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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ekonomisk ojämlikhet och tillväxt i en global värld2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The question about economic inequality belongs possibly to one of the most controversial questions throughout history. The opinions regarding the pros and cons of economic inequality, but mostly regarding the degree of economic inequality are divided. Initially it was assumed that economic inequality was a precondition for economic growth since it generates investment and is essential for the creation of incentives. New research, however, suggest that growth and economic inequality has a negative relationship, especially when considered in the long run. If so, this is of great importance for economic and political decisions. Moreover, it is considered that a high degree of economic inequality prevents an inclusive political and economic society that could have a setback on the economic growth rate. This paper, taking its starting point in a mixed method, examines the relationship between economic inequality and economic growth.

  • 2.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: the influence of length of residence on the recognition of political rights among immigrants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in society. Hence, the expectation is that more politically tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when the message (or the messenger as such) challenges one’s own values and beliefs. The theoretical base of the analyses is a learning model, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using surveydata, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in high-tolerance Sweden are related to attitudinal measures of political tolerance, and to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in ‘learning institutions’ of education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that an observed positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Such an adoption, however, seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning alone is not sufficient.

  • 3.
    Adomaviciute, Ugne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Seskas, Simonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Management of Short-term Capital Flows in China2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our essay focuses on short-term capital inflows and their effects on China’s economy.The reason for this work was the increasing vulnerability of China’s economy and the risk of newupcoming world financial crisis, all because of uncontrollable amounts of speculative capitalflows. Because of this problem, we raised a main question that we try to answer in this essayhowto reduce the possibility and the severity of the future financial crisis in China? In order tosolve this problem, first we searched for the existing theory of capital flows, mainly short-termcapital inflows. We analysed why investors choose capital flows and some specific countries,why it is profitable, but also risky and what could be done by countries, to stop these inflows orat least to diminish their effect on domestic markets. After that, we looked for past experiencesof countries faced with surges of capital flows and their measures for controlling them, weanalysed, if the theoretical tools were actually effective in reality. To finish the model, weapplied these measures to China’s economy and gave our viewpoint on what could be changedin order to avoid the dangers of short-term capital inflows. Last, we sum up the whole essay andsuggest the best mix of measures that China could use to control capital inflows as well as theireffects on the economy.

  • 4.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

  • 5.
    Agevall, Ola
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Schumpeter's invitation: Sociology and the entrepreneur of economic theory2010In: From Linnaeus to the future: Letters from afar / [ed] Sven E O Hort, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2010, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Varför homo economicus inte är girig2001In: Vår tids ekonomism: En kritik av nationalekonomin, Boréa, Umeå , 2001, p. 57-80Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Are religious people more prosocial?: A quasi-experimental study with madrasah pupils in a rural community in India2009In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 368-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using quasi-experimental data, this article examines the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior. In contrast to previous studies that identify religious people by how often they attend religious services or by their self-reported religiosity, this study compares the behavior of highly devout students who are preparing to enter the clergy to the behavior of other students in a public goods game and in the dictator game. The results show that religious students were significantly more cooperative in the public goods game and significantly more generous in the dictator game than other students.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Can education affect pro-social behavior? Cops, economists and humanists in social dilemmas2008In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether education and training affect pro-social behavior. Economics students are often accused of being less pro-social. The explanations given are that less pro-social people choose to study economics or that economics studies indoctrinate students to selfish behavior. The paper experimentally tests these postulations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses the prisoner's dilemma game and stag hunt game to study cooperation across different groups of students.

    Findings – The experiment supports neither of the postulations: economics students would be indoctrinated or less pro-social people choose to study economics. However, the study shows that police cadets, who go through an education where teamwork and cooperation is promoted, become more cooperative and pro-social after their completed education.

    Originality/value – In contrast to earlier studies, this paper does not simply study economics students, but also examines if students in educational programs that promote loyalty and cooperation and encourage teamwork are more pro-social than other students.

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Conditional reciprocity in the investment game2011In: The Social science journal (Fort Collins), ISSN 0362-3319, E-ISSN 1873-5355, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 404-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether people are conditional reciprocators in an investment game experiment, in the sense that the more they are trusted, the more they reciprocate. The results show that the majority of participants are conditional reciprocators but that they can be classified into three types: (1) exploitative reciprocators who do not reciprocate and exploit trust; (2) egoistic reciprocators who neither exploit nor reward trust; and (3) generous reciprocators who reward trusting behavior.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Group identity, social distance and intergroup bias2007In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 324-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how group identity, social distance and intergroup bias may aVect economic decision-making. Two types of experimental groupings are created, and subjects are then paired with either an in-group member or an out-group member in a number of two-person games. The result of this experiment shows that out-group members face a risk of being discriminated against. The cause of the discrimination is not hostility toward out-group members; the discrimination is triggered because of higher expectations or favoritism of in-group members. This type of behavior holds, regardless of the grouping procedure.

