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  • 1.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    The Influence of Temporal Distance on Justice and Care Morality2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.

  • 2.
    Ajdahi, Sami
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stolthet-statusmodellen och attityder till utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om hur gymnasielevers upplevelser av stolthet och social status korrelerar med deras attityder till utbildning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research by Cheng, Tracy and Henrich (2010) has identified relationships betweentwo facets of pride and two different strategies to attain social status. These relationships havebeen conceptualized to a pride-status model. The model has been tested on an Americanpopulation and only in one study has it been tested in a Swedish context. Moreover, there areno previous studies on the possible relationship between the pride-status model and positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education. Therefore, the purposes of this study were toinvestigate if the pride-status model is valid on a Swedish population and investigate how thedifferent status strategies and facets of pride relate to positive attitudes towards post-secondary education. In order to examine this, a convenience sample consisting of 609students in high school preparing for post-secondary education rated subjective experiences offacets of pride, social status strategies and attitudes towards post-secondary education. Thestudents’ ratings were correlated with each other and the difference between the correlationswas examined. The findings show that the pride-status model is partly valid on a Swedishpopulation and that the status strategies correlated significantly with positive attitudes towardspost-secondary education. The facets of pride were significantly correlated with positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education to some extent. Possible explanations of thefindings are discussed together with a methodology discussion and proposals for futureresearch within the area of the pride-status model and attitudes towards education.

  • 3.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Qin, Jiang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Hong, Zhang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Mental Health in the left-behind Children in the Fujian Province of China2013In: Journal of Public Mental Health, ISSN 1746-5729, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - An increasing number of people are migrating within the borders of China. Some migrants have to leave their children behind, and 58,000,000 children are estimated to be living as left-behind children. Earlier studies have found severe mental problems in left-behind children, but different factors could influence their mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health of these left-behind children and to determine possible influencing factors.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were collected in one province of the P R of China with a validated instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to investigate behavior in 13- to 15-year old children.

    Findings - No significant difference was found in total difficulty score and in any subscale score of SDQ when we compared left-behind children with children who were not left behind. A significant difference in emotional difficulty subscale score was found between girls who were left behind and girls who were not. Some socio-economic factors such as poor family economy and living with relatives, friends or grandparents, were identified as risk factors.

    Originality/value - When strategies for support of the mental health in left-behind children are developed, they will need to be individualized according to the gender, social and economic situation and focused on emotional and conduct problems.

  • 4.
    Alexandersson, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress inom Räddningstjänsten: En studie om samband mellan krav, kontroll, socialt stöd och brandmäns upplevda stressnivå.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services have an important function in society and aims to deliver effective emergency response to the public's benefit. Meanwhile, the firefighting profession a high-risk profession where firefighters are exposed to diseases caused by the physical environment as various forms of cancers. They are also exposed to organizational health risks like negative stress, which is the focus of this paper. The aim of the thesis was to make clear whether there is a relationship between psychosocial work environment and perceived stress among firefighters. The issue was whether the levels of demands, control and social support can predict firemens perceived stress level? A total of 67 firefighters from two different cities in southern Sweden participated. The independent variables were demands, control and social support, measured with Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Swedish version of the Perceived Stress Scale. Demand and social support were significant predictors. Demand had a positive relationship with stress and social support was negative associated with stress. Control could not predict stress. This result is consistent to some extent with previous research.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Djurfeldt, Diana Radu
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Isung, Josef
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    d-Cycloserine vs Placebo as Adjunct to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Interaction With Antidepressants A Randomized Clinical Trial2015In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 72, no 7, p. 659-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE It is unclear whether D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist that enhances fear extinction, can augment the effects of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVES To examine whether DCS augments the effects of CBT for OCD and to explore (post hoc) whether concomitant antidepressant medication moderates the effects of DCS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial with 3-month follow-up conducted at an academic medical center between September 4, 2012, and September 26, 2013. Participants included 128 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of 16 or higher. Concurrent antidepressant medication was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least 2 months prior to enrollment and remained unchanged during the trial. The main analysis was by intention-to-treat population. INTERVENTIONS All participants received a previously validated Internet-based CBT protocol over 12 weeks and were randomized to receive either 50 mg of DCS or placebo, administered 1 hour before each of 5 exposure and response prevention tasks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinician-administered Y-BOCS score at week 12 and at 3-month follow-up. Remission was defined as a score of 12 or lower on the Y-BOCS. RESULTS In the primary intention-to-treat analyses, DCS did not augment the effects of CBT compared with placebo (mean [SD] clinician-rated Y-BOCS score, DCS: 13.86 [6.50] at week 12 and 12.35 [7.75] at 3-month follow-up; placebo: 11.77 [5.95] at week 12 and 12.37 [6.68] at 3-month follow-up) but showed a significant interaction with antidepressants (clinician-rated Y-BOCS, B = -1.08; Z = -2.79; P = .005). Post hoc analyses revealed that antidepressants significantly impaired treatment response in the DCS group but not the placebo group, at both posttreatment and follow-up (clinician-rated Y-BOCS: t(62) = -3.00; P = .004; and t(61) = -3.49; P < .001, respectively). In the DCS group, a significantly greater proportion of antidepressant-free patients achieved remission status at follow-up (60% [95% CI, 45%-74%]) than antidepressant-medicated patients (24% [95% CI, 9%-48%]) (P = .008). Antidepressants had no effect in the placebo group (50% [95% CI, 36%-64%] remission rate in both groups). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings suggest that antidepressants may interact with DCS to block its facilitating effect on fear extinction. Use of DCS may be a promising CBT augmentation strategy but only in antidepressant-free patients with OCD.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wikström, Maja
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Elveling, Elin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cost-effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a randomized controlled trial2015In: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and disabling disorder. Although evidence-based psychological treatments exists, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the cost-effectiveness of CBT has not been properly investigated. In this trial, we used health economic data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial, where 101 OCD patients were allocated to either internet-based CBT (ICBT) or control condition (online support therapy). We analyzed treatment effectiveness in relation to costs, using both a societal- (including all direct and indirect costs) and a health care unit perspective (including only the direct treatment costs). Bootstrapped net benefit regression analyses were also conducted, comparing the difference in costs and effects between ICBT and control condition, with different willingness-to-pay scenarios. Results showed that ICBT produced one additional remission for an average societal cost of $931 and this figure was even lower ($672) when narrowing the perspective to treatment costs only. The cost-utility analysis also showed that ICBT generated one additional QALY to an average price of $7186 from a societal perspective and $4800 when just analyzing the treatment costs. We conclude that ICBT is a cost-effective treatment and the next step in this line of research is to compare the cost-effectiveness of ICBT with face-to-face CBT. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Predictors and moderators of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from a randomized trial2015In: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has shown efficacy in randomized trials but many patients do not respond to the treatment, we therefore need to find predictors and moderators of treatment response. In this study, we analyzed predictors of ICBT response using both post-treatment as well as 24-month outcome data. As half of the participants were randomized to receive an Internet-based booster program as an adjunct to ICBT, we also investigated moderators of ICBT with or without booster. Results showed that more severe baseline OCD symptoms predicted worse end state outcome but also higher degree of change. Furthermore, high degree of working alliance predicted better outcome but patients with primary disgust emotions had worse treatment effects. The moderator analysis also indicated that scoring high on the obsessing subscale on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised predicted worse treatment outcome in the booster group. In conclusion, there are some possible predictors and moderators of ICBT for OCD but more research is needed with larger and clinically representative samples. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Testing the Mediating Effects of Obsessive Beliefs in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial2015In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 722-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cognitive interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been tested in randomized trials, there are few trials that have tested the specific mechanisms of cognitive interventions, i.e. how they achieve their effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mediating effects of a short cognitive intervention in the treatment of OCD and used data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial where 101 participants were allocated to either Internet-based CBT (ICBT) or to a control condition. Obsessive beliefs were measured at pre-treatment, at the time they had received the cognitive intervention, and also at post-treatment. Weekly OCD symptoms were measured throughout the 10 weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that (1) the ICBT group would have greater reductions in obsessive beliefs (controlling for change in OCD symptoms) after completing the cognitive intervention, and that (2) this reduction would, in turn, predict greater OCD symptom reduction throughout the rest of the treatment period. Contrary to our expectations, the longitudinal mediation analysis indicated that (1) being randomized to ICBT actually increased the degree of obsessive beliefs after receiving the cognitive intervention at weeks 1-3, and (2) increase in obsessive beliefs predicted better outcome later in treatment. However, when repeating the analysis using cross-sectional data at post-treatment, the results were in line with the initial hypotheses. Results were replicated when the control condition received ICBT. We conclude that, although obsessive beliefs were significantly reduced at post-treatment for the ICBT group, early increase rather than decrease in obsessive beliefs predicted favourable outcome. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mattson, Simon
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cost-effectiveness of an internet-based booster program for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from a randomized controlled trial2015In: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for OCD when delivered face-to-face, in group-format and also via the internet. However, despite overall large effect sizes, a considerable amount of the patients relapse. One intervention that has the potential to reduce these relapse rates is booster programs, but if booster program is a cost-effective method of preventing relapse is still unknown. We used health economical data from a recent randomized controlled trial, where patients who had undergone an internet-based CBT were randomly allocated to receive an additional booster program. Assessment points were 4-, 7-, 12- and 24-month. Health economical data were primarily analyzed using a societal perspective. Results showed that the booster program was effective in preventing relapse, and the cost of one avoided relapse was estimated to $1066-1489. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the booster program had a 90% probability of being cost-effective given a willingness to pay of $1000-1050 the first year, but this figure grew considerably after two years ($2500-5500). We conclude that internet-based booster programs are probably a cost-effective alternative within one-year time frame and that more treatment may be needed to maintain adequate cost-effectiveness up to two years. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Steneby, S.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Long-term efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder with or without booster: a randomized controlled trial2014In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 2877-2887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. As relapse after completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common, many treatment protocols include booster programs to improve the long-term effects. However, the effects of booster programs are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support for OCD with or without an Internet-based booster program. Method. A total of 101 participants were included in the long-term follow-up analysis of ICBT. Of these, 93 were randomized to a booster program or no booster program. Outcome assessments were collected at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months after receiving ICBT. Results. The entire sample had sustained long-term effects from pre-treatment to all follow-up assessments, with large within-group effect sizes (Cohen's d=1.58-2.09). The booster group had a significant mean reduction in OCD symptoms compared to the control condition from booster baseline (4 months) to 7 months, but not at 12 or 24 months. Participants in the booster group improved significantly in terms of general functioning at 7, 12 and 24 months, and had fewer relapses. Kaplan-Meier analysis also indicated a significantly slower relapse rate in the booster group. Conclusions. The results suggest that ICBT has sustained long-term effects and that adding an Internet-based booster program can further improve long-term outcome and prevent relapse for some OCD patients.

  • 11. Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Bihlar, Berit
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Katz, Lova Hillarp
    Reitan, Therese
    BIB 2010: bedömningsinstrument inom behandling och forsknings för missbruks- och beroendevård2010Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bendix, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Petersson, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Insulin and glucagon in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters and healthy controls2017In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 81, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental disorders and related behaviors such as suicidality and violence have been associated to dysregulation of e g carbohydrate metabolism. We hypothesized that patients after suicide attempt, compared to healthy controls, would have higher insulin and lower glucagon levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid and that these changes would be associated to violent behavior. Twenty-eight medication-free patients (10 women, 18 men), hospitalized after suicide attempt, and 19 healthy controls (7 women, 12 men) were recruited with the aim to study risk factors for suicidal behavior. Psychological/psychiatric assessment was performed with SCID I and II or the SCID interview for healthy volunteers respectively, the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) for assessment of lifetime violence expression behavior, the Montgomery-Asberg-Depression-Scale (MADRS) and the Comprehensive Psychological Rating Scale (CPRS) for symptomatic assessment of depression and appetite. Fasting levels of insulin and glucagon were measured in plasma (P) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Suicide attempters had higher insulin- and lower glucagon-levels in plasma- and CSF compared to controls. Except for P-glucagon these associations remained significant after adjusting for age and/or BMI. Patients reported significantly more expressed interpersonal violence compared to healthy volunteers. Expressed violence was significantly positively correlated with P- and CSF-insulin and showed a significant negative correlation with P-glucagon in study participants. These findings confirm and extend prior reports that higher insulin and lower glucagon levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are associated with suicidal behavior pointing towards a potential autonomic dysregulation in the control of insulin and glucagon secretion in suicidal patients. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Beukes, Eldre W
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Vlaescu, George
    Linköping University.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University;Lamar University, USA;Audiology India, India.
    Baguley, David M
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK;Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Allen, Peter M
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Development and technical functionality of an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus in the UK2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 6, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Creative approaches to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus treatments are required. The purpose of this study was to develop an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention, for those experiencing tinnitus in the United Kingdom (UK). Furthermore, it aimed, through technical functionality testing, to identify specific aspects of the iCBT that require improving.

    Method

    An innovative iCBT intervention for treating tinnitus in the UK has been developed using a cognitive-behavioural theoretical framework. This iCBT was evaluated by two user groups during this developmental phase. Initially, five expert reviews evaluated the intervention, prior to evaluation by a group of 29 adults experiencing significant levels of tinnitus distress. Both groups evaluated iCBT in an independent measures design, using a specifically designed satisfaction outcome measure.

    Results

    Overall, similar ratings were given by the expert reviewers and adults with tinnitus, showing a high level of satisfaction regarding the content, suitability, presentation, usability and exercises provided in the intervention. The iCBT intervention has been refined following technical functionality testing.

    Conclusions

    Rigorous testing of the developed iCBT intervention has been undertaken. These evaluations provide confidence that further clinical trials can commence in the UK, to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this iCBT intervention for tinnitus.

  • 14.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Three-Year Follow-Up Comparing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia, for Patients With Both Diagnoses2017In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 40, no 8, article id UNSP zsx108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This 3-year follow-up compared insomnia treatment to depression treatment for patients with both diagnoses. Forty-three participants were randomized to either treatment, in the form of Internet-delivered therapist-guided cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and 37 (86%) participants provided primary outcome data at the 3-year follow-up. After 3 years, reductions on depression severity were similar in both groups (between-group effect size, d = 0.33, p =.45), while the insomnia treatment had superior effects on insomnia severity (d = 0.66, p <.05). Overall, insomnia treatment was thus more beneficial than depression treatment. The implication for practitioners, supported by previous research, is that patients with co-occurring depression and insomnia should be offered CBT for insomnia, in addition to medication or psychological treatment for depression.

  • 15.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Three-Year Follow-Up of Insomnia and Hypnotics after Controlled Internet Treatment for Insomnia2016In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1267-1274, article id PII sp-00663-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of therapist-guided Internet-based insomnia treatment on insomnia severity and sleep medication use, compared with active control. Methods: This study was an 8 week randomized controlled trial with follow-up posttreatment and at 6, 12, and 36 months, set at the Internet Psychiatry Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants were 148 media-recruited nondepressed adults with insomnia. Interventions were Guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i) or active control treatment (ICBT-ctrl). Primary outcome was insomnia severity, measured with the Insomnia Severity Index. Secondary outcomes were sleep medication use and use of other treatments. Results: The large pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in insomnia severity of the ICBT-i group were maintained during follow-up. ICBT-ctrl exhibited significantly less improvement posttreatment (between-Cohen d = 0.85), but after 12 and 36 months, there was no longer a significant difference. The within-group effect sizes from pretreatment to the 36-months follow-up were 1.6 (ICBT-i) and 1.7 (ICBT-ctrl), and 74% of the interviewed participants no longer had insomnia diagnosis after 36 mo. ICBT-ctrl used significantly more sleep medication (P = 0.017) and underwent significantly more other insomnia treatments (P < 0.001) during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The large improvements in the ICBT-i group were maintained after 36 months, corroborating that CBT for insomnia has long-term effects. After 36 months, the groups did not differ in insomnia severity, but ICBT-ctrl had used more sleep medication and undergone more other additional insomnia treatments during the follow-up period.

  • 16.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Facilitating and hindering factors in Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia and depression2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 4, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia and depression is a common and debilitating comorbidity, and treatment is usually given mainly for depression. Guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i) was, in a recent study on which this report is based, found superior to a treatment for depression (ICBT-d) for this patient group, but many patients did not reach remission.

  • 17.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jerneov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergdahl, Malin Olseni
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jungmarker, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ankartjärn, Linda
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Internet Treatment Addressing either Insomnia or Depression, for Patients with both Diagnoses: A Randomized Trial2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To compare treatment effects when patients with insomnia and depression receive treatment for either insomnia or depression. Design: A 9-w randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-mo follow-up. Setting: Internet Psychiatry Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty-three adults in whom comorbid insomnia and depression were diagnosed, recruited via media and assessed by psychiatrists. Interventions: Guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for either insomnia or depression. Measurements and Results: Primary outcome measures were symptom self-rating scales (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI] and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS-S]), assessed before and after treatment with follow-up after 6 and 12 mo. The participants' use of sleep medication and need for further treatment after completion of ICBT was also investigated. The insomnia treatment was more effective than the depression treatment in reducing insomnia severity during treatment (P = 0.05), and equally effective in reducing depression severity. Group differences in insomnia severity were maintained during the 12-mo follow-up period. Post treatment, participants receiving treatment for insomnia had significantly less self-rated need for further insomnia treatment (P < 0.001) and used less sleep medication (P < 0.05) than participants receiving treatment for depression. The need for depression treatment was similar in both groups. Conclusions: In this study, Internet-delivered treatment with cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for insomnia was more effective than ICBT for depression for patients with both diagnoses. This indicates, in line with previous research, that insomnia when comorbid with depression is not merely a symptom of depression, but needs specific treatment.

  • 18.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tillgren, Hanna Tarkian
    Linköping University.
    Wiklund, Tobias
    Dept PaLinköping University.
    Danlycke, Ewa
    Linköping University.
    Forssen, Mattias
    Linköping University.
    Söderström, Alexandra
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial2015In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 70, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare guided Internet-delivered to group-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. We conducted an 8-week randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with 6-months follow-up. Participants were forty-eight adults with insomnia, recruited via media. Interventions were guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and group-delivered CBT (GCBT) for insomnia. Primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), secondary outcome measures were sleep diary data, depressive symptoms, response- and remission rates. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements and large effect sizes for ISI (Within Cohen's d: ICBT post = 1.8, 6-months follow-up = 2.1; GCBT post = 2.1, 6-months follow-up = 2.2). Confidence interval of the difference between groups posttreatment and at FU6 indicated non-inferiority of ICBT compared to GCBT. At post-treatment, two thirds of patients in both groups were considered responders (ISI-reduction > 7p). Using diagnostic criteria, 63% (ICBT) and 75% (GCBT) were in remission. Sleep diary data showed moderate to large effect sizes. We conclude that both guided Internet-CBT and group-CBT in this study were efficacious with regard to insomnia severity, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms. The results are in line with previous research, and strengthen the evidence for guided Internet-CBT for insomnia. Trial registration: The study protocol was approved by, and registered with, the regional ethics review board in Linkoping, Sweden, registration number 2010/385-31. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 19.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University.
    McCracken, Lance M.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1815-1822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia.

  • 20.
    Bratt, Anna S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Surviving the loss of a child, a spouse, or both: Implications on life satisfaction and mortality in older ages2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Losing a loved one – a child or a spouse –is described as one of the most stressful or negative experience of a person’s life. Aging is associated with a higher risk of the death of close family members, yet few studies have investigated the impact of such losses on different health outcomes either by type of loss or by the combined loss of both a child and a spouse. This thesis is based on three studies examining the effect of bereavement on the health of older adults who have lost a child, spouse, or both and whether the different losses were associated with Life Satisfaction (LS) or mortality. The sample was collected from the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care (SNAC).

    The results showed that the loss of a child, spouse or both was experienced as among the three most important negative life events in the bereaved groups. About 70% of those bereaved of a child or a spouse mentioned these losses as among their three most important negative life experiences. In the child-and-spouse-bereaved group, 48% mentioned both losses while 40% mentioned only the loss of a child or a spouse, but not both. However, only marginally effects on LS and mortality after child, spouse or child-spouse bereavement in older adults was found. Longer time since the loss was associated with higher LS and lower mortality risk, and type of loss did not seem to determine LS or mortality. Gender differences were found: child-, spouse and child-and-spouse-bereaved men had lower LS than the corresponding groups of bereaved women, and furthermore, child-bereaved men had an increased mortality risk compared to child-bereaved women. Finally, significantly more women in the child-and-spouse-bereaved group compared to the men in this group, mentioned the loss of their child but not the spouse, among the three most important negative life events.

     

  • 21.
    Bäckhed, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Törmänen, Isabella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse: En kvantitativ studie om skillnader i arbetstillfredsställelse mellan arbetare och tjänstemän2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if blue- and white collar workers differ in self-rated job-satifaction  and  also to find out if job-satisfacaction can be predicted by gender, age, period of employment and union affiliation. The study was performed at a state university in southern Sweden. The sample consisted of 80 employees from four different departments, the accounting department, the department of human reosurces, the IT department and the service department. Of these were 26 blue collar-workers and 54 white collar-workers based on union affiliation. The questionnaire was about psychosocial work environment (PAK) and is based on the test of Sigvard Rubenowitz. The test measures job-satisfaction by five different scales, self-control, work management, working community, work incentive and work load. Statistical analysis with t-test and multiple regression analysis revealed a significant difference between blue collar workers and white collar workers where white collar-workers felt more work incentive, more self-control and felt a higher work load. The result also revealed that period of employment was a significant predictor for work load and age was a significant predictor for work management and work incentive.

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Backlash and hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion, and gender2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men asagentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001)suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive genderstereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails therisk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive genderstereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs whenapplying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender,agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labormarket. The dependent variable was whether the applicationresulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do notoffer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in therecruitment process.

  • 23.
    Dahl, Mats
    et al.
    Lund Univ.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Scimone, Benjamin
    Lund Univ.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Old and very old adults as witnesses: Event memory and metamemory2015In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 764-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people constitute an important category of eyewitnesses. Episodic memory performance in older persons is poorer than in younger adults, but little research has been made on older persons' metacognitive judgments. Since more persons of advanced age will likely be called upon as witnesses in coming years, it is critical to characterize this population's metacognitive abilities. We compared event memory metacognition in old adults (66-year-old, n = 74) to very old adults (87 or 90 years old, n = 55). Participants were tested on their memory of a film, using questions with two answer alternatives and the confidence in their answer. As expected, the very old group had a lower accuracy rate than the old group (d = 0.59). The very old group, however, monitored this impairment, since their over-/underconfidence and calibration did not differ from the old group but they displayed a poorer ability to separate correct from incorrect answers (discrimination ability). Possibly, the very old group was able to monitor the level of their over-/underconfidence because they applied general self-knowledge about their memory skills. In contrast, the discrimination of correct from incorrect answers may be more dependent on ability to attend to the features of each retrieved memory.

  • 24.
    El Alaoui, Samir
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Evelyn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Effectiveness of Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Clinical Psychiatry2015In: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 83, no 5, p. 902-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has received increased attention as an innovative approach to improve access to evidence-based psychological treatments. Although the efficacy of ICBT for social anxiety disorder has been established in several studies, there is limited knowledge of its effectiveness and application in clinical psychiatric care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ICBT in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and to determine the significance of patient adherence and the clinic's years of experience in delivering ICBT. Method: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted using latent growth curve modeling of patients (N = 654) treated with ICBT at an outpatient psychiatric clinic between 2009 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Rated. Results: Significant reductions in symptoms of social anxiety were observed after treatment (effect size d = 0.86, 99% CI [0.74, 0.98]). Improvements were sustained at 6-month follow-up (d = 1.15, 99% CI [0.99, 1.32]). Patient adherence had a positive effect on the rate of improvement. A positive association between the clinic's years of experience with ICBT and treatment outcome was also observed. Conclusions: This study suggests that ICBT for social anxiety disorder is effective when delivered within the context of a unit specialized in Internet-based psychiatric care and may be considered as a treatment alternative for implementation within the mental health care system.

  • 25.
    El Alaoui, Samir
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Evelyn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Predictors of Symptomatic Change and Adherence in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Routine Psychiatric Care2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0124258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective A central goal of health care is to improve patient outcomes. Although several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of therapist guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), a significant proportion of patients do not respond to treatment. Consequently, the aim of this study was to identify individual characteristics and treatment program related factors that could help clinicians predict treatment outcomes and adherence for individuals with SAD. Method The sample comprised longitudinal data collected during a 4-year period of adult individuals (N = 764) treated for SAD at a public service psychiatric clinic. Weekly self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) scores were provided. Rates of symptomatic change during treatment and adherence levels were analysed using multilevel modelling. The following domains of prognostic variables were examined: (a) socio-demographic variables; (b) clinical characteristics; (c) family history of mental illness; and (d) treatment-related factors. Results Higher treatment credibility and adherence predicted a faster rate of improvement during treatment, whereas higher overall functioning level evidenced a slower rate of improvement. Treatment credibility was the strongest predictor of greater adherence. Having a family history of SAD-like symptoms was also associated with greater adherence, whereas Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms, male gender, and family history of minor depression predicted lower adherence. Also, the amount of therapist time spent per treatment module was negatively associated with adherence. Conclusions Results from a large clinical sample indicate that the credibility of ICBT is the strongest prognostic factor explaining individual differences in both adherence level and symptomatic improvement. Early screening of ADHD-like symptoms may help clinicians identify patients who might need extra support or an adjusted treatment. Therapist behaviours that promote adherence may be important for treatment response, although more research is needed in order to determine what type of support would be most beneficial.

  • 26.
    El Alaoui, Samir
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Predicting Outcome in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Major Depression: A Large Cohort Study of Adult Patients in Routine Psychiatric Care2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e0161191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Although the effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for treating depression has been well documented, knowledge of outcome predictors and risk factors associated with lower treatment response is limited, especially when the treatment has been conducted within a naturalistic clinical setting. Identification of such factors is important for clinicians when making treatment recommendations. Methods Data from a large cohort (N = 1738) of adult outpatients having been treated with ICBT for depression at an outpatient psychiatric clinic were analysed. A multilevel modelling approach was used to identify patient and treatment variables associated with the speed of recovery during treatment using weekly measurements of the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale Self-Rated (MADRS-S). Outcomes Adhering to the treatment, perceiving it as credible and working full-time emerged as predictors of a faster pace of recovery and were also associated with a lower level of depression at the end of treatment. Higher pre-treatment depression and sleep problems were associated with a greater improvement rate, but predicted higher depression after treatment. Having a history of psychotropic medication was associated with both slower improvement and higher post-treatment depression. Conclusion Perceived credibility of ICBT is a strong predictor of treatment response. Assessing patient beliefs and expectations may be a useful aid for clinicians when identifying those who are more or less likely to benefit from ICBT. Helping patients improve expectations prior to treatment may be an important goal for clinicians during the initial assessment phase.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The psychology of mediation: A qualitative study on mediation in Ethiopia2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this bachelor thesis was to examine and analyse the psychological factors that were important in mediation processes on local, regional, national and international levels in Ethiopia. The research questions were what these psychological factors were and how they affected the mediation process. A qualitative, semi-structured method was used and six informants with experience as mediators have been interviewed in Ethiopia. The psychological factors identified were self-esteem, losing face, ability of letting go, and mirroring. The conclusion was that this research confirmed the findings of much of the previous research, in regards to the psychological factors active in the process. The research also revealed that the psychological factors needed to be considered in the light of the Ethiopian culture and it´s collective nature. 

  • 28.
    Fernandez Grijalva, Nicia Ivonne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Pro-environmental Behavior in Mass Tourism: Testing manipulation techniques in tourists for "voluntary" sustainable actions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Five suggested experiments from tested Pro-environmental behavior change studies made in different advance economy countries were applied in the emerging economy tourist destination: Samalayuca Sand Dunes Park in Ciudad Juárez, Chih. México.  Results show that promoting connectivity between  the tourist and the destination, framing actions for tourists who are not aware about sustainable practices, encouraging sustainable actions with non monetary incentives, and reminding tourists faults against the environment are sucessful techniques to enhance pro-environmental behaviors in tourists; while a combination of these practices may enhance positive spillover to increase such actions and thus, helping to close the ”holiday” gap or the unsustainable behavior tourists show during travel.

  • 29.
    Forsell, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bendix, Marie
    Umeå University.
    Holländare, Fredrik
    Örebro University.
    von Schultz, Barbara Szymanska
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Nasiell, Josefine
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Blomdahl-Wetterholm, Margareta
    Stockholms Läns Sjuvårdsområde SLSO.
    Eriksson, Caroline
    Uppsala University.
    Kvarned, Sara
    Uppsala University.
    van der Linden, Johanna Lindau
    Uppsala University.
    Söderberg, Elin
    Uppsala University.
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Karolinska Institutet;Umeå University.
    Wide, Katarina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Internet delivered cognitive behavior therapy for antenatal depression: A randomised controlled trial2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 221, p. 56-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depression occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with many negative effects for mother and child, yet treatment options are scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first published randomised controlled trial on Internet delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) for this group. Objective: To test the efficacy of a pregnancy adapted version of an existing 10-week ICBT-program for depression as well as assessing acceptability and adherence Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Online and telephone. Population or sample: Self-referred pregnant women (gestational week 10-28 at intake) currently suffering from major depressive disorder. Methods: 42 pregnant women (gestational week 12-28) with major depression were randomised to either treatment as usual (TAU) provided at their antenatal clinic or to ICBT as an add-on to usual care. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was depressive symptoms measured with the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale-self report (MADRS-S). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and measures of anxiety and sleep were used. Credibility, satisfaction, adherence and utilization were also assessed. Results: The ICBT group had significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms post treatment (p < 0.001, Hedges g = 1.21) and were more likely to be responders (i.e. achieve a statistically reliable improvement) (RR = 0.36; p = 0.004). Measures of treatment credibility, satisfaction, utilization, and adherence were comparable to implemented ICBT for depression. Limitations: Small sample size and no long-term evaluation. Conclusion: Pregnancy adapted ICBT for antenatal depression is feasible, acceptable and efficacious. These results need to be replicated in larger trials to validate these promising findings.

  • 30.
    Fredriksson, Kim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Petersson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lärares ledarskapsstilar: En kvantitativ studie om elevers attityd till lärares ledarskapsstilar i relation till elevers och lärares kön2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskapsstilar och dess relation till kön har varit ett forskningsfält i många decennier. Oftast har det ansetts att män intar en auktoritär ledarroll medan kvinnor intar en demokratisk. På senare tid har dock följaren blivit mer uppmärksammad och i föreliggande studie kommer följarens relation till ledarroller och kön studeras. Framförallt är detta intressant i skolans värld, där läraren innehar en maktposition som ledare i klassrummet. Syftet är således att studera elevers attityd till lärare i relation till läraren och elevens kön.

    Genom ett skattningsformulär har 82 elever bedömt fiktiva scenarier för att bedöma vad de ansåg om lärarens ledarskapsstil. Resultatet visade på att elever generellt sett skattade demokratiskt ledarskap högre än auktoritärt. Dock visade resultatet inte på någon signifikant skillnad om läraren var en man eller kvinna. Likaså visade resultatet inte på någon signifikant skillnad om eleven var en man eller kvinna. Detta resultat ligger i linje med tidigare forskning, både inom Sverige och i övriga världen.

  • 31.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Behandling av narkomaner bättre än sitt rykte.: Socionomen 4:61-651998Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Comorbidity in heavy drug abuse.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Evaluating Residentional and Institutional treatment.1997In: Evaluating the Treatment of Drug Abuse in the European Union. / [ed] Baker, O. Monteney, 1997, p. 29-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Fgemårsuppföljning av narkotikamissbrukare med psykisk störning.1998In: Dubbel Trubbel, Nya rön och erfarenheter i diagnos och behandling av samtidigt beroende och psykisk störning. / [ed] Gerdner, W., Ö Sundin, Ö., Örebro: SiS/ Rönnagården , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Internationell forskning om effekter av behandling av missbrukare i kriminalvård.2005Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Kunskap enda vägen för narkomanvården.: Reprotage om Mats Fridell i Psykologtidningen No 6; 2000 s. 4-72000Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Nationella riktlinjer för missbrukarevården.2007Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Perspektiv på utvärdering vid narkotikamissbruk. Psykologi i Tillämpning 13 (1).1996Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Psykisk störning vid narkotiakmissbruk.1996In: Psykiskt störda missbrukare.: SoU-rapport no 14., Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 1996, p. 31-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Psykosocial behandling av drogberoende.2001In: SBU:Behandling av alkohol och drogproblem - En evidensbaserad forskningsöversikt., 2001, Vol II, p. 11-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Psykosocial behandling av narkotikamissbruk.: Socialt Perspektiv.2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Suicide attempts in a cohort of drug abusers: A 5-year follow-up study.1996In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, p. 362-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Svenska narkotikapolitik under trettiofem år 1950-1984. En genomgång av åtgärder och beslut i Departements- och Riksdagsarbte med valda kommentarer ur dagspressen.1986Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Tungt missbruk går att bota.: Forskning och framsteg 4: 14-17, 2001.2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Vad är Verksamma Faktorer i Miljöterapi.: Konferensrapport, 3:e konferensen om miljöterapi idag 15-16 juni 1998. Socialhögskolan Stockholm/Hälsohögskolan.1998Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Verksamma faktorer i miljöterapeutisk missbruksbehandling.2000In: Miljöterapi igpr, idag och imorgon. / [ed] Hagqvist, A., Widinghoff, B., Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2000, p. 198-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
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