were measured in 6- to 8-year-old native Spanish speaking children with English as their second language listening to rhyming and nonrhyming pairs of nonsense words with English phonology. Nonwords were used to help children focus on phonological rather than semantic processing. Though bilingual 6- to 8-year olds were expected to recognize rhymes, neurocognitive measures of rhyme processing failed to establish the anterior effect (an increased negativity for rhyming targets) previously reported in monolingual children. Further, the posterior rhyming effect (a decreased negativity for rhyming targets) was evident only in the group with higher English proficiency, within the normal range for monolingual children. In this group the posterior rhyming effect had a longer latency than what was observed in younger monolingual children. The results suggest that even though bilingual children do well on behavioral tests of PA, processing of sub-syllabic phonology is slowed and more variable in their second language. Proficiency and age of acquisition are more important for mature phonological processing than previous behavioral studies have suggested.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    An ERP study of the relationship between verb semantics and events2016In: The 8th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how events are described, but little is known about how semantics interacts with online event processing. This study targets this question examining placement events in Swedish. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs for events where objects have support from below: sätta ’set’, ställa ’stand’, and lägga ’lay’. Swedish lacks a superordinate general term like English put (Gullberg & Burenhult, 2011). For every placement event the verb choice depends on object properties, and the direction of the object’s extension from the ground. We use event-related potentials (ERPs) and appropriateness ratings of verb usage to investigate the interaction between verb semantics and event properties. Typically violations of semantic congruency positively affect the amplitude of the N400 (Kutas & Hillyard, 1980). Studies also report a centro-parietal positivity (P600) when real-world knowledge is violated and verbs are incongruous to preceding contexts (Kuperberg, 2007, for a review). Previous ERP studies of visually presented images or movies of actions and events have reported an N400 followed by a P600 when the function of an object is violated (e.g., using a screwdriver as a key, Bach, et al., 2009; Balconi & Caldiroli, 2011).

    Method: Native speakers (N = 24, 18-35 years) watched still images of placement events followed by sentences visually presented word by word. Sentences described the depicted events while ERPs were recorded and time-locked to the placement verbs. Participants also did an appropriateness rating offline. Object properties (Base/Without base), symmetry (Sym/Asym), and orientation from the ground (Vertical/Horizontal) were varied and sentences with the three different placement verbs were combined with each image in a cross-subject design.

    Results: Base was important for appropriateness ratings of verb usage with symmetric objects while orientation was important for asymmetric objects. In contrast, there were no ERP effects to base (Base/Without) for symmetric objects. Asymmetric-base objects showed increased N400s and P600s with verbs incongruent with the depicted events (orientation, e.g., ‘lay’ with vertical glass). Asymmetric-Without base elicited an increased P600 when verbs were incongruent to depicted events when horizontally oriented (e.g., ‘set’ with horizontal avocado), but an increased N400 when verbs were incongruent to the atypical vertical placement of the objects (e.g., ‘lay’ with a vertical avocado).

    Discussion: Results showed an increased amplitude of both ERP effects (N400/P600) when placement verbs were incongruent with typical placement scenarios of objects that in the real-world are placed vertically or horizontally (Asymmetric-Base, e.g., a candle; cf. Bach et al., 2009). However, for objects without a base the anterior negativity was increased with a mismatch between the verb and the presented images (the depicted events), while the P600 increased for mismatches between the verb and typical real-world events. These results suggest the anterior N400 and the P600 indeed index different relationships with event processing as previously suggested for images (Sitnikova, et al., 2008). Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the processing of verb meaning in language cannot be separated from knowledge of object handling in the real world (cf., Van Berkum, et al., 2008).