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Muslim discrimination:: Evidence from two lost letter experiments2010In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 888-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Vad säger ett efternamn? En experimentell studie av etnisk diskriminering2003Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    What is in a surname? The role of ethnicity in economic decision making2010In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 42, no 21, p. 2715-2723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from two experiments that investigate possible incidence of discrimination against people with foreign backgrounds in Sweden. In the first experiment, participants played the trust game and the dictator game with co-players of different ethnic affiliation. The family name of the players was exposed to their co-players. Results for the trust game showed no significant discrimination against co-players with foreign backgrounds. On the other hand, the results for the dictator game showed a statistically significant discriminatory behaviour by men against co-players with non-European backgrounds. The discriminatory behaviour was solely a male phenomenon. In the second experiment, the dictator game was replicated to check the stability of the results in the first experiment. The second experiment also examined whether people with foreign backgrounds discriminate against other people with foreign backgrounds; that is, the purpose was to discover whether discrimination is systematic. The observations in the second experiment underlined the results found in the first experiment: foreign co-players are discriminated against by Swedish players. However, we did not find that people with foreign backgrounds discriminated against other people with foreign backgrounds.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    What’s in a Name? An Experimental Study of How Information about Ethnicity can Affect Economic Behavior2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Women are not always less competitive than men: Evidence from Come Dine with Me2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1099-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are women less competitive than men? Many experimental and nonexperimental studies have documented gender differences in competitiveness. This article presents the results from a study that examines gender differences in competitiveness in the television show Come Dine with Me. It is a cooking show in which amateur chefs compete against each other for a cash prize. The show provides an unusual opportunity to study gender differences in a high-stakes game environment. The results demonstrate that there are no gender differences in competitiveness.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Are lesbians discriminated against in the rental housing market? Evidence from a correspondence testing experiment2008In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 234-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment, conducted over the Internet, studying possible discrimination against lesbians in the rental housing market in Sweden. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one lesbian, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the Internet. We then investigated whether there were differences between the couples in the number of received call-backs, invitations to further contact, and invitations to immediate showings. Our findings show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords. A discussion relating to earlier findings is provided.

     

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?2010In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    We investigate how increasing the information about applicantsaffects discrimination in the rental housing market. We letfour fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim namesand two with typical Swedish names, use application letterscontaining different amounts of information to apply for apartmentsover the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants receivedfewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants.All of the applicants gained by providing more information aboutthemselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslimapplicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing theamount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Diskriminering mot -icke-heterosexuella i anställningssituationen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labor market2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 403-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Earnings differentials due to sexual orientation: A look at some possible explanations2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented earnings differentials due to sexual orientation. In this paper we take a closer look at such differentials and the explanations for them. By studying yearly earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings, we are able to observe the extent to which the earnings disadvantage that is often observed for homosexual males and the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females remain when we control for factors such as their number of hours worked. Our results suggest that male homosexuals are also at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals after controlling for number of hours worked. This disadvantage is larger at the top than at the bottom of the earnings distribution. However, for females the earnings differential is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly earnings than when we study yearly earnings. Thus, the results indicate that male homosexuals face obstacles on the labour market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings levels; the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females in previous research is more likely to stem from the fact that female homosexuals devote more time to market labour than heterosexual females do.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers2009In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 3050-3058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment regarding ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers. We let two fictitious prospective buyers, one with a typical Swedish name and one with a typical Arab/Muslim name, respond to advertisements of small business transfers on the Internet in Sweden. We then recorded the number contacts achieved by each fictitious buyer with sellers. We found that sellers discriminated against the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name in the sense that the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name obtained fewer contacts with sellers than did the buyer with a Swedish name.

  • 22.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Homosexuella diskrimineras i traditionella yrken2011In: Svenska Dagbladet (Opinion), ISSN 1101-2412, no 20 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Inter- and intra-household earnings differentials among homosexual and heterosexual couples2011In: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 49, no s2, p. s258-s278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.

  • 24.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual orientation and occupational rank2011In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 2422-2433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    The Swedish Elderly Care2006Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden: Bidrag, kritik och framtid2008In: Efterfrågad arbetskraft? / [ed] Svante Lundberg och Ellinor Platzer, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2008, p. 101-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden2009In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 105-122Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi.
    Kan diskriminering studeras med experimentella metoder?2006In: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv i migrationsforskning / [ed] Katarina Hjelm, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2006, p. 45-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Kan kvinnliga personalchefer motverka diskriminering av invandrare?2005In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 72-77Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultaten av en experimentell studie om etnisk diskriminering. Undersökningen visar att det främst är infödda män som tenderar att ha ett diskriminerande beteende. I Sverige finns lagstiftning som förbjuder etnisk diskriminering. Vi har också en särskild myndighet – diskrimineringsombudsmannen – som skall motverka etnisk diskriminering. Den presenterade undersökningen kan ge en ny infallsvinkel. Ett sätt att motverka diskriminering av invandrare kan vara att se till att andelen kvinnor som är personalchefer i företag och myndigheter ökar. Frågan om etnisk diskriminering är kanske också en jämställdhetsfråga.

