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  • 1.
    Abd Alrahman, Asma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ataei, Miragha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tillfällig ändring av lag för asylsökande: En kvalitativ studie om HVB-hemspersonals uppfattning av lagändringens konsekvenser för ensamkommande barn.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to investigate HVB-home staff's perceptions of the temporary asylum law's impact on unaccompanied minors’ motivation for integration into Swedish society. On 24 November 2015, the government presented a temporary law to reduce the number of asylum seekers. The temporary law was intended to apply for three years and meant that Sweden went from having generous asylum legislation to following the EU's line for a minimum level for receiving asylum seekers. All asylum-seeking groups, such as refugees and people in need of protection, would receive temporary residence permits, except that there were exceptions for quota refugees who could obtain permanent residence permits. In the study, we used a qualitative method and conducted semi-structured interviews with five staff who had previously worked with unaccompanied children. Results from both interviews and previous research show that there are several factors that affect the mood of unaccompanied children and their integration into Swedish society. The study showed that previous psychological trauma, long waiting times for information about residence permits, loneliness and lack of meaningful activity had a negative impact on unaccompanied children's mood and motivation for integration.

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  • 2.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    The Influence of Temporal Distance on Justice and Care Morality2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.

  • 3.
    Ajdahi, Sami
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stolthet-statusmodellen och attityder till utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om hur gymnasielevers upplevelser av stolthet och social status korrelerar med deras attityder till utbildning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research by Cheng, Tracy and Henrich (2010) has identified relationships betweentwo facets of pride and two different strategies to attain social status. These relationships havebeen conceptualized to a pride-status model. The model has been tested on an Americanpopulation and only in one study has it been tested in a Swedish context. Moreover, there areno previous studies on the possible relationship between the pride-status model and positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education. Therefore, the purposes of this study were toinvestigate if the pride-status model is valid on a Swedish population and investigate how thedifferent status strategies and facets of pride relate to positive attitudes towards post-secondary education. In order to examine this, a convenience sample consisting of 609students in high school preparing for post-secondary education rated subjective experiences offacets of pride, social status strategies and attitudes towards post-secondary education. Thestudents’ ratings were correlated with each other and the difference between the correlationswas examined. The findings show that the pride-status model is partly valid on a Swedishpopulation and that the status strategies correlated significantly with positive attitudes towardspost-secondary education. The facets of pride were significantly correlated with positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education to some extent. Possible explanations of thefindings are discussed together with a methodology discussion and proposals for futureresearch within the area of the pride-status model and attitudes towards education.

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  • 4.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Qin, Jiang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Hong, Zhang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Mental Health in the left-behind Children in the Fujian Province of China2013In: Journal of Public Mental Health, ISSN 1746-5729, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - An increasing number of people are migrating within the borders of China. Some migrants have to leave their children behind, and 58,000,000 children are estimated to be living as left-behind children. Earlier studies have found severe mental problems in left-behind children, but different factors could influence their mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health of these left-behind children and to determine possible influencing factors.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were collected in one province of the P R of China with a validated instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to investigate behavior in 13- to 15-year old children.

    Findings - No significant difference was found in total difficulty score and in any subscale score of SDQ when we compared left-behind children with children who were not left behind. A significant difference in emotional difficulty subscale score was found between girls who were left behind and girls who were not. Some socio-economic factors such as poor family economy and living with relatives, friends or grandparents, were identified as risk factors.

    Originality/value - When strategies for support of the mental health in left-behind children are developed, they will need to be individualized according to the gender, social and economic situation and focused on emotional and conduct problems.

  • 5.
    Alexandersson, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress inom Räddningstjänsten: En studie om samband mellan krav, kontroll, socialt stöd och brandmäns upplevda stressnivå.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services have an important function in society and aims to deliver effective emergency response to the public's benefit. Meanwhile, the firefighting profession a high-risk profession where firefighters are exposed to diseases caused by the physical environment as various forms of cancers. They are also exposed to organizational health risks like negative stress, which is the focus of this paper. The aim of the thesis was to make clear whether there is a relationship between psychosocial work environment and perceived stress among firefighters. The issue was whether the levels of demands, control and social support can predict firemens perceived stress level? A total of 67 firefighters from two different cities in southern Sweden participated. The independent variables were demands, control and social support, measured with Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Swedish version of the Perceived Stress Scale. Demand and social support were significant predictors. Demand had a positive relationship with stress and social support was negative associated with stress. Control could not predict stress. This result is consistent to some extent with previous research.

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  • 6.
    Alexandersson, Klas
    et al.
    Sundsvall Hospital, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Malin
    Sundsvall Hospital, Sweden.
    Ekeblad, Annika
    Sundsvall Hospital, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Session-to-session effects of therapist adherence and facilitative conditions on symptom change in CBT and IPT for depression2023In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of adherence to both specific technique factors and facilitative condition variables (e.g., therapists' involvement, understanding and support) in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). In addition, we were interested in whether the effect of therapist adherence would depend on the level of the working alliance. Method: Three sessions each from 74 patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder who were randomized to 14 sessions of IPT or CBT were rated for adherence using a modified version of The Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale-6 (CSPRS-6). Data was analyzed using Multilevel Modeling. Results: No effects of adherence to specific factors on outcome were found in neither CBT nor IPT. Facilitative conditions were associated with better outcome in CBT but not in IPT, even after adjustment for the quality of the working alliance. No interaction effects were found. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of relational factors in CBT, but do not support the need for specific adherence to any of the two treatments. Possible explanations of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  • 7.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Norlén, Anna
    Pernebo, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Massoudi, Pamela
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    iRiSk II: Utveckling av bedömningsinstrument och stödinsatser för våldsutsatta barn - rapport fråm två delprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    ALREFAI, SHATHA
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Murefu, Marron
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does the intersection of gender and ethnicity of a leader at workplace affect employee perception of leadership suitability?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research within discrimination against ethnic minorities and females suggest that members of these groups face discrimination during recruitment processes in organizations. However, less is known on whether leaders from these groups are discriminated against due to their ethnicity and gender by being perceived less suitable as leaders at the workplace. Moreover, most previous research has focused on discrimination and stereotypes of members of single groups rather than of multiple group categories. In this study conducted in Sweden (N=300), we investigate whether the intersection of gender and ethnicity of a leader at the workplace affects employee perception of their leadership suitability and how signaling ethnicity and gender differs for Arab (minority) versus Swedish (majority) and Male (majority) versus Female (minority). The results show clear evidence of ethnic discrimination where a male Arab is less preferred to a leadership position than male Swede. However, there is no evidence indicating discrimination based on gender nor any significant interaction between gender and ethnicity. 

    Keywords: Discrimination, Gender, Ethnicity, Intersectionality, Leadership 

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Djurfeldt, Diana Radu
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Isung, Josef
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    d-Cycloserine vs Placebo as Adjunct to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Interaction With Antidepressants A Randomized Clinical Trial2015In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 72, no 7, p. 659-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE It is unclear whether D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist that enhances fear extinction, can augment the effects of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVES To examine whether DCS augments the effects of CBT for OCD and to explore (post hoc) whether concomitant antidepressant medication moderates the effects of DCS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial with 3-month follow-up conducted at an academic medical center between September 4, 2012, and September 26, 2013. Participants included 128 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of 16 or higher. Concurrent antidepressant medication was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least 2 months prior to enrollment and remained unchanged during the trial. The main analysis was by intention-to-treat population. INTERVENTIONS All participants received a previously validated Internet-based CBT protocol over 12 weeks and were randomized to receive either 50 mg of DCS or placebo, administered 1 hour before each of 5 exposure and response prevention tasks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinician-administered Y-BOCS score at week 12 and at 3-month follow-up. Remission was defined as a score of 12 or lower on the Y-BOCS. RESULTS In the primary intention-to-treat analyses, DCS did not augment the effects of CBT compared with placebo (mean [SD] clinician-rated Y-BOCS score, DCS: 13.86 [6.50] at week 12 and 12.35 [7.75] at 3-month follow-up; placebo: 11.77 [5.95] at week 12 and 12.37 [6.68] at 3-month follow-up) but showed a significant interaction with antidepressants (clinician-rated Y-BOCS, B = -1.08; Z = -2.79; P = .005). Post hoc analyses revealed that antidepressants significantly impaired treatment response in the DCS group but not the placebo group, at both posttreatment and follow-up (clinician-rated Y-BOCS: t(62) = -3.00; P = .004; and t(61) = -3.49; P < .001, respectively). In the DCS group, a significantly greater proportion of antidepressant-free patients achieved remission status at follow-up (60% [95% CI, 45%-74%]) than antidepressant-medicated patients (24% [95% CI, 9%-48%]) (P = .008). Antidepressants had no effect in the placebo group (50% [95% CI, 36%-64%] remission rate in both groups). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings suggest that antidepressants may interact with DCS to block its facilitating effect on fear extinction. Use of DCS may be a promising CBT augmentation strategy but only in antidepressant-free patients with OCD.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wikström, Maja
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Elveling, Elin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cost-effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a randomized controlled trial2015In: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and disabling disorder. Although evidence-based psychological treatments exists, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the cost-effectiveness of CBT has not been properly investigated. In this trial, we used health economic data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial, where 101 OCD patients were allocated to either internet-based CBT (ICBT) or control condition (online support therapy). We analyzed treatment effectiveness in relation to costs, using both a societal- (including all direct and indirect costs) and a health care unit perspective (including only the direct treatment costs). Bootstrapped net benefit regression analyses were also conducted, comparing the difference in costs and effects between ICBT and control condition, with different willingness-to-pay scenarios. Results showed that ICBT produced one additional remission for an average societal cost of $931 and this figure was even lower ($672) when narrowing the perspective to treatment costs only. The cost-utility analysis also showed that ICBT generated one additional QALY to an average price of $7186 from a societal perspective and $4800 when just analyzing the treatment costs. We conclude that ICBT is a cost-effective treatment and the next step in this line of research is to compare the cost-effectiveness of ICBT with face-to-face CBT. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Predictors and moderators of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from a randomized trial2015In: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has shown efficacy in randomized trials but many patients do not respond to the treatment, we therefore need to find predictors and moderators of treatment response. In this study, we analyzed predictors of ICBT response using both post-treatment as well as 24-month outcome data. As half of the participants were randomized to receive an Internet-based booster program as an adjunct to ICBT, we also investigated moderators of ICBT with or without booster. Results showed that more severe baseline OCD symptoms predicted worse end state outcome but also higher degree of change. Furthermore, high degree of working alliance predicted better outcome but patients with primary disgust emotions had worse treatment effects. The moderator analysis also indicated that scoring high on the obsessing subscale on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised predicted worse treatment outcome in the booster group. In conclusion, there are some possible predictors and moderators of ICBT for OCD but more research is needed with larger and clinically representative samples. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Testing the Mediating Effects of Obsessive Beliefs in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial2015In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 722-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cognitive interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been tested in randomized trials, there are few trials that have tested the specific mechanisms of cognitive interventions, i.e. how they achieve their effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mediating effects of a short cognitive intervention in the treatment of OCD and used data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial where 101 participants were allocated to either Internet-based CBT (ICBT) or to a control condition. Obsessive beliefs were measured at pre-treatment, at the time they had received the cognitive intervention, and also at post-treatment. Weekly OCD symptoms were measured throughout the 10 weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that (1) the ICBT group would have greater reductions in obsessive beliefs (controlling for change in OCD symptoms) after completing the cognitive intervention, and that (2) this reduction would, in turn, predict greater OCD symptom reduction throughout the rest of the treatment period. Contrary to our expectations, the longitudinal mediation analysis indicated that (1) being randomized to ICBT actually increased the degree of obsessive beliefs after receiving the cognitive intervention at weeks 1-3, and (2) increase in obsessive beliefs predicted better outcome later in treatment. However, when repeating the analysis using cross-sectional data at post-treatment, the results were in line with the initial hypotheses. Results were replicated when the control condition received ICBT. We conclude that, although obsessive beliefs were significantly reduced at post-treatment for the ICBT group, early increase rather than decrease in obsessive beliefs predicted favourable outcome. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mattson, Simon
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cost-effectiveness of an internet-based booster program for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from a randomized controlled trial2015In: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for OCD when delivered face-to-face, in group-format and also via the internet. However, despite overall large effect sizes, a considerable amount of the patients relapse. One intervention that has the potential to reduce these relapse rates is booster programs, but if booster program is a cost-effective method of preventing relapse is still unknown. We used health economical data from a recent randomized controlled trial, where patients who had undergone an internet-based CBT were randomly allocated to receive an additional booster program. Assessment points were 4-, 7-, 12- and 24-month. Health economical data were primarily analyzed using a societal perspective. Results showed that the booster program was effective in preventing relapse, and the cost of one avoided relapse was estimated to $1066-1489. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the booster program had a 90% probability of being cost-effective given a willingness to pay of $1000-1050 the first year, but this figure grew considerably after two years ($2500-5500). We conclude that internet-based booster programs are probably a cost-effective alternative within one-year time frame and that more treatment may be needed to maintain adequate cost-effectiveness up to two years. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Steneby, S.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Long-term efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder with or without booster: a randomized controlled trial2014In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 2877-2887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. As relapse after completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common, many treatment protocols include booster programs to improve the long-term effects. However, the effects of booster programs are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support for OCD with or without an Internet-based booster program. Method. A total of 101 participants were included in the long-term follow-up analysis of ICBT. Of these, 93 were randomized to a booster program or no booster program. Outcome assessments were collected at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months after receiving ICBT. Results. The entire sample had sustained long-term effects from pre-treatment to all follow-up assessments, with large within-group effect sizes (Cohen's d=1.58-2.09). The booster group had a significant mean reduction in OCD symptoms compared to the control condition from booster baseline (4 months) to 7 months, but not at 12 or 24 months. Participants in the booster group improved significantly in terms of general functioning at 7, 12 and 24 months, and had fewer relapses. Kaplan-Meier analysis also indicated a significantly slower relapse rate in the booster group. Conclusions. The results suggest that ICBT has sustained long-term effects and that adding an Internet-based booster program can further improve long-term outcome and prevent relapse for some OCD patients.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Lova
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Linnéa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Livet efter arbetslivet: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement is something all workers will face sooner or later. The purpose of this qualitative interview study was to investigate the subjective experience of the transition between working life and retirement of retirees, and workers in the transition phase as well as how the physical, mental and social health is affected by retiring. The purpose was investigated through twelve semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using a thematic content analysis. The participants consisted of nine men and three women, who represented a pensioner activity and a company in a smaller city in the south of Sweden. There were six participants in each group. The thematic analysis resulted in three themes, which responded to the purpose of the study: Ambivalent curiosity, Relationships and Health. Subthemes have also been identified; Role conflict, Own terms, Engagement, To feel meaning and Activities. The participants had different experiences regarding the transition phase and the adaptation to retirement, and an ambivalent curiosity emerged. The participants further felt that relationships were important and functioned as support during and after the transition, and good health was a key factor for a successful retirement. Overall, the results were consistent with previous research.

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    Livet efter arbetslivet
  • 16. Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Bihlar, Berit
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Katz, Lova Hillarp
    Reitan, Therese
    BIB 2010: bedömningsinstrument inom behandling och forsknings för missbruks- och beroendevård2010Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Atle, Ebba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Rebecca
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighetens betydelse för arbetsmotivation: En kvantitativ undersökning om relationen mellan HR-anställdas personlighet och motivation på arbetsplatsen.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work motivation is an important aspect in the process of creating functional workplaces. Especially within Human Resources, where the staff have an influence on all the employees in the business. Previous research has shown indications that personality can predict work motivation. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate this personality and work motivation relationship among HR professionals in Sweden. A survey study was conducted. 408 respondents were asked to evaluate their work motivation and personality based on two validated instruments: Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale (MWMS), and Ten Item Personality Measure (TIPI). The survey measured work motivation with four different types of regulation based on the Self-determination theory, and personality with five different personality traits based on the Big five theory. The results showed that a higher degree of neuroticism could predict a higher degree of extrinsic and introjected work motivation factors and a lower degree of intrinsic work motivation factors. Extraversion was shown to be a positive predictor of intrinsic work motivation. Openness and conscientiousness were shown to be positive predictors of both intrinsic and identified work motivation. In summary, it was concluded that neuroticism, extraversion, openness and conscientiousness are predictors of extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of work motivation.

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  • 18.
    Aykut, Hümeyra Minel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Relationship Between Theory X/Y Management Styles and Job Satisfaction: Moderation Roles of Self-Efficacy and Gender2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study focused on the relationship between management styles and job satisfaction

    of employees in the organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship

    between management style, using Theory X and Y management style and job satisfaction as

    moderated by employees’ self-efficacy and gender. The study involved N = 137 participants

    from two different Swedish organizations in the engineering and manufacturing sector based

    in Stockholm and Växjö, Sweden. The data was collected through surveys from each

    participant. Study findings showed that there was a positive correlation between self-efficacy

    and job satisfaction. Additionally, results revealed that the relationship between theory X and

    Y and job satisfaction is not moderated by either self-efficacy and gender. Based on the study,

    it was observed that job satisfaction is greatly impacted by management styles which are

    oriented more towards theory Y than theory X in the relationship between management and

    employees in organizations in Sweden. Thus, the study highlights the importance of

    employee-oriented leadership style for the organizations and how this influences job

    satisfaction of employees.

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  • 19.
    Batinovic, Lucija
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Howe, Marlon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of age discrimination in recruitment2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Correspondence and vignette experiments have already been an important part of measuring discrimination in hiring decisions for several decades, especially in terms of ethnic discrimination. Although the body of evidence is growing, no study has provided a systematic overview of age discrimination in recruitment before. Therefore, the present systematic review investigates the effect of age on discrimination levels experienced in the recruitment process, based on 14 correspondence and vignette studies in 12 distinct articles conducted between 2010 and 2019. We assess age discrimination by looking at call-back rates or indicators of hiring/interview invitation likelihood. Data was analyzedin age groups entailing 30-to 35-year-olds as comparators, and 40-to 49-, 50-to 59-, 60-to 65-and over 65-year-olds as experimental groups. Calculating log odds ratios for the respective comparisons, it was concluded that age discrimination in recruitment is indeed an observable issue, with greatest disparities apparent for participants over the age of 60. Certain limitations of this review will have to be overcome in future; such as restrictions in sample sizes and reported issues on the risk of bias.

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  • 20.
    Bauer, Oscar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lucie, Castiau
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Law of Small Numbers in Skewed Hiring Distributions: Consequences for Perceived Ethnicity Discrimination2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The law of small numbers bias is a representativeness heuristic that often leads individuals to draw extensive conclusions from small samples while underestimating the generalizability in larger ones. This study investigated whether individuals overestimate perceived discrimination in small employment samples and underestimate it in large ones. A pre-registered scenario-based experiment was conducted, where participants (N = 874) estimated probability of discrimination versus chance in skewed hiring distributions. We manipulated employment sample size (filling four vs. 100 positions) and ethnic majority (hiring more immigrants or Swedes) using a 2x2 between-subject design. A tendency for people to overestimate perceived discrimination by underestimating the impact of chance in small employment samples was revealed. Conversely, in large employment samples, people tended to underestimate perceived discrimination by overestimating the impact of chance. Hence, results aligned with the law of small numbers. Furthermore, participants were more inclined to attribute an event as discriminatory when organizations hired more Swedes than immigrants, reflecting (accurate) prototypes of discrimination. This study's implications are discussed concerning the repercussions of underestimating and overestimating perceived discrimination in hiring situations. Future research suggestions are also provided.

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  • 21.
    Bendix, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Petersson, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Insulin and glucagon in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters and healthy controls2017In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 81, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental disorders and related behaviors such as suicidality and violence have been associated to dysregulation of e g carbohydrate metabolism. We hypothesized that patients after suicide attempt, compared to healthy controls, would have higher insulin and lower glucagon levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid and that these changes would be associated to violent behavior. Twenty-eight medication-free patients (10 women, 18 men), hospitalized after suicide attempt, and 19 healthy controls (7 women, 12 men) were recruited with the aim to study risk factors for suicidal behavior. Psychological/psychiatric assessment was performed with SCID I and II or the SCID interview for healthy volunteers respectively, the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) for assessment of lifetime violence expression behavior, the Montgomery-Asberg-Depression-Scale (MADRS) and the Comprehensive Psychological Rating Scale (CPRS) for symptomatic assessment of depression and appetite. Fasting levels of insulin and glucagon were measured in plasma (P) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Suicide attempters had higher insulin- and lower glucagon-levels in plasma- and CSF compared to controls. Except for P-glucagon these associations remained significant after adjusting for age and/or BMI. Patients reported significantly more expressed interpersonal violence compared to healthy volunteers. Expressed violence was significantly positively correlated with P- and CSF-insulin and showed a significant negative correlation with P-glucagon in study participants. These findings confirm and extend prior reports that higher insulin and lower glucagon levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are associated with suicidal behavior pointing towards a potential autonomic dysregulation in the control of insulin and glucagon secretion in suicidal patients. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22. Berg Ahlfors, Katarina
    et al.
    Edvinsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur genomförs bedömning av barns behov av utredning?2019In: Handbok i barn- och ungdomspsykiatriskt utredningsarbete / [ed] Emma Edvinsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 1, p. 61-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23. Berg Ahlfors, Katarina
    et al.
    Edvinsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur presenteras utredningens resultat för barnets föräldrar och nätverk?2019In: Handbok i barn- och ungdomspsykiatriskt utredningsarbete / [ed] Emma Edvinsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 1, p. 177-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24. Berg Ahlfors, Katarina
    et al.
    Edvinsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur ser vi till att göra tillräckligt bred bedömning och ta hänsyn till den höga graden av samsjuklighet?2019In: Handbok i barn- och ungdomspsykiatriskt utredningsarbete / [ed] Emma Edvinsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 1, p. 41-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Berg, Karin
    et al.
    Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Waxegård, Gustaf
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Utvecklingsrelaterade funktionsavvikelser2022Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett av BHV:s mål är att upptäcka olika utvecklingsavvikelser för att kunna ge stöd till barnet med familj. Föräldrars oro ska alltid tas på allvar och ändamålsenliga insatser bör initieras så långt det är möjligt.

  • 26.
    Bergh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Havinder, Lars
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    In the eye of both patient and spouse: memory is poor 1 to 2 years after coronary bypass and angioplasty2002In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 0003-4975, E-ISSN 1552-6259, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 689-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The study aimed to investigate patient and spouse perception of cognitive functioning 1 to 2 years after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Methods. Seventy-six married patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting were selected and sex- and age-matched with 75 concurrent married patients who had undergone percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Couples received a letter of explanation and then completed telephone interviews. Forty-seven questions assessed memory, concentration, general health, social functioning, and emotional state. Response choices were: improved, unchanged, or deteriorated function after coronary artery bypass grafting/percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    Results. Patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting did not differ in subjective ratings on any measure from patients who had undergone percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. There were no differences between spouses in the respective groups; spouse ratings also did not differ from patient ratings. Only in memory function did patients and spouses report a postprocedural decline.

    Conclusions. No subjective differences were found in patients who had undergone either coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Spouse ratings agreed with each other and with patient ratings. Positive correlations were found between the questionnaire factors, suggesting that perceived health and well-being are associated with subjective cognition.

  • 27.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Beteendeterapeutiska föreningen, Sweden.
    Wolf, Li
    Beteendeterapeutiska föreningen, Sweden.
    Gafvelin-Ramberg, Eva
    Svenska föreningen för kognitiva och beteendeterapeutiska terapier, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Katz, Dan
    Föreningen Vetenskap och folkbildning, Sweden.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Midsweden University, Sweden.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm university, Sweden.
    Polariserad debatt om riktlinjer skymmer viktiga frågor2018In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 115, no 37, p. 1372-1372Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Debatten om Socialstyrelsens nya riktlinjer för ångest och depression har varit polariserad och inte konstruktiv. Diskussionen bör inte handla om PDT eller KBT utan om evidensbaserade metoder och kompetensbrist.

  • 28.
    Beukes, Eldre W
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Vlaescu, George
    Linköping University.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University;Lamar University, USA;Audiology India, India.
    Baguley, David M
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK;Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Allen, Peter M
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University;Karolinska Institutet.
    Development and technical functionality of an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus in the UK2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 6, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Creative approaches to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus treatments are required. The purpose of this study was to develop an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention, for those experiencing tinnitus in the United Kingdom (UK). Furthermore, it aimed, through technical functionality testing, to identify specific aspects of the iCBT that require improving.

    Method

    An innovative iCBT intervention for treating tinnitus in the UK has been developed using a cognitive-behavioural theoretical framework. This iCBT was evaluated by two user groups during this developmental phase. Initially, five expert reviews evaluated the intervention, prior to evaluation by a group of 29 adults experiencing significant levels of tinnitus distress. Both groups evaluated iCBT in an independent measures design, using a specifically designed satisfaction outcome measure.

    Results

    Overall, similar ratings were given by the expert reviewers and adults with tinnitus, showing a high level of satisfaction regarding the content, suitability, presentation, usability and exercises provided in the intervention. The iCBT intervention has been refined following technical functionality testing.

    Conclusions

    Rigorous testing of the developed iCBT intervention has been undertaken. These evaluations provide confidence that further clinical trials can commence in the UK, to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this iCBT intervention for tinnitus.

  • 29.
    Bjerén, Jonatan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Patient attachment and reflective functioning as predictors for therapist countertransference2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Therapists’ reactions towards patients are important for the therapeutic process, and is influenced by therapist and patient characteristics. This study aimed to improve the understanding of therapists’ emotional reactions by investigating if patients’ attachment and ability to mentalize predicted therapist countertransference in psychotherapy. Multilevel modeling was used to analyse 87 therapy-dyads in psychotherapy. Patient attachment, measured pre-treatment using self-reports, and mentalization operationalized as Reflective functioning (RF) were hypothesized to predict therapist self-reported emotional experiences (conceptualized as countertransference) over the complete treatment and in different treatment phases. Results showed that lower patient RF predicted more negative therapist countertransference in complete treatment. In the middle and final phases of therapy, lower RF predicted more negative countertransference, and higher RF predicted more positive countertransference. Higher level of avoidant attachment in patients predicted more relaxed therapist countertransference in the final phase of treatment. Findings indicate that patients’ mentalizing ability is important to consider in psychotherapy, as it has informational value for the therapeutic process.

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  • 30.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Three-Year Follow-Up Comparing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia, for Patients With Both Diagnoses2017In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 40, no 8, article id UNSP zsx108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This 3-year follow-up compared insomnia treatment to depression treatment for patients with both diagnoses. Forty-three participants were randomized to either treatment, in the form of Internet-delivered therapist-guided cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and 37 (86%) participants provided primary outcome data at the 3-year follow-up. After 3 years, reductions on depression severity were similar in both groups (between-group effect size, d = 0.33, p =.45), while the insomnia treatment had superior effects on insomnia severity (d = 0.66, p <.05). Overall, insomnia treatment was thus more beneficial than depression treatment. The implication for practitioners, supported by previous research, is that patients with co-occurring depression and insomnia should be offered CBT for insomnia, in addition to medication or psychological treatment for depression.

  • 31.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Three-Year Follow-Up of Insomnia and Hypnotics after Controlled Internet Treatment for Insomnia2016In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1267-1274, article id PII sp-00663-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of therapist-guided Internet-based insomnia treatment on insomnia severity and sleep medication use, compared with active control. Methods: This study was an 8 week randomized controlled trial with follow-up posttreatment and at 6, 12, and 36 months, set at the Internet Psychiatry Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants were 148 media-recruited nondepressed adults with insomnia. Interventions were Guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i) or active control treatment (ICBT-ctrl). Primary outcome was insomnia severity, measured with the Insomnia Severity Index. Secondary outcomes were sleep medication use and use of other treatments. Results: The large pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in insomnia severity of the ICBT-i group were maintained during follow-up. ICBT-ctrl exhibited significantly less improvement posttreatment (between-Cohen d = 0.85), but after 12 and 36 months, there was no longer a significant difference. The within-group effect sizes from pretreatment to the 36-months follow-up were 1.6 (ICBT-i) and 1.7 (ICBT-ctrl), and 74% of the interviewed participants no longer had insomnia diagnosis after 36 mo. ICBT-ctrl used significantly more sleep medication (P = 0.017) and underwent significantly more other insomnia treatments (P < 0.001) during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The large improvements in the ICBT-i group were maintained after 36 months, corroborating that CBT for insomnia has long-term effects. After 36 months, the groups did not differ in insomnia severity, but ICBT-ctrl had used more sleep medication and undergone more other additional insomnia treatments during the follow-up period.

  • 32.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Facilitating and hindering factors in Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia and depression2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 4, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia and depression is a common and debilitating comorbidity, and treatment is usually given mainly for depression. Guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i) was, in a recent study on which this report is based, found superior to a treatment for depression (ICBT-d) for this patient group, but many patients did not reach remission.

  • 33.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jerneov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergdahl, Malin Olseni
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jungmarker, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ankartjärn, Linda
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Internet Treatment Addressing either Insomnia or Depression, for Patients with both Diagnoses: A Randomized Trial2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To compare treatment effects when patients with insomnia and depression receive treatment for either insomnia or depression. Design: A 9-w randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-mo follow-up. Setting: Internet Psychiatry Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty-three adults in whom comorbid insomnia and depression were diagnosed, recruited via media and assessed by psychiatrists. Interventions: Guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for either insomnia or depression. Measurements and Results: Primary outcome measures were symptom self-rating scales (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI] and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS-S]), assessed before and after treatment with follow-up after 6 and 12 mo. The participants' use of sleep medication and need for further treatment after completion of ICBT was also investigated. The insomnia treatment was more effective than the depression treatment in reducing insomnia severity during treatment (P = 0.05), and equally effective in reducing depression severity. Group differences in insomnia severity were maintained during the 12-mo follow-up period. Post treatment, participants receiving treatment for insomnia had significantly less self-rated need for further insomnia treatment (P < 0.001) and used less sleep medication (P < 0.05) than participants receiving treatment for depression. The need for depression treatment was similar in both groups. Conclusions: In this study, Internet-delivered treatment with cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for insomnia was more effective than ICBT for depression for patients with both diagnoses. This indicates, in line with previous research, that insomnia when comorbid with depression is not merely a symptom of depression, but needs specific treatment.

  • 34.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tillgren, Hanna Tarkian
    Linköping University.
    Wiklund, Tobias
    Dept PaLinköping University.
    Danlycke, Ewa
    Linköping University.
    Forssen, Mattias
    Linköping University.
    Söderström, Alexandra
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet;Linköping University.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial2015In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 70, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare guided Internet-delivered to group-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. We conducted an 8-week randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with 6-months follow-up. Participants were forty-eight adults with insomnia, recruited via media. Interventions were guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and group-delivered CBT (GCBT) for insomnia. Primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), secondary outcome measures were sleep diary data, depressive symptoms, response- and remission rates. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements and large effect sizes for ISI (Within Cohen's d: ICBT post = 1.8, 6-months follow-up = 2.1; GCBT post = 2.1, 6-months follow-up = 2.2). Confidence interval of the difference between groups posttreatment and at FU6 indicated non-inferiority of ICBT compared to GCBT. At post-treatment, two thirds of patients in both groups were considered responders (ISI-reduction > 7p). Using diagnostic criteria, 63% (ICBT) and 75% (GCBT) were in remission. Sleep diary data showed moderate to large effect sizes. We conclude that both guided Internet-CBT and group-CBT in this study were efficacious with regard to insomnia severity, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms. The results are in line with previous research, and strengthen the evidence for guided Internet-CBT for insomnia. Trial registration: The study protocol was approved by, and registered with, the regional ethics review board in Linkoping, Sweden, registration number 2010/385-31. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 35.
    Boley, B. Bynum
    et al.
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Yeager, Emily Pauline
    East Carolina University, USA.
    Ribeiro, Manuel Alector
    University of Surrey, UK;University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Aleshinloye, Kayode D.
    University of Central Florida, USA.
    Woosnam, Kyle Maurice
    University of Georgia, USA;University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mimbs, Benjamin Prangle
    Georgia-Alabama Land Trust, USA.
    Measuring place attachment with the Abbreviated Place Attachment Scale (APAS)2021In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 74, no April, article id 101577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite place attachment's prominence within the environmental psychology literature, the scales and items used to measure place attachment vary significantly, hindering the ability of researchers to rally behind a standard measure. These types of discrepancies hamper the ability of researchers to directly compare findings across communities and conduct metanalyses on the antecedents and outcomes of place attachment. Furthermore, scales consisting of more than three items may unnecessarily burden respondents, thus impeding opportunities to add new constructs to surveys so that the precursors and outcomes of place attachment can be better understood. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to present and test the cross-cultural reliability and validity of an Abbreviated Place Attachment Scale (APAS) (i.e., three items for place identity and three items for place dependence) across seven samples spanning five data collections and four countries (United States, Cape Verde, Nigeria and Poland) involving residents and visitors. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the abbreviated scales perform just as well as their extended parents, and the multi-group confirmatory factor analysis reveals full measurement invariance demonstrating that the APAS is equivalent across cultures. Based on these results, the APAS should be given full attention by place attachment researchers seeking to expand the literature on the understanding of how people connect to places and the implications that these connections have on other important constructs such as quality of life, support for tourism, and place-based conservation efforts or individual environmental behaviors.

  • 36.
    Bondesson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden;Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Joud, Anna
    Lund University, Sweden;Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ringqvist, Asa
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wettermark, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Lund University, Sweden;Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Schelin, Maria E. C.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Utilization of healthcare and prescription medicines after non-pharmacological interventions for depression - A 3-year register follow-up of an RCT in primary care2022In: Preventive Medicine Reports, E-ISSN 2211-3355, Vol. 25, article id 101658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a common, recurrent disorder. There is a need for readily available treatments with few negative side effects, that demands little resources and that are effective both in the short- and long term. Our aim was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of two different interventions; physical exercise and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (internet-CBT), compared to usual care in patients with mild to moderate depression in a Swedish primary care setting. We performed a register-based 3-year follow-up study of participants in the randomized controlled trial REGASSA (n = 940) using healthcare utilization and dispensed medicines as outcomes. We found no difference between the three groups regarding proportion of participants consulting healthcare due to mental illness or pain during follow-up. Regarding number of consultations, there was no difference between the groups, except for consultations related to pain. For this outcome both treatment arms had significantly fewer consultations compared to usual care, during year 2-3, the risk ratio (RR) for physical exercise and internet-CBT was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.43-0.95) and 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41-0.90), respectively. A significantly lower proportion of patients in both treatment arms were dispensed hypnotics and sedatives year 2-3 compared to the usual care arm, RR for both physical exercise and internet-CBT was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.53-0.98). No other differences between the groups were found. In conclusion, considering long-term effects, both physical exercise and internet-CBT, being resource-efficient treatments, could be considered as appropriate additions for patients with mild to moderate depression in primary care settings.

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  • 37.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University.
    McCracken, Lance M.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1815-1822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia.

  • 38.
    Bratt, Anna S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Surviving the loss of a child, a spouse, or both: Implications on life satisfaction and mortality in older ages2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Losing a loved one – a child or a spouse –is described as one of the most stressful or negative experience of a person’s life. Aging is associated with a higher risk of the death of close family members, yet few studies have investigated the impact of such losses on different health outcomes either by type of loss or by the combined loss of both a child and a spouse. This thesis is based on three studies examining the effect of bereavement on the health of older adults who have lost a child, spouse, or both and whether the different losses were associated with Life Satisfaction (LS) or mortality. The sample was collected from the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care (SNAC).

    The results showed that the loss of a child, spouse or both was experienced as among the three most important negative life events in the bereaved groups. About 70% of those bereaved of a child or a spouse mentioned these losses as among their three most important negative life experiences. In the child-and-spouse-bereaved group, 48% mentioned both losses while 40% mentioned only the loss of a child or a spouse, but not both. However, only marginally effects on LS and mortality after child, spouse or child-spouse bereavement in older adults was found. Longer time since the loss was associated with higher LS and lower mortality risk, and type of loss did not seem to determine LS or mortality. Gender differences were found: child-, spouse and child-and-spouse-bereaved men had lower LS than the corresponding groups of bereaved women, and furthermore, child-bereaved men had an increased mortality risk compared to child-bereaved women. Finally, significantly more women in the child-and-spouse-bereaved group compared to the men in this group, mentioned the loss of their child but not the spouse, among the three most important negative life events.

     

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  • 39.
    Bratt, Anna S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Perceptions of General Attitudes towards Older Adults in Society: Is There a Link between Perceived Life Satisfaction, Self-Compassion, and Health-Related Quality of Life?2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 4, article id 3011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative attitudes towards aging are common in society. However, few studies haveinvestigated how older adults perceive this phenomenon. This study investigated (a) how olderadults in Sweden perceive general attitudes towards the older population and whether negativeperceptions are associated with low life satisfaction, self-compassion, and health-related qualityof life (HRQL), and (b) whether perceived attitudes predict life satisfaction when controlling forHRQL, self-compassion, and age. The sample comprised 698 randomly selected participants, aged66–102 years, from the Blekinge part of the Swedish National Study on Ageing and Care. The resultsshowed that 25.7% of the participants held negative attitudes towards older adults and reportedlower life satisfaction and HRQL. Self-compassion was related to higher life satisfaction, perceivedpositive attitudes, and better mental HRQL. Overall, perceived attitudes, HRQL, self-compassion,and age predicted 44% of the participants’ life satisfaction. Understanding the factors that influenceolder adults’ life satisfaction is crucial, as health-related losses might reduce the opportunity fora successful life. Our study makes an important contribution to the field, showing that perceivedattitudes explained 1.2% of the variance of life satisfaction, whereas mental and physical HRQLaccounted for 18% of life satisfaction.

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  • 40.
    Bratt, Anna S.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Maude
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmberg, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden;Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Rusner, Marie
    Region Västra Götaland, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    An internet-based compassion course for healthcare professionals: Rationale and protocol for a randomised controlled trial2022In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 28, article id 100463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Severe stress is one of the most common causes of sick leave in Sweden. Previous research hasshown that compassion interventions for healthcare professionals can decrease work-related stress through theintroduction of self-care, self-awareness, and emotion regulation abilities when experiencing difficult situations.Internet-based stress management interventions have hitherto shown promising results in reducing stress.However, further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of internet-based compassion interventions forhealthcare professionals.Objective: In the present study protocol, a randomised controlled trial is described, aiming to examine the effectsof an internet-based compassion course for healthcare professionals on work-related stress and stress ofconscience.Method: Healthcare professionals will be offered an internet-based stress management course of five modulesacross a period of five weeks. The design is a randomised controlled study consisting of three groups enrolled inone of the following: a compassion course (n = 120), a cognitive behavioural stress management course (n =120), or placed on a waitlist followed by either the compassion course or the cognitive behavioural stressmanagement course (n = 36). We hypothesise that the internet-based compassion course would reduce theparticipants’ stress of conscience to a greater degree compared to the other two groups. The secondary hypothesisis that the compassion course would increase the participants’ professional quality of life (i.e., higher jobsatisfaction and lower empathy fatigue) and self-compassion. In addition, the internet-based compassion courseis expected to reduce the participants’ work-related stress and sick leave rates to the same degree (non-inferiority)as the cognitive behavioural stress management course and to a higher degree when compared to thewaitlist condition. The primary outcome measure is the Stress of Conscience Questionnaire (SCQ) and the secondaryoutcome measures are the Professional Quality of Life Scale (PROQOL), the Work-related StressCopenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), and the Self-compassion Scale (SCS). Assessments will beperformed at baseline, four weekly assessments during treatment, post-treatment (5 weeks), and follow-ups at 10weeks, 15 weeks, and 6 months. The repeated measures data will be analysed using a generalised estimatingequation for repeated measurements to examine whether changes over time differ between the groups andwhether the improvements persist over time.Discussion: The clinical trial is expected to provide novel data on the effects of compassion interventions and addto the existing knowledge of internet-based interventions for stress management in healthcare professionals.

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  • 41.
    Brown, Nicholas
    et al.
    New School of Psychotherapy and Counselling, UK.
    MacDonald, Douglas A.
    University of Detroit Mercy, USA.
    Samanta, Manoj Pratim
    Systemix Institute, USA.
    Friedman, Harris L.
    Saybrook University, USA;University of Florida, USA.
    Coyne, James C.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands;Rutgers University, USA.
    A critical reanalysis of the relationship between genomics and well-being2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 35, p. 12705-12709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fredrickson et al. [Fredrickson BL, et al. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(33):13684–13689] claimed to have observed significant differences in gene expression related to hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions of well-being. Having closely examined both their claims and their data, we draw substantially different conclusions. After identifying some important conceptual and methodological flaws in their argument, we report the results of a series of reanalyses of their dataset. We first applied a variety of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis techniques to their self-reported well-being data. A number of plausible factor solutions emerged, but none of these corresponded to Fredrickson et al.’s claimed hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions. We next examined the regression analyses that purportedly yielded distinct differential profiles of gene expression associated with the two well-being dimensions. Using the best-fitting two-factor solution that we identified, we obtained effects almost twice as large as those found by Fredrickson et al. using their questionable hedonic and eudaimonic factors. Next, we conducted regression analyses for all possible two-factor solutions of the psychometric data; we found that 69.2% of these gave statistically significant results for both factors, whereas only 0.25% would be expected to do so if the regression process was really able to identify independent differential gene expression effects. Finally, we replaced Fredrickson et al.’s psychometric data with random numbers and continued to find very large numbers of apparently statistically significant effects. We conclude that Fredrickson et al.’s widely publicized claims about the effects of different dimensions of well-being on health-related gene expression are merely artifacts of dubious analyses and erroneous methodology.

  • 42.
    Bäckhed, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Törmänen, Isabella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse: En kvantitativ studie om skillnader i arbetstillfredsställelse mellan arbetare och tjänstemän2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if blue- and white collar workers differ in self-rated job-satifaction  and  also to find out if job-satisfacaction can be predicted by gender, age, period of employment and union affiliation. The study was performed at a state university in southern Sweden. The sample consisted of 80 employees from four different departments, the accounting department, the department of human reosurces, the IT department and the service department. Of these were 26 blue collar-workers and 54 white collar-workers based on union affiliation. The questionnaire was about psychosocial work environment (PAK) and is based on the test of Sigvard Rubenowitz. The test measures job-satisfaction by five different scales, self-control, work management, working community, work incentive and work load. Statistical analysis with t-test and multiple regression analysis revealed a significant difference between blue collar workers and white collar workers where white collar-workers felt more work incentive, more self-control and felt a higher work load. The result also revealed that period of employment was a significant predictor for work load and age was a significant predictor for work management and work incentive.

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  • 43.
    Carlsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Edvinsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilken positiv växelverkan finns mellan familjebehandling och utredningsarbete?2019In: Handbok i barn- och ungdomspsykiatriskt utredningsarbete / [ed] Emma Edvinsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 1, p. 195-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Backlash and hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion, and gender2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men asagentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001)suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive genderstereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails therisk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive genderstereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs whenapplying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender,agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labormarket. The dependent variable was whether the applicationresulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do notoffer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in therecruitment process.

  • 45.
    Cassel, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gatzacis, Jannis
    Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Renblad, Peter
    Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Clinical feasibility of cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia in a real-world mixed sample at a specialized psychiatric outpatient clinic2022In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A majority of psychiatric patients suffer from insomnia or insomnia-like problems. In addition to impairing quality of life, sleep problems can worsen psychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety, and can make treatment of various psychiatric conditions less successful. Several international guidelines recommend cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) as first line treatment. However, patients in psychiatric care are rarely offered this treatment, and there is a lack of studies evaluating the treatment in regular psychiatric settings. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the clinical feasibility of a group-based CBT-I intervention in an outpatient clinical setting for patients with depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and PTSD. We also aimed to investigate if symptoms of insomnia, depression and anxiety changed after CBT-I. Methods: Seventeen patients at an out-patient psychiatric clinic for mixed psychiatric problems of anxiety, affective disorders and PTSD, were enrolled in a six-week long group-based CBT-I intervention. Primary outcomes were pre-defined aspects of treatment feasibility. Secondary outcomes were changes in self-reported symptoms of insomnia severity, depression, and anxiety between pre - and post intervention. Assessment of insomnia severity was also performed 3 months after treatment. Feasibility data is reported descriptively, changes in continuous data from preto post-treatment were analysed with dependent t-tests. Results: All feasibility criteria were met; there were enough patients to sustain at least one group per semester (e.g., minimum 8), 88% of included patients attended the first session, mean of attended sessions was 4.9 of 6, and dropout rate was 5.9%. Therapists, recruited from clinical staff, found the treatment manual credible, and possible to use at the clinic. Symptoms of insomnia decreased after treatment, as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: CBT-I could prove as a clinically feasible treatment option for insomnia in a psychiatric outpatient setting.

  • 46.
    Dahl, Mats
    et al.
    Lund Univ.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Scimone, Benjamin
    Lund Univ.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Old and very old adults as witnesses: Event memory and metamemory2015In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 764-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people constitute an important category of eyewitnesses. Episodic memory performance in older persons is poorer than in younger adults, but little research has been made on older persons' metacognitive judgments. Since more persons of advanced age will likely be called upon as witnesses in coming years, it is critical to characterize this population's metacognitive abilities. We compared event memory metacognition in old adults (66-year-old, n = 74) to very old adults (87 or 90 years old, n = 55). Participants were tested on their memory of a film, using questions with two answer alternatives and the confidence in their answer. As expected, the very old group had a lower accuracy rate than the old group (d = 0.59). The very old group, however, monitored this impairment, since their over-/underconfidence and calibration did not differ from the old group but they displayed a poorer ability to separate correct from incorrect answers (discrimination ability). Possibly, the very old group was able to monitor the level of their over-/underconfidence because they applied general self-knowledge about their memory skills. In contrast, the discrimination of correct from incorrect answers may be more dependent on ability to attend to the features of each retrieved memory.

  • 47.
    Danfelter Kling, Gerda-Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ögren, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jämlikt stöd i vuxenpsykiatrin: Patienters upplevelse av att en person med vårderfarenhet deltar som ett moment i psykoedukativ ADHD-grupp2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 48.
    Dautovic Bergh, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    https://sverigesradio.se/artikel/bara-13-procent-fullfoljer-sin-chatt-terapi-visar-studie2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Dautovic Bergh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Katarina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Henrik
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Per
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Protein S100B after cardiac surgery: An indicator of long-term anxiety?2007In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 109-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess long-term state and trait anxiety in cardiac surgical risk patients. Design. Thirty two patients with serum S100B > 0.3 µg/l 48 hours after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were matched according to age, gender, type, date and length of surgery with 35 operated patients without elevated S100B. They completed Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results. Patients with elevated S100B reported more state anxiety and trait anxiety. S100B was an independent predictor of both state and trait anxiety when controlling for perioperative variables. Conclusions. Patients with elevated S100B reported more anxiety 3–6 years after cardiac surgery. A postoperative blood sample can identify risk patients and facilitate appropriate follow-up.

  • 50.
    Davnert, Annie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Martinsson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivationen i arbetet: Personlighetsegenskaper predicerar både intern och extern arbetsmotivation.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A high degree of motivation has been closely linked to good performance in work organizations. Some of the variation in motivation has been shown to be explained by personality, and today personality tests are frequently used in recruitment processes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether different personality traits, based on the five-factor model, could predict internal and external work motivation. The hypothesis was that different personality traits could predict internal and external work motivation. In this study, the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) was used to examine internal (W-SDM) and external (W-NSDM) work motivation. Personality traits were examined with Ten Items Personality Inventory (TIPI), which was based on the Big five with five personality traits. Multiple regression analysis showed that a high degree of neuroticism could predict both a high internal and external level of work motivation, while higher levels of extraversion could predict a high level of external work motivation. In summary, the degree of personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion can predict the level of internal and external work motivation. 

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