  • 37.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Event processing is affected by an interaction between actual and canonical event properties and language: a visual ERP study2016In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 23rd Annual Meeting, April 2-5, 2016, New York Hilton Midtown, New York City, New York: 2016 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2016, p. 94-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how events are described, but little is known about how language interacts with online event processing. To explore this question we examined placement events in Swedish. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs, sätta, ‘set’, ställa ‘stand’, lägga, ‘lay’, and lacks a superordinate general term like English put (Gullberg & Burenhult, 2011; Viberg, 1999). Every placement event in Swedish must be labelled by one of the three verbs, whose choice depends on object properties, and the object's relationship to the ground. The current study investigates how sensitive Swedes are to the relationship between event properties and verb labels. Native speakers (N = 20, 18-35-years) watched images of a hand placing an object on a table followed by visually presented sentences that were either congruent or incongruent with the images while event-related potentials were recorded and time-locked to the placement verbs. We varied object properties such as ± base (e.g., glass/orange), spatial extension (e.g., tall/short glass), and orientation (vertical/horizontal). The three verbs were combined with each image in a cross-subject design. The results showed that, as expected, incongruent picture-verb combinations elicited an increased centro-medial N400 modulated by verb appropriateness. Congruent picture-verb combinations also elicited an N400 when objects were placed in non-canonical positions (e.g. laying a glass on its side), suggesting that native placement event processing may depend on an interaction between actual and canonical event properties and language. A follow up study presenting auditory sentences simultaneously with images will explore this hypothesis further.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Today read she the paper: An ERP study of the processing of word order in Swedish L22014In: Eurosla 24: Book of Abstracts, York: European Second Language Association , 2014, p. 46-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is ample evidence that word order is a problematic domain in L2 usage. In particular, production of the verb-second (V2) phenomenon, which requires the finite verb in main clauses to appear in second position, (e.g., Ganuza, 2008 for an overview). Surprisingly, we know very little about how these structures are processed and how production relates to comprehension. We therefore examined how advanced German (N=14) and English (N=14) adult learners, matched for proficiency and age of acquisition (AoA; German M=22, English M=23), process word order in Swedish compared to native speakers (N=20) depending on language background (L1 with [German] or without [English] V2), preposed adverb frequency (frequent idag ‘today’ vs. infrequent hemma ‘at home’, ex. 1), and the length of the preposed constituent (short vs. long prefield, ex. 2). (1) Idag/Hemma läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hon läste tidningen. Today/At home read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home she read paper.def (2) Idag/Hemma hos Maria läste hon tidningen. vs. *Idag/Hemma hos Maria hon läste tidningen. Today/At home at Maria read she paper.def vs. *Today/At home at Maria she read paper.def. We examined responses to word order violations in an acceptability judgement task and an ERP experiment, and probed the production of word order in a sentence completion task.

    Preliminary results from the judgment task indicated that native speakers were faster and more accurate on judging sentences than both L2 groups who did not differ. Overall, the more frequent adverb, idag, also affected accuracy and reaction times positively, but there were no interactions with group. The outcome from the sentence completion task showed similar results: native speakers were more accurate than the L2 groups who did not differ, and an overall adverb frequency effect was found, but not difference across groups. In contrast, the ERP data showed different patterns. In native speakers V2 violations elicited a bimodal ERP response, an anterior negativity followed by a posterior P600. These effects were increased in amplitude and the anterior negativity was left lateralized (LAN) when the prefield was long. In the German group a bimodal response was detected only when V2 violations followed a frequent adverb in a long prefield. In other cases only a posterior P600 was evident. The English group, in contrast, showed an early anterior positivity, and a later lateral parietal negativity in the N400 time window that was followed by a posterior P600. These responses were affected only by prefield length and only in amplitude.

    Overall, the results indicated that advanced German and English learners, matched on proficiency and AoA, who performed similarly on behavioural measures of comprehension and production of word order, still differed in online processing. More specifically, language background mattered since the German learners whose L1 share V2 with target Swedish, overall showed similar ERP patterns to native speakers. In contrast, the English learners, whose L1 does not share V2, showed more variation in their ERP responses. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of crosslinguistic influence and theories of nativelike syntactic processing.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Univ Oregon, USA;Lund university.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Coch, Donna
    Dartmouth College, USA.
    Karns, Christina M.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Anterior and posterior ERP rhyming effects in 3- to 5-year-old children2018In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 30, p. 178-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During early literacy skills development, rhyming is an important indicator of the phonological precursors required for reading. To determine if neural signatures of rhyming are apparent in early childhood, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3- to 5-year-old, preliterate children (N = 62) in an auditory prime-target nonword rhyming paradigm (e.g., bly-gry, blane-vox). Overall, nonrhyming targets elicited a larger negativity (N450) than rhyming targets over posterior regions. In contrast, rhyming targets elicited a larger negativity than nonrhyming targets over fronto-lateral sites. The amplitude of the two rhyming effects was correlated, such that a larger posterior effect occurred with a smaller anterior effect. To determine whether these neural signatures of rhyming related to phonological awareness, we divided the children into two groups based on phonological awareness scores while controlling for age and socioeconomic status. The posterior rhyming effect was stronger and more widely distributed in the group with better phonological awareness, whereas differences between groups for the anterior effect were small and not significant. This pattern of results suggests that the rhyme processes indexed by the anterior effect are developmental precursors to those indexed by the posterior effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate early establishment of distributed neurocognitive networks for rhyme processing.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Fanning, J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    A developmental ERP study of nonword rhyming2005In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, CNS 2005, Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research of auditory rhyming showed the classical phonological rhyming effect (N450) to be evident in children as young as 6 years of age (Coch, Grossi, Skendzel & Neville, in press). ERPs to spoken nonwords preceded by nonrhyming nonwords showed increased negativity (400-600ms post-stimulus-onset) in comparison to rhyming targets. This effect was largest at posterior medial sites bilaterally. Thus the previous research suggests that the neurocognitive networks involved in processing auditory rhyme information are comparable to adults by the age of 6. The current study extends this finding to even younger children aged 5 to 7 years who also show typical adult rhyming effects. However, more interestingly, younger children ages 3-4 did not show the same distribution of rhyming effects. A second ERP component commonly reported in rhyming tasks with adults is a slow contingent negative variation (CNV) in response to the first stimulus presented, thought to reflect phonological rehearsal. Unlike the N450 the CNV component has been shown to differ between adults and children age 6 to 8 (Coch et al, 2002; Coch et al, in press). The current study allowed us to address the development of this component at an even earlier age. The data provide further information regarding the development of rhyming skill in young children, thought to be fundamental to the acquisition of reading. Both rhyming and phonological rehearsal effects will be discussed in the frameworks of how phonological processing and awareness impact language and literacy development.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Karns, Christina
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Effects of age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency on processing of syntax in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children: an ERP study2014In: Society for the Neurobiology of Language: Amsterdam 2014, Conference Proceedings, Amsterdam: Society for the Neurobiology of Language , 2014, p. 216-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though language proficiency in children is strongly related to success in almost all domains, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing are typically limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. For example, whereas previous studies of adult bilinguals have reported differences in the anterior negativity elicited by syntactic violations with delays in exposure to English of less than 3 years (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) a precursor to the anterior negativity has been reported in monolingual children as young as 2.5 years of age (Oberecker, et al., 2005). In the current ERP study, processing of English phrase structure was explored in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children who acquired English as a second language around 4 years of age. Monolingual children of higher proficiency displayed relatively mature processing of phrase structure violations as indicated by a left anterior negativity over lateral sites and a posterior positivity. High-proficiency bilingual children tended to display a medial anterior negativity and a posterior positivity. The difference in distribution of the anterior effect across groups could only be explained by AoA. However, lower proficiency affected the posterior ERP effect and amplitude of the anterior effects in response to syntactic violations. These results suggest that the more automatic syntactic processing in children is affected by AoA while more controlled, metalinguistic processing may be related to language proficiency.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sanders, Lisa D.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Karns, Christina
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Effects of age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency on processing of syntax in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children: an ERP study2014In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society : 21st Annual Meeting, April 5-8, 2014, Marriott Copley Place Hotel, Boston, Massachusetts: 2014 Annual Meeting Program, Davis, CA: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2014, p. 84-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though language proficiency in children is strongly related to success in almost all domains, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing are typically limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. For example, whereas previous studies of adult bilinguals have reported differences in the anterior negativity elicited by syntactic violations with delays in exposure to English of less than 3 years (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) a precursor to the anterior negativity has been reported in monolingual children as young as 2.5 years of age (Oberecker, et al., 2005). In the current ERP study, processing of English phrase structure was explored in 6- to 8-year old monolingual and bilingual children who acquired English as a second language around 4 years of age. Monolingual children of higher proficiency displayed relatively mature processing of phrase structure violations as indicated by a left anterior negativity over lateral sites and a posterior positivity. High-proficiency bilingual children tended to display a medial anterior negativity and a posterior positivity. The difference in distribution of the anterior effect across groups could only be explained by AoA. However, lower proficiency affected the posterior ERP effect and amplitude of the anterior effects in response to syntactic violations. These results suggest that the more automatic syntactic processing in children is affected by AoA while more controlled, metalinguistic processing may be related to language proficiency.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University ; Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Language background affects word order processing in a second language online but not offline2018In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines possible crosslinguistic influence on basic word order processing in a second language (L2). Targeting Swedish V2 word order we investigate adult German learners (+V2 in the L1) and English learners (-V2 in the L1) of Swedish who are matched for proficiency. We report results from two offline behavioural tasks (written production, metalinguistic judgments), and online processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). All groups showed sensitivity to word order violations behaviourally and neurocognitively. Behaviourally, the learners differed from the native speakers only on judgements. Crucially, they did not differ from each other. Neurocognitively, all groups showed a similar increased centro-parietal P600 ERP-effect, but German learners (+V2) displayed more nativelike anterior ERP-effects than English learners (-V2). The results suggest crosslinguistic influence in that the presence of a similar word order in the L1 can facilitate online processing in an L2-- even if no offline behavioural effects are discerned.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Lund University.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Native word order processing is not uniform: An ERP study of verb-second word order2015In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society, 22nd Annual Meeting, March 28-31, 2015 Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco, California: 2015 Annual Meeting Program, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2015, p. 218-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Germanic languages share verb-second (V2) word order: the finite verb occurs in second position in a main clause regardless of whether it starts with a subject (e.g., she; SVO), or an adverbial (e.g., today; AdvVSO). Swedish allows for certain exceptions to V2 resulting in clauses with V3 word order (AdvSVO) (Bohnacker, 2006). Despite the general acknowledgment that V3 occurs, little is known about the factors that license it and about how these structures are processed. This study therefore investigated V2-/V3-processing in 20 adult native Swedish speakers, manipulating initial semantic adverbial type (idag Œtoday¹, hemma Œat home¹, and kanske Œmaybe¹), and subject type (lexical noun, Œthe boy¹, vs. pronoun, Œhe¹) in a sentence completion task and in acceptability judgments made after event-related potentials were recorded. The results showed effects of adverbial- and subject-type across tasks and measures. Behavioral results showed positive effects of pronominal subjects; moreover, idag-sentences were the most accurate, and kanske-sentences the least accurate. Neurocognitively, there was a main effect of V2 reflected in a medial negativity in the N400 time window, a left anterior positivity, and a late posterior negativity. Importantly, the negativities were strongest in amplitude with kanske, while the left anterior positivity was only elicited with hemma and idag. The results thus suggest that V2-violations in Swedish are more acceptable with some adverbials (here kanske Œmaybe¹), and that such sentences are also processed differently from sentences starting with other adverbials. Native word order processing is thus not uniform.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    An ERP study of nonword rhyming in 3- to 5-year olds: the effect of age and proficiency2008In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting Program 2008: A supplement of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2008, p. 287-287, article id 1102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research of auditory rhyming showed the classical phonological rhyming effect (RE; N450) to be evident in children as young as 6 years of age (Coch, Grossi, Skendzel & Neville, 2005). ERPs to spoken nonword targets preceded by nonrhym- ing nonwords showed increased negativity (400-600ms post-stimulus- onset) in comparison to rhyming targets, and this effect was largest at posterior medial sites bilaterally. Thus the previous research suggests that the neurocognitive networks involved in processing auditory rhyme information are comparable to adults by the age of 6. The current study extends this finding to younger children aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Behavior- ally, the proportion of children with proficiency in rhyming (production and recognition skills) increased as a function of age. When comparing the RE in these age groups, no differences were found in amplitude. However, the onset of the RE decreased linearly with age. An examina- tion of 4-year-old children with different levels of rhyming proficiency revealed similar differences in the RE. Specifically, the onset of the RE was earlier in children with rhyming skills (production and recognition) as compared to children of similar age with little rhyming skills. These results will be discussed in the framework of how phonological process- ing and awareness impact language and literacy development.

  • 46. Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    Pakulak, Eric
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    N400 responses mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition in second language learners between 6 and 8 years of age2007In: The 1st Conference of the Swedish Association for Language and Cognition: 2007, November 29 – December 1, Lund University, Sweden, Lund: The Scandinavian Association for Language & Cognition , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in bilingual adults indicates age of acquisition for a second language has little impact on brain organization for semantic processing. Native speakers, early-learners, and late-learners of a second language all show evidence of a similar N400 in response to semantic anomalies. However, these studies are typically conducted with adults who have both fully mature brains and many years of experience with their second language. Studies with bilingual children provide the opportunity to test the relative impact of maturational age and language proficiency on brain organization for semantic processing. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Spanish-English bilingual and monolingual English-speaking children 6 to 8 years of age listened to naturally spoken English sentences containing semantic anomalies. Bilingual children had been exposed to Spanish since birth and English for the past 2 - 2.5 years. Monolinguals and high-proficiency bilingual children showed typical N400 responses to the semantic violations. However, bilingual children with low proficiency in English did not show this typical effect. Further, the differences in the N400 for bilingual children were not dependent on age of acquisition. These results suggest that brain organization for semantic processing is largely dependent on proficiency and support previous findings that any differences in semantic processing for first and second language learners are mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Yamada, Yoshiko
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Pakulak, Eric
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Second language acquisition in 6-to 8-years-olds: relationship between proficiency and N400 responses to semantic anomalies2006In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, CNS 2006, San Fransisco: Cognitive Neuroscience Society , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in bilingual adults indicates age of acquisition for a second language has little impact on brain organization for semantic processing. Native speakers, early-learners, and late-learners of a second language all show evidence of a similar N400 in response to semantic anomalies. However, these studies are typically conducted with adults who have both fully mature brains and many years of experience with their second language. Studies with bilingual children provide the opportunity to test the relative impact of maturational age and language proficiency on brain organization for semantic processing. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Spanish-English bilingual and monolingual English-speaking children 6 to 8 years of age listened to naturally spoken English sentences containing semantic anomalies. Bilingual children had been exposed to Spanish since birth and English for the past 2 - 2.5 years. Monolinguals and high-proficiency bilingual children showed typical N400 responses to the semantic violations. However, bilingual children with low proficiency in English did not show this typical effect. Further, the differences in the N400 for bilingual children were not dependent on age of acquisition. These results suggest that brain organization for semantic processing is largely dependent on proficiency and support previous findings that any differences in semantic processing for first and second language learners are mediated by proficiency rather than age of acquisition.

  • 48.
    Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    National Police Board.
    Algafoor, Nabeel Abd
    University of Mustansiryah, Irak.
    Al Nima, Ali
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being.
    Schütz, Erica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being ; University of Gothenburg.
    Archer, Trevor
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being ; University of Gothenburg.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being ; University of Gothenburg.
    Police Personnel Affective Profiles: Differences in Perceptions of the Work Climate and Motivation2016In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The affective profile model was used to investigate individual differences in police personnel perceptions about the working climate and its influences on motivation. The Positive Affect, Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to assign police personnel, sworn and non-sworn (N = 595), to four affective profiles: self-fulfilling, low affective, high affective, and self-destructive. The work climate was assessed using the Learning Climate Questionnaire (Management Relations and Style, Time, Autonomy and Responsibility, Team Style, Opportunities to Develop, Guidelines on How to do the Job, and Contentedness). Motivation was evaluated using a modified version (to refer specifically to the individual’s work situation) of the Situational Motivation Scale (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation). Self-fulfilling individuals scored higher on all work climate dimensions compared to the other three groups. Compared to low positive affect profiles, individuals with profiles of high positive affect scored higher in intrinsic motivation and identified regulation. Self-destructive individuals scored higher in amotivation. Different aspects of the work climate were related to each motivation dimension among affective profiles. Police personnel may react to their work environment depending on their affective profile. Moreover, the extent to which the work influences police personnel’s motivation is also related to the affective profile of the individual. © 2015, The Author(s).

  • 49.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Conny
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Hur mycket predicerar biopsykosociala faktorer alkoholkonsumtionen i förhållande till BMI hos studenter?2009Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent alcohol consumption among students is predicted by biological (BMI, age and gender), psychological (Lo-cus of Control and The Big Five Theory) and social (drinking habits within the family and reasons for alcohol consumption) factors. We have chosen to investigate each respondent’s alcohol consumption in relation to BMI and then see to what extent the variance can be predicted by the variables we have investigated. Our selection con-sists of upper secondary school students and university students in Växjö. A total of 201 persons participated in the inquiry, of whom 107 were men and 94 were women. The data was collected by means of a questionnaire. We conducted a multiple regres-sion analysis which showed alcohol consumption can be predicted to 34.3% by the variables in this study. In our selection the biological factors alone predicted 13.1% of the alcohol consumption, the psychological factors 13.3% and the social factors 7.9%. This study seeks to highlight some of the factors that affect an individual’s consump-tion of alcohol, this in order to create a deeper understanding concerning alcohol pat-terns among students.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Djurfeldt, Diana Radu
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Isung, Josef
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    d-Cycloserine vs Placebo as Adjunct to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Interaction With Antidepressants A Randomized Clinical Trial2015In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 72, no 7, p. 659-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE It is unclear whether D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist that enhances fear extinction, can augment the effects of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVES To examine whether DCS augments the effects of CBT for OCD and to explore (post hoc) whether concomitant antidepressant medication moderates the effects of DCS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial with 3-month follow-up conducted at an academic medical center between September 4, 2012, and September 26, 2013. Participants included 128 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of 16 or higher. Concurrent antidepressant medication was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least 2 months prior to enrollment and remained unchanged during the trial. The main analysis was by intention-to-treat population. INTERVENTIONS All participants received a previously validated Internet-based CBT protocol over 12 weeks and were randomized to receive either 50 mg of DCS or placebo, administered 1 hour before each of 5 exposure and response prevention tasks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinician-administered Y-BOCS score at week 12 and at 3-month follow-up. Remission was defined as a score of 12 or lower on the Y-BOCS. RESULTS In the primary intention-to-treat analyses, DCS did not augment the effects of CBT compared with placebo (mean [SD] clinician-rated Y-BOCS score, DCS: 13.86 [6.50] at week 12 and 12.35 [7.75] at 3-month follow-up; placebo: 11.77 [5.95] at week 12 and 12.37 [6.68] at 3-month follow-up) but showed a significant interaction with antidepressants (clinician-rated Y-BOCS, B = -1.08; Z = -2.79; P = .005). Post hoc analyses revealed that antidepressants significantly impaired treatment response in the DCS group but not the placebo group, at both posttreatment and follow-up (clinician-rated Y-BOCS: t(62) = -3.00; P = .004; and t(61) = -3.49; P < .001, respectively). In the DCS group, a significantly greater proportion of antidepressant-free patients achieved remission status at follow-up (60% [95% CI, 45%-74%]) than antidepressant-medicated patients (24% [95% CI, 9%-48%]) (P = .008). Antidepressants had no effect in the placebo group (50% [95% CI, 36%-64%] remission rate in both groups). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings suggest that antidepressants may interact with DCS to block its facilitating effect on fear extinction. Use of DCS may be a promising CBT augmentation strategy but only in antidepressant-free patients with OCD.

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