  • 30.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Customer discrimination in the fast food market?: experimental evidence from a Swedish university campus2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies customer discrimination against fictive male and female food truck owners with Arabic names on a Swedish University campus using a web-based experiment. Students at a Swedish university campus were asked to participate in a market survey and state if they think it is a good idea to have a food truck establishment on the campus. Further, they were also asked about their own beliefs, and their beliefs about others’ willingness to pay for a baguette and a kebab sold by the food truck on the campus. Four names—one male Swede, one female Swede, one male Arab, and one female Arab—were randomly assigned to the food truck. We found no evidence of customer discrimination against food truck owners with Arabic names. In fact, the respondents were slightly more positive to a food truck establishment run by an Arabic male than by a Swedish male. We conclude that our results are representative in an environment with relatively young and highly educated customers and that customer discrimination may vary across different markets. More research in this area is needed.

  • 31.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: Evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, no 303, p. 588-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 32.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market: A field experiment on the Internet2008In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment on discrimination in the housing market, using the Internet as a research platform. The procedure involved our creating three fictitious persons with distinctive sounding ethnic and gender names. These individuals applied for vacant rental apartments in Sweden that were advertised by landlords on the Internet. Our findings show that the Arabic/Muslim male received far fewer call backs, enquiries, and showings than the Swedish male. Our observations also indicate that the Swedish female met with less difficulty in terms of finding an apartment than the Swedish male. Thus, based on our findings, we conclude that ethnic, as well as gender discrimination exists in the Swedish rental housing market.

  • 33.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual orientation and earnings: A register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 835-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [nb]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 35.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 900-910Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Essays on the Behavioral Economics of Discrimination2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg.
    Implicit influences of Christian religious representations on dictator and prisoner’s dilemma game decisions2011In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 242-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how implicit influences of Christian religious representations affect prosociality. We examine the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on prosocial behavior. We do so by priming participants with religious words in a scrambled sentence task before they make a dictator game and a prisoner's dilemma game decision. Priming religious words significantly increased prosocial behavior in both games: participants in the treatment group were more generous and cooperative than participants in the control group. The priming effect was present regardless of participants’ self-reported religiosity. Self-reported religiosity was not correlated with generosity or cooperation.

  • 38.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Is the hand of God involved in human cooperation?2009In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 36, no 1/2, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the supernatural punishment theory. The theory postulates that religion increases cooperation because religious people fear the retributions that may follow if they do not follow the rules and norms provided by the religion. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports results for a public goods experiment conducted in India, Mexico, and Sweden. By asking participants whether they are religious or not, one can study whether religiosity has an effect on voluntary cooperation in the public goods game. Findings – No significant behavioral differences were found between religious and nonreligious participants in the experiment. Originality/value – This paper differs from the previous limited experimental literature, studying religiosity and cooperation, in the sense that it uses a public goods game rather than a prisoner's dilemma game. The public goods game is more interesting since many real life problems are multilateral rather than bilateral. Further, the study was conducted in three different countries: India, Mexico, and Sweden; with three different types of potentialy religious people: Hindus, Catholics, and Protestants.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    The relationship between behavioral and attitudinal trust: A cross-cultural study2009In: Review of social economy, ISSN 0034-6764, E-ISSN 1470-1162, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 457-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the relationship between trust in an experiment and trust measured by means of popular survey items in different countries. Students from Chile, Colombia, India, Mexico and Sweden participate in a public goods game experiment and answer a set of standard attitudinal survey questions about trust. We find that behavioral trust and attitudinal trust significantly differ among countries. Behavioral trust is highest in Sweden, followed by Latin America, and lowest in India. Attitudinal trust is highest in Chile and Sweden, followed by India and Mexico, and lowest in Colombia. Further, the predictive power of survey items also differs among countries. Trust measured by survey items is significantly related to behavioral trust in some but not in all societies. No single survey item predicts actual trust across all countries. Plausible explanations of the inconsistent relationship between behavioral and attitudinal trust across countries are discussed.

  • 40.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Trust in India and Sweden: An experimental examination of the Fukuyama conjecture2008In: Cross-cultural research, ISSN 1069-3971, E-ISSN 1552-3578, Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 420-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors test the proposition, put forward by Francis Fukuyama, that the higher the level of trust in a country the less corrupt, the more developed, and wealthier its economy will be. They study trust and voluntary cooperation using a one-shot and three-person public goods game experiment in India and Sweden. The results, in line with the proposition, show that the average contribution is significantly larger in Sweden, implying a higher level of trust and cooperation in Sweden than in India. This article provides further evidence on the relationship between trust and economic development. This study differs from previous ones in that it uses a multilateral game experiment to study trust and cooperation rather than a bilateral game experiment. Furