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  • 1.
    Abd Alrahman, Asma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ataei, Miragha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tillfällig ändring av lag för asylsökande: En kvalitativ studie om HVB-hemspersonals uppfattning av lagändringens konsekvenser för ensamkommande barn.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to investigate HVB-home staff's perceptions of the temporary asylum law's impact on unaccompanied minors’ motivation for integration into Swedish society. On 24 November 2015, the government presented a temporary law to reduce the number of asylum seekers. The temporary law was intended to apply for three years and meant that Sweden went from having generous asylum legislation to following the EU's line for a minimum level for receiving asylum seekers. All asylum-seeking groups, such as refugees and people in need of protection, would receive temporary residence permits, except that there were exceptions for quota refugees who could obtain permanent residence permits. In the study, we used a qualitative method and conducted semi-structured interviews with five staff who had previously worked with unaccompanied children. Results from both interviews and previous research show that there are several factors that affect the mood of unaccompanied children and their integration into Swedish society. The study showed that previous psychological trauma, long waiting times for information about residence permits, loneliness and lack of meaningful activity had a negative impact on unaccompanied children's mood and motivation for integration.

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  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hermansson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilka faktorer upplevs som begränsande för unga kvinnors sexualitet utifrån ett genuspsykologiskt perspektiv?: En studie med tio intervjuer av kvinnor i åldrarna 25-30 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om och i sådana fall vilka faktorer som unga heterosexuella kvinnor upplevde som begränsande för sin sexualitet. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer undersöktes i denna kvalitativa studie hur dessa deltagare upplevde sin sexualitet utifrån tre huvudområden; sociala strukturer, normer samt psykisk hälsa. Teorin “sexual scripting theory” applicerades på de tre huvudområdena, då paralleller drogs mellan dessa och teorins tre huvudbegrepp “cultural scripts”, “interpersonal scripts” och “intrapsychic scripts”. Resultatet av denna studie visade att patriarkala strukturer, samhällsideal, jämförelser med andra, förväntningar och föreställningar om kvinnans utseende samt beteende var hämmande för deltagarnas sexualitet. Resultatet visade även att det fanns tydliga samband mellan sexualiteten och den psykiska hälsan. Negativa sexuella erfarenheter upplevdes påverka deltagarnas psykiska hälsa och blev hämmande för framtida sexuella upplevelser. Många begränsande faktorer identifierades utifrån resultatet i denna studie och en inblick i deltagarnas förhållande till sin sexualitet utforskades. 

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  • 3.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Implicit obesity bias predicts real hiring discrimination in the labor market2011In: Annual meeting of The Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andréll, Cecilia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    All else equal: Examining treatment bias and stereotypes based on patient ethnicity and socioeconomic status using in-hospital cardiac arrest clinical vignettes2024In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 63, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundResearch on ethnic and socioeconomic treatment differences following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) largely draws on register data. Due to the correlational nature of such data, it cannot be concluded whether detected differences reflect treatment bias/discrimination – whereby otherwise identical patients are treated differently solely due to sociodemographic factors. To be able to establish discrimination, experimental research is needed.ObjectiveThe primary aim of this experimental study was to examine whether simulated IHCA patients receive different treatment recommendations based on ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), holding all other factors (e.g., health status) constant. Another aim was to examine health care professionals’ (HCP) stereotypical beliefs about these groups.MethodsHCP (N = 235) working in acute care made anonymous treatment recommendations while reading IHCA clinical vignettes wherein the patient's ethnicity (Swedish vs. Middle Eastern) and SES had been manipulated. Afterwards they estimated to what extent hospital staff associate these patient groups with certain traits (stereotypes).ResultsNo significant differences in treatment recommendations for Swedish versus Middle Eastern or high versus low SES patients were found. Reported stereotypes about Middle Eastern patients were uniformly negative. SES-related stereotypes, however, were mixed. High SES patients were believed to be more competent (e.g., respected), but less warm (e.g., friendly) than low SES patients.ConclusionsSwedish HCP do not seem to discriminate against patients with Middle Eastern or low SES backgrounds when recommending treatment for simulated IHCA cases, despite the existence of negative stereotypes about these groups. Implications for health care equality and quality are discussed.

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  • 5.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Moral concerns are greater for temporally distant events and are moderated by value strength2009In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 261-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research examines the impact of temporal distance on moral concerns in situations where selfish motives clash with altruistic considerations. Drawing upon Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) which posits that abstract, high-level features of events and social values take on more weight with greater temporal distance, we hypothesized that moral concerns should be higher for temporally distant situations. The results from five experiments supported this conjecture. People indicated they would be more likely to choose altruistic over selfish behaviors, reported they would feel more guilty about engaging in selfish behavior, thought acting selfishly would be more immoral, and were more likely to commit to altruistic behavior when thinking about distant versus near future events. Moreover, as predicted, temporal distance primarily enhanced moral concerns among individuals with high moral value strength. Support was also obtained in favor of the assumption that value salience was responsible for the temporal distance effect on moral concerns. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  • 6.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Temporal construal and moral motivation2013In: Handbook of Moral Motivation: Theories, Models, Applications / [ed] K. Heinrichs, F. Oser & T Lovat, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013, p. 181-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Temporal Distance and Moral Concerns: Future Morally Questionable Behavior is Perceived as More Wrong and Evokes Stronger Prosocial Intentions2009In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research on temporal construal has shown that core values become more salient when people think about distant- as compared to near-future events. The present research shows that greater temporal distance of an event also results in greater moral concern. More specifically, it was found that people make harsher moral judgments of others' distant-future morally questionable behavior than near-future morally questionable behavior. Moreover, it was shown that people increasingly attribute distant vs. near future behavior to abstract dispositional relative to concrete situational causes, and that this attribution bias is partially responsible for the temporal distance effect on moral judgments.

  • 8.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Why people with an eye toward the future are more moral: The role of abstract thinking2013In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do future-oriented people show greater moral concern than present-oriented people? Consistent with construal level theory (CLT; Trope & Liberman, 2003), we find that future-oriented people construe morally relevant actions at a higher level of abstraction, which clarifies their larger implications. Moreover, we show that level of construal partially explains the relationship between individual differences in temporal orientation and moral judgments. These findings support CLT and contribute to our understanding of moral psychology, as they are the first to show how individual differences pertaining to psychological distance relate to abstract thinking and moral judgments.

  • 9.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    The Effects of Time and Abstraction on Moral Concerns2009Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    The Influence of Temporal Distance on Justice and Care Morality2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.

  • 11.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Emotions in time: Moral emotions appear more intense with temporal distance2012In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 181-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University.
    Gender differences in implicit moral orientation associations: The justice and care debate revisited2011In: Current Research in Social Psychology, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 17, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing new measures (Implicit Association Test) to study the classic issue of moralorientations, we predicted and found gender differences in implicit associations to the conceptsof justice and care. Specifically, we found that men more strongly associate justice vs. care withimportance and with themselves than women. However, participants’ explicit ratings did notreveal any clear patterns of gender differences, which is consistent with previous studies.Implications for social psychological theory and research on morality are discussed.

  • 13.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Look at yourself!: Visual perspective influences moral judgment by level of mental construal2013In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 42-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research (Libby, Shaeffer, & Eibach, 2009) has established that a third-person (external) visual perspective elicitsmore abstract processing than a first-person (inner) perspective. Because many moral principles constitute abstract psychological constructs,we predicted that they should weigh more heavily when people adopt a third-person visual perspective. In two experiments weshow that a third- (vs. first-) person visual perspective leads to harsher judgments of one’s own morally questionable actions. Moreover,we demonstrate that this effect can be partially explained by level of mental construal. The present research suggests that simple visualperspective techniques may be used to promote moral behavior.

  • 14.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold and Incompetent Eric: A harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold And Incompetent Eric: The Harsh Equation of Real-life Hiring Discrimination2012In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

  • 16.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

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  • 17.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Descriptive social norms and charitable giving: the power of local norms2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By conducting a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., “this is what most people do”) leads to more charitable giving compared to industry standard appeals. Moreover, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one’s immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one’s local environment. University students received a charity organization’s information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimental descriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable giving than conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

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  • 18.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using descriptive social norms to increase charitable giving: The power of local norms2016In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 52, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., "this is what most people do") increases charitable giving. Additionally, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one's immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one's local environment. University students received a charity organization's information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimentaldescriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable givingthan conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

  • 19.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Etnicitet och övervikt: implicita arbetsrelaterade fördomar i Sverige2007Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stening, Kent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Does physical pain impair abstract thinking?2017In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 748-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to think abstractly constitutes a fundamental dimension of human cognition. Although abstraction has been extensively studied, its emotional and affective antecedents have been largely overlooked. One experiment was conducted to examine whether physical pain affects abstraction. Drawing on Construal Level Theory [Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review117, 440–463] and Loewenstein’s [(1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes65, 272–292] visceral factors theory, we hypothesised that pain impairs abstraction because pain constricts people’s mental horizons and lead to a concrete, inward-focus toward oneself in the here and now. Physical pain was manipulated between subjects (N = 150). The participants either kept their left hand immersed in cold (painful) water or neutral (painless) water while we measured abstract versus concrete behaviour identification, categorisation, and perceptual processing. Bayesian statistical analyses indicate substantial evidence against the hypothesis that pain impairs abstraction. In contrast to many other previously studied cognitive outcomes (e.g. attention), abstraction appears to be largely immune to acute, experimentally induced pain.

  • 21.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Möller, Kristiina
    Archer, Trevor
    Moral reasoning:: The influence of affective personality, dilemma content and gender2006In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 1259-1276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the influence of affective personality, perfectionism, gender, arousal and dilemma content on moral reasoning. 264 participants were presented with moral dilemmas to which they had to provide a solution that reflected various degrees of justice and care. The results indicated that a) affective personality had an effect on moral reasoning, b) female participants reported higher levels of care morality than did male participants, c) gender interacted with perfectionism in the production of moral standpoints, d) dilemma content exerted a strong effect on the participants' use of moral strategy. It was concluded that although moral reasoning appears to be governed primarily by the dilemma content at hand, an individual's moral solutions are influenced by gender and affective state.

  • 22.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stening, Kent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Axman, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pain here and now: physical pain impairs transcendence of psychological distance2019In: Journal of Pain Research, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 12, p. 961-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to traverse psychological distance by going beyond the experienced reality of the self, here and now, is fundamental for effective human functioning. Yet, little is known about how physical pain affects transcendence of psychological distance. Using a construal level theory framework of psychological distance, the current research examines the hypothesis that pain impairs people's ability to traverse any kind of psychological distance whether it be temporal, social, and spatial distance, or the hypothetical. Methods: Using the cold pressor test, 151 participants participated in an experiment where they were either induced with acute pain (treatment group) or no pain (control group) while completing a battery of questions measuring to what extent their current thoughts were transcending psychological distance. Results: The results were largely consistent with the hypothesis. Relative to the control group, pain induced participants showed significantly less transcendence of past temporal distance, social distance, spatial distance, and the hypothetical. Furthermore, greater self-reported pain intensity was significantly associated with less transcendence of temporal (past and future), social, and spatial distance. Conclusion: Physical pain impairs the ability to traverse psychological distance. The research has practical implications for the pain clinic and for pain-afflicted individuals in everyday life.

  • 23.
    Ahlstrand, Amanda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hult, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ”Jag var inte beredd på att det skulle vara så”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om polisstudenters tankar kring att avsluta polisutbildningen i förtid2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of 2020, approximately a quarter of the spots at the police education in Sweden were vacant. Apart from the fact that it has been difficult to recruit suitable applicants, there is also a high number of dropouts from the education. There are few Swedish studies investigating why police students drop out. With the help of qualitative approach, this essay aims to give a greater understanding of how the police students at a university in Sweden experience the education and what the underlying factors for the numbers of dropouts within the education may be. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted by video link with participants who have ended, or had thoughts of ending, their studies prematurely. The material was analyzed by thematic analysis and resulted in three main themes; student role, police role and external influence. The results are discussed on the basis that there are police students who experience internal conflicts during their studies. They describe difficulties in finding their place, both in the role of a student and in the role of a police officer.

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  • 24.
    Ajdahi, Sami
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stolthet-statusmodellen och attityder till utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om hur gymnasielevers upplevelser av stolthet och social status korrelerar med deras attityder till utbildning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research by Cheng, Tracy and Henrich (2010) has identified relationships betweentwo facets of pride and two different strategies to attain social status. These relationships havebeen conceptualized to a pride-status model. The model has been tested on an Americanpopulation and only in one study has it been tested in a Swedish context. Moreover, there areno previous studies on the possible relationship between the pride-status model and positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education. Therefore, the purposes of this study were toinvestigate if the pride-status model is valid on a Swedish population and investigate how thedifferent status strategies and facets of pride relate to positive attitudes towards post-secondary education. In order to examine this, a convenience sample consisting of 609students in high school preparing for post-secondary education rated subjective experiences offacets of pride, social status strategies and attitudes towards post-secondary education. Thestudents’ ratings were correlated with each other and the difference between the correlationswas examined. The findings show that the pride-status model is partly valid on a Swedishpopulation and that the status strategies correlated significantly with positive attitudes towardspost-secondary education. The facets of pride were significantly correlated with positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education to some extent. Possible explanations of thefindings are discussed together with a methodology discussion and proposals for futureresearch within the area of the pride-status model and attitudes towards education.

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  • 25.
    Al Nima, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Archer, Trevor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, S-40020 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e73265-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods: Two hundred and two university students (males = 93, females = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings: The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion: The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  • 26.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Qin, Jiang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Hong, Zhang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Mental Health in the left-behind Children in the Fujian Province of China2013In: Journal of Public Mental Health, ISSN 1746-5729, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - An increasing number of people are migrating within the borders of China. Some migrants have to leave their children behind, and 58,000,000 children are estimated to be living as left-behind children. Earlier studies have found severe mental problems in left-behind children, but different factors could influence their mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health of these left-behind children and to determine possible influencing factors.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were collected in one province of the P R of China with a validated instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to investigate behavior in 13- to 15-year old children.

    Findings - No significant difference was found in total difficulty score and in any subscale score of SDQ when we compared left-behind children with children who were not left behind. A significant difference in emotional difficulty subscale score was found between girls who were left behind and girls who were not. Some socio-economic factors such as poor family economy and living with relatives, friends or grandparents, were identified as risk factors.

    Originality/value - When strategies for support of the mental health in left-behind children are developed, they will need to be individualized according to the gender, social and economic situation and focused on emotional and conduct problems.

  • 27.
    Alexandersson, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress inom Räddningstjänsten: En studie om samband mellan krav, kontroll, socialt stöd och brandmäns upplevda stressnivå.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services have an important function in society and aims to deliver effective emergency response to the public's benefit. Meanwhile, the firefighting profession a high-risk profession where firefighters are exposed to diseases caused by the physical environment as various forms of cancers. They are also exposed to organizational health risks like negative stress, which is the focus of this paper. The aim of the thesis was to make clear whether there is a relationship between psychosocial work environment and perceived stress among firefighters. The issue was whether the levels of demands, control and social support can predict firemens perceived stress level? A total of 67 firefighters from two different cities in southern Sweden participated. The independent variables were demands, control and social support, measured with Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Swedish version of the Perceived Stress Scale. Demand and social support were significant predictors. Demand had a positive relationship with stress and social support was negative associated with stress. Control could not predict stress. This result is consistent to some extent with previous research.

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  • 28.
    Alexandersson, Klas
    et al.
    Sundsvall Hospital, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Malin
    Sundsvall Hospital, Sweden.
    Ekeblad, Annika
    Sundsvall Hospital, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Session-to-session effects of therapist adherence and facilitative conditions on symptom change in CBT and IPT for depression2023In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of adherence to both specific technique factors and facilitative condition variables (e.g., therapists' involvement, understanding and support) in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). In addition, we were interested in whether the effect of therapist adherence would depend on the level of the working alliance. Method: Three sessions each from 74 patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder who were randomized to 14 sessions of IPT or CBT were rated for adherence using a modified version of The Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale-6 (CSPRS-6). Data was analyzed using Multilevel Modeling. Results: No effects of adherence to specific factors on outcome were found in neither CBT nor IPT. Facilitative conditions were associated with better outcome in CBT but not in IPT, even after adjustment for the quality of the working alliance. No interaction effects were found. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of relational factors in CBT, but do not support the need for specific adherence to any of the two treatments. Possible explanations of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  • 29.
    Alexson Accaoui, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, Hampus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighetens betydelse för politisk tolerans och viljan att tysta oliktänkande2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how personality and general political stance correlate with political tolerance in a Swedish context. The forms of tolerance investigated were general political tolerance as well as directed political tolerance towards both the right and left in its more extreme form. The study also examines the relationship between personality and a belief in silence others. The study was based on an internet-based survey with 273 respondents in the final sample. The results showed that personality had an impact on how we behave towards others expressively, where levels of extraversion and neuroticism correlated with the belief in silence others, and where extraversion was also a predictor. The study's results also show that the personality trait openness predicted directed political tolerance towards the left and that political stance could predict tolerance towards the right. For general political tolerance, neuroticism from the Big Five and honesty from HEXACO were significant predictors. This differs partly from previous research.

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    Personlighetens betydelse för politisk tolerans och viljan att tysta oliktänkande
  • 30.
    Alfvén, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lagerberg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Känsloreglering hos Elitidrottare: Känslor elitidrottare upplever timmen innan en viktig tävling och hur de hanteras2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was, based on Gross’ (2007) theory, to investigate elite athletes’ emotion regulating strategies. The issue posed in the Study was the following: What feelings does an elite athlete experience in the hour before an important competition and how does the athlete handle those feelings? The study pertained to nine elite athletes in individual athletic disciplines. The compilation of data was performed through semi-structured interviews which were transcribed and analysed using a content analysis. The analysis resulted in six categories with 2-3 sub-categories. The six main categories were distraction, self-talk/pep-talk, social strategy, structure, attention focus and visualisation. The elite athletes conclusively stated that they did experience feelings during the hour just before an important competition and they gave the impression that they used emotion regulating strategies. These strategies were often used sub- consciously. Raising awareness of emotion regulating strategies can contribute to creating possibilities for enhanced performance. 

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    Känsloreglering hos Elitidrottare
  • 31.
    Alic, Mona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur individen upplever sig själv efter att ha varit sjukskriven på grund av stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur individen upplever sig själv efter att ha varit sjukskriven på grund av stress. Detta undersöktes genom intervjuer med fyra deltagare och det transkriberade materialet analyserades med tematisk analys (TA). Det resulterade i fyra huvudteman som var: Otydliga gränser; Bilden utåt; Blicken inåt; Inre ledarskap. Resultatet visade att deltagarna upplevde en förändring hos sig själva efter senaste sjukskrivningen. Genom reflektion utvecklade de sin medvetenhet om vem de är som personer och vilka behov de har och då tydliggjordes även gränserna för hur höga krav de kunde ställa på sig själva. De upptäckte även var gränsen gick för deras egen kapacitet och behovet av återhämtning samt att självkontrollen ökade när de tillät sig visa sårbarhet. Resultatet bekräftar tidigare forskning om att individen kan bli starkare av motgångar och att samtal och reflektion hjälper individen att utvecklas.   

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  • 32.
    Alic, Sabina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundberg, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Föräldrastress bland universitetsstuderande föräldrar: En jämförelse mellan mödrar och fäder2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 33.
    Alijagic, Arnel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nessler, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gymnasielärares upplevelse av arbetsrelaterad stress: En kvalitativ studie i hur gymnasielärare upplever arbetsrelaterad stress och hur den stress hanteras2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan utgör en av samhällets största arbetsplatser och är en organisation under ständig förändring. Läroplaner speglar samhällets utveckling och därmed ställs krav på fortlöpande uppdatering av kursplaner och pedagogiska tillvägagångssätt. Trots behov av ständig utveckling är skolan ett av samhällets störst drabbade område gällande nedskärningar.

    Föreliggande studie avsåg att genom kvalitativ metod och semistrukturerad intervju undersöka gymnasielärares upplevelse av arbetsrelaterad stress och hur den arbetsrelaterade stressen hanterades.

    Föreliggande studie visade på tre huvudresultat. Ett resultat visade att lärare hade en upplevd ökad arbetsbelastning där ansvaret och arbetsuppgifterna ökat och där stor tidsbrist rådde gällande planering och uppföljning. Studien visade även att flertalet av lärarna upplevde, eller har upplevt både fysiologiska och psykiska stressreaktioner av olika slag som resultat av arbetsrelaterade stress. Slutligen visade studien att flera utav de deltagande lärarna använde sig av aktiva copingstrategier både i form av problemfokuserad- och känslofokuserad coping för att hantera yrkets arbetsrelaterade stress.

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  • 34.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, Sweden;Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ohayon, Maurice M.
    Stanford Univ, USA.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Taiwan.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, UK.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Region Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Reply to Liu et al.: "Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) on quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis"2022In: Sleep Medicine Reviews, ISSN 1087-0792, E-ISSN 1532-2955, Vol. 66, article id 101699Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Alimoradi, Zainab
    et al.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Jafari, Elahe
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, Sweden;Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ohayon, Maurice M.
    Stanford Univ, USA.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Taiwan;Natl Cheng Kung Univ Hosp, Taiwan.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, UK.
    Blom, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) on quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Sleep Medicine Reviews, ISSN 1087-0792, E-ISSN 1532-2955, Vol. 64, article id 101646Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) have consistently been shown to improve insomnia symptoms and other health-related outcomes, but the effects on QoL have been inconsistent. Many factors including the type CBT-I delivery and type of instrument used to assess QoL make the topic complex. The present systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the evidence of CBT-I efficacy on QoL outcomes across different populations, delivery modes, and methodological aspects. Following the guidelines on preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), a literature search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO using keywords from relevant MeSH terms based on PICOS (Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome and Study) criteria. Clinical trials investigating the effect of CBT-I as an intervention on QoL with any kind of control group were eligible if they reported mean scores and variation of QoL. Meta-analysis using a random-effect model was conducted to calculate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) in a set including all identified studies, as well as in three sub-sets: face-to-face CBT-I using randomized controlled trials (RCTs), online CBT-I using RCTs, and one-group pre- and post-treatment design. A total of 24 studies comprising 1977 participants (808 in an intervention group) from 12 countries were eligible for meta-analysis. The overall pooled estimate of SMD of QoL when all 24 studies were included was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.22; 0.72; I-2 = 84.5%; tau(2) = 0.31; p < 0.001). The overall pooled estimate of SMD of QoL was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.01-0.90; I-2 = 87.5%; tau(2) = 0.48, p < 0.001) for intervention groups with face-to-face CBT-I compared to controls; 0.47 (95% CI: 0.02-0.92; I-2 = 88.3%; tau(2) = 0.36; p = 0.04) for intervention groups with digital CBT-I compared to controls, and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.12-0.80; I-2 = 52.9%; tau(2) = 0.07; p = 0.08) for one-group pre- and post-comparison using CBT-I intervention compared to baseline. Moreover, effects of CBT-I on QoL were different across populations (pooled SMD = 0.59 for patients with insomnia; 0.29 for patients with insomnia comorbid with another major disorder; and 0.48 for other conditions) and types of QoL instruments (pooled SMD = 0.36 for disease-specific QoL instrument not on insomnia, 0.43 for generic QoL instrument, and 0.67 for a single-QoL-item instrument). The probability of publication bias was ruled out in overall and design specific sub-group analysis based on funnel plot and Egger's test. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirmed a moderate, overall effect of CBT-I in improving QoL. However, due to small power and heterogeneity, future studies are needed to better explore the impact of moderating factors such as mode of delivery and type of QoL measure for assessment used. (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 36.
    Allarveus, Sandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pettersson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att gå emot könsstereotyper i sitt yrkesval: En kvalitativ studie2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a qualitative study that examines the factors that are hindering and driving in people who choose a profession that goes against the gender stereotype. In the study, 2 men who have chosen to train as social workers and 4 women who have chosen to train as engineers are interviewed. These professions have been chosen because there is a clear dominance of one gender in these professions. The interviews have been semi-structured, and the interviews have been analyzed thematically. The themes that have emerged are context, career, work environment, meaningful, obstacles and self-efficacy. Common driving factors for both professions are a great deal of self-interest and support from the environment. Hindered factors are that the gender stereotype does not match the attitudes associated with the profession and that the environment may express incomprehension before the choice of profession. 

    The study shows that the conditions for women in the engineering profession have changed more than for men in the social work profession regarding gender distribution and attitudes in the labor market. 

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  • 37.
    Allerhed, Ia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Latvala, Belinda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dagdrömmars användbarhet för den konstnärligt kreativa individen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To daydream is a phenomenon that often has been considered as distracting as it can be seen as unrelated to a primary task. However, during recent years it’s advantages and areas of use have begun to receive more attention. The aim of this study was to examine artistically creative people’s experiences of daydreaming in relation to their process of creating. Interviews were conducted with six artistically creative individuals who met specific criteria for creativity. The interview material was then analyzed by a form of thematic analysis. The analysis resulted in five themes: A break for the mind, Obstacles for daydreaming, Intertwined subjects, Origins of ideas and Metacognition. In summary the results showed that the participants experienced that there were several types of ideas and that they emerged in different ways. Daydreaming was mainly experienced as something positive and useful for idea generation during the process of creating. Even in cases where daydreams did not generate ideas, they were viewed positively as they were still considered to be able to fulfill purposes for the participants. 

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  • 38.
    Almeborg, Carolina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skolsituationen för barn med Autism och ADHD: Ur ett föräldrarperspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    School absenteeism is more common for children with autism than neurotypical developingchildren (Munkhaugen et al., 2017) and children with ADHD risk not reaching a passinggrade (Jangmo et al., 2019). Teacher’s lack of knowledge about neurodevelopmentaldisorders and insufficient adaptation strategies in school have been highlighted as a reason(Anderson, 2020).

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to obtain answers to how parents ofchildren with autism and/or ADHD perceive how school works in general, and what factorshave the greatest impact and correlation with that experience. Factors examined areabsenteeism, teacher and school management knowledge of autism and/or ADHD,understanding from school staff, attitude from other pupils and adaptations in school. Gender,type of school, medical treatment and type of diagnosis (autism/ADHD) are additionalvariables that have been able to be examined on their impact on the overall schoolexperience.

    The data was collected through an online survey where the participants (n=144) wererecruited with a convenience sample.

    The results show that teacher and school management's knowledge of autism and/orADHD, as well as absence, significantly correlates with how the school is judged to functionoverall. This indicates that an increase in knowledge among existing teachers who lackadequate knowledge about autism and ADHD is required. 

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    Skolsituationen för barn med Autism och ADHD
  • 39.
    Almeida, David M.
    et al.
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    Marcusson-Clavertz, David
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    Conroy, David E.
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    Kim, Jinhyuk
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    Zawadzki, Matthew J.
    Univ Calif Merced, USA.
    Sliwinski, Martin J.
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    Smyth, Joshua M.
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    Everyday stress components and physical activity: examining reactivity, recovery and pileup2020In: Journal of behavioral medicine, ISSN 0160-7715, E-ISSN 1573-3521, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 108-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experience of naturally-occurring stress in daily life has been linked with lower physical activity levels. However, most of this evidence comes from general and static reports of stress. Less is known how different temporal components of everyday stress interfere with physical activity. In a coordinated secondary analysis of data from two studies of adults, we used intensive, micro-longitudinal assessments (ecological momentary assessments, EMA) to investigate how distinct components of everyday stress, that is, reactivity to stressor events, recovery from stressor events, and pileup of stressor events and responses predict physical activity. Results showed that components of everyday stress predicted subsequent physical activity especially for indicators of stress pileup. In both studies, the accumulation of stress responses over the previous 12 h was more predictive of subsequent physical activity than current stress reactivity or recovery responses. Results are compared to the effects of general measures of perceived stress that showed an opposite pattern of results. The novel everyday stress approach used here may be fruitful for generating new insights into physical activity specifically and health behaviors in general.

  • 40.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Norlén, Anna
    Pernebo, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Massoudi, Pamela
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    iRiSk II: Utveckling av bedömningsinstrument och stödinsatser för våldsutsatta barn - rapport fråm två delprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Almström, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Polisstudenters grad av empati och kulturell orientering.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy as well as how to relate to others and oneself is an important factor for good police work and communication with citizens. Through a web survey, based on the Basic Empathy Scale-Adults (BES-A) and the Culture Orientation Scale (COS), this study asked 141 police students from all Swedish universities who conduct police education about their self-perceived empathy (affective/cognitive) and cultural orientation (individualism/collectivism). The result showed that the majority had moderate empathy and higher cognitive empathy than affective empathy according to BES-A. In general, the police students had average points at COS. Individualism also gave average points, while collectivism gave high points. Two-way ANOVA showed that women had significant higher empathy than men.

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  • 42.
    ALREFAI, SHATHA
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Murefu, Marron
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does the intersection of gender and ethnicity of a leader at workplace affect employee perception of leadership suitability?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research within discrimination against ethnic minorities and females suggest that members of these groups face discrimination during recruitment processes in organizations. However, less is known on whether leaders from these groups are discriminated against due to their ethnicity and gender by being perceived less suitable as leaders at the workplace. Moreover, most previous research has focused on discrimination and stereotypes of members of single groups rather than of multiple group categories. In this study conducted in Sweden (N=300), we investigate whether the intersection of gender and ethnicity of a leader at the workplace affects employee perception of their leadership suitability and how signaling ethnicity and gender differs for Arab (minority) versus Swedish (majority) and Male (majority) versus Female (minority). The results show clear evidence of ethnic discrimination where a male Arab is less preferred to a leadership position than male Swede. However, there is no evidence indicating discrimination based on gender nor any significant interaction between gender and ethnicity. 

    Keywords: Discrimination, Gender, Ethnicity, Intersectionality, Leadership 

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  • 43.
    Alåsen, Mary
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axhed, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Underlättande och hindrande faktorer i implementering och vidmakthållande av Child-Parent Psychotherapy i Sverige: En kvalitativ studie med fokus på behandlares erfarenheter2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to identify facilitating and hindering factors of implementation and sustainability of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) in Sweden. The study is a qualitative interview study in a naturalistic context based on semi-structured interviews with 12 CPP-trained therapists. The study’s strategic sampling of participants aimed to achieve sample variation. The collected data was analyzed using Thematic Analysis and resulted in the following four themes: Young trauma-exposed children, Organizational conditions, The significance of support when working with Child-Parent Psychotherapy and The therapist and Child-Parent Psychotherapy. Results indicated that implementation and sustainability of CPP in Sweden was influenced by diverse factors on various levels. Dedicated work to make the patient group accessible, resources, a well-defined assignment, routines for training of new therapists, supervision and support in legal processes were described as facilitating factors for implementation. Results suggest that if the strategic level, organization and therapists share responsibility of implementation, sustainable implementation can be carried out in more organizations and young children's needs of trauma treatment can be met.

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    Underlättande och hindrande faktorer i implementering och vidmakthållande av Child-Parent Psychotherapy i Sverige
  • 44.
    Amang, Joan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Syskonplacering, förändringsbenägenhet och konfliktbenägenhet på arbetsplatsen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan syskonplacering med föränd-ringsbenägenhet och konfliktbenägenhet i arbetslivet. 214 arbetstagare från 8 olika arbetsplat-ser deltog i en enkätundersökning, varav 102 män och 112 kvinnor med en medelålder på 32,62 år (sd=10,64). Frågeställning och hypoteser konstruerades utifrån Sulloways (1996) teorier om syskonplacering. Man antar specifika nischer för att få föräldrarnas maximala uppmärksamhet i strävan för överlevnad och detta i sin tur påverkar formningen av vår per-sonlighet. Förutom demografiska frågor kombinerades två färdigkonstruerade enkäter (WCS och RTC) som var avsedda att mäta konfliktbenägenhet och förändringsbenägenhet. Resulta-tet visade signifikant samband mellan konfliktbenägenhet och förändringsbenägenhet, med andra ord ju mer konfliktbenägen man var desto mindre förändringsbenägen var man. Vidare samspelade syskonplacering med de beroende variablerna där det visade sig att endabarn hade signifikant högre konfliktbenägenhet och var mindre förändringsbenägna i denna studie. Ju senare man var född i syskonskaran desto mer konfliktbenägen var man på arbetsplatsen med undantag av yngstabarn som efterliknade äldstabarn. Vad gäller förändringsbenägenhet fanns det endast signifikant skillnad för mellanbarn det vill säga att mellanbarn var mer föränd-ringsbenägna på arbetet. Därmed fanns det stöd för Sulloways teori om syskonplacering och dess påverkan på personlighetsutveckling.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 45.
    Amarasinghe, Jayathu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Saying Hejsan or Suffering in Silence?: What experiences do International Students have of mental health issues while studying in Sweden?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine international students’ experiences of mental health issues during their studies in Sweden. These experiences are seldom represented in academic literature, and thus this paper aims to recount international students’ experiences of mental health issues, the methods in which they handle those issues and the role that Swedish culture, people and institutions have played in those experiences. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with international students currently enrolled at the Linnaeus University in Växjö, Sweden – and subsequently analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. The results were summarized in four main themes; Acculturation, Mental Health, Under-utilization of Healthcare Facilities and Loneliness. The study concludes that international students may suffer from mental health issues that go undetected by university officials and mental health resources, and that universities may benefit from investing in programs to identify and offer support towards students in general, and international students in particular.

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    Psykologexamensuppsats
  • 46.
    Anderson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sahlberg, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Den emotionella intelligensens betydelse för konflikthantering hos studenter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict management is an area, which is relatively poorly researched especially in a university environment. In the present study, the effect of level of emotional intelligence on preference for varying styles of conflict management is investigated. The research instruments “The Assessing Emotion Scale” and “The Dutch Test for Conflict Handling” were given to 100 students in order to assess level of emotional intelligence and preference for conflict management style. Results indicated that neither level of emotional intelligence nor conflict management styles were statistically significantly influenced by gender. A strong association between “Problemsolving” and “Compromising” to level of emotional intelligence was seen in women. In men, this association was not seen. The results of this study indicate that styles to resolve conflict were not directly gender related, but rather related to the qualities shown by each individual. Additionally, individuals with a higher level of emotional intelligence preferred “Problemsolving” and “Compromising” in conflict management.

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    Den Emotionella Intelligensens Betydelse För Konflikthantering Hos Studenter
  • 47.
    Andersson, Allis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Jensdotter, Stinne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lika barn...: Könsskillnader i attityder till okända människor beroende på kön och etnicitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien, vilken omfattade 177 svenskfödda studenter, utvecklades och kontrollerades enegenkonstruerad enkät: SAPS. Även könsskillnader i fördomar mot okända personers etnicitetoch kön samt könsskillnader i Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) undersöktes. Fördomarmättes med SAPS och SDO mättes med en svensk översättning av SDO scale (Pratto et al.,1994). SDO scale användes också som validitetskontroll av SAPS. Statistisk prövning medSpearmans Rho visade på en negativ korrelation mellan SAPS och SDO scale. ANCOVAvisade en stark tendens till interaktionseffekt mellan bedömarens kön och objektets etnicitet,och en huvudeffekt av kön återfanns. Ingen interaktionseffekt återfanns mellan bedömarensoch objektets kön vid testning med ANOVA. Mann-Whitney U-test visade på signifikanthögre värden på SDO hos de manliga deltagarna än hos de kvinnliga. Resultaten diskuterasmed stöd i tidigare forskning om fördomar.

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  • 48.
    Andersson, Annika
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Second language acquisition in 6- to 8-year-old native Spanish-speaking children: ERP studies of phonological awareness, semantics, and syntax2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people in the world and about a fifth of all school-aged Americans speak at least two languages. Nevertheless, little is known about second language (L2) processing in development, even though language proficiency is strongly related to success in almost all domains. Whereas behavioral studies of L2 acquisition in children are abundant, neurocognitive studies of L2 processing typically are limited to adults with several years of exposure, who may use general cognitive mechanisms to compensate for any difficulties in L2 processing. Research on bilingual adults suggests that age of acquisition (AoA) and proficiency have different effects on different aspects of L2 processing. The present study therefore recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to index processes of phonological awareness (Rhyming effect: RE), semantics (N400), and syntax (LAN, P600) in bilingual and monolingual children 6-8 years of age. Even though behaviorally, bilingual children with an average AoA of 4 years had lower English proficiency than monolingual children, proficiency predicted similar differences in ERPs across groups: greater proficiency was linked with shorter latencies and higher amplitudes of all ERP components. Latency in these cases represents speed of processing while amplitude of ERP effects in children can be thought of as an indication of detection of the introduced violations. The appearance of the anterior rhyming effect, latency of the posterior rhyming effect, along with the distribution of the anterior ERP effect for phrase structure violations were related to AoA. More specifically, bilingual 6- to 8-year olds of higher English proficiency processed rhyming nonwords slower than 3- to 5-year-old monolingual children, which could have a strong impact on later vocabulary acquisition. Differences across lingualism groups in distribution of the anterior negativity elicited by phrase structure violations could indicate different neural generators for processing of syntax. Noteworthy is that differences in processing as illustrated by these ERP effects were recorded even though in both these cases bilingual children's English proficiency were within the normal range expected of monolingual children of similar age. Early acquisition was thus important for processing of rhyming and for more automatic syntactic processing as revealed by differences in the anterior negativity.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Monolingual and bilingual 6-8 year old children display N400 responses mediated by proficiency and age of acquisition2009In: 2009 SRCD Biennial Meeting, Society for Research in Child Development: Denver, Colorado, USA, April 2-4, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Fanning, Jessica L.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Neville, Helen J.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Monolingual and bilingual 6-8 year old children display N400 responses differentially mediated by proficiency and age of acquisition2009In: NLC 2009 Scientific Program: The Neurobiology of Language Conference, Marriott Downtown Hotel, 540 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, US, 2009, p. 45-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have consistently found an N400 effect elicited by violations of semantic expectancy in monolingual adults (Kutas & Hilllyard, 1980), bilingual adults (Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) and monolingual children (Holcomb, Coffey, & Neville, 1992). In adults, when the second language is acquired before the age of 11 years, no differences are found in the amplitude, latency, or distribution of the N400 effect when compared to monolinguals. However, if the age of acquisition (AOA) is later than 11 years, an increase in peak latency is often reported (e.g. Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996). Studies of semantic processing in monolingual children have found a more widely distributed N400 effect compared to monolingual adults’. In addition, both the amplitude and onset latency are found to decrease with age (Holcomb, Coffey, & Neville, 1992).

    In order to begin investigating the factors important in establishing normal semantic processing in bilinguals, we compared the N400 responses to semantic anomalies in 6-8 year old monolingual English speakers and in native Spanish speaking children who began acquiring English at about 4 years of age. To examine the effects of proficiency, each group was divided into higher and lower proficiency groups. In addition bilinguals and monolinguals individually matched on age and proficiency were compared. ERPs were recorded while children listened to naturally spoken English sentences that were either canonical or that were semantic anomalies (p = .5) and watched an accompanying claymation movie. 

    Analyses of the N400 mean amplitude indicated a typical N400 response for both groups, though that of monolingual children was larger, more widespread, and had an earlier onset (180msec) in comparison with that of bilingual children (320msec). Though these children were matched on age they differed in proficiency (Receptive Language) and Socioeconomic status (SES; as measured by maternal education). When dividing children by proficiency within each group similar relationships with amplitude, distribution, and onset were found. (Higher and lower proficiency bilingual groups did not differ on AOA). When comparing monolingual and bilingual children that were individually matched on age and proficiency, N400 onset latency was similar (320msec) but the distribution differed across groups. More specifically, monolingual children showed a larger and more widespread effect that was largest over medial central sites while bilingual children had an effect that was largest over posterior sites. These results suggest that speed of semantic processing in children between 6 and 8 years of age is affected by proficiency rather than AOA, while the distribution of the effect could be affected by differences in AOA and/or SES across groups. No differences in the N400 effect are found comparing monolingual adults and bilingual adults who began acquiring their second language before age 11 (Weber-Fox, & Neville, 1996). Therefore, we are continuing to study the development of semantic processes indexed by the N400 in bilingual children in order to determine at what proficiency level and/or years of experience of the second language does the difference between monolingual and bilingual late learners disappear.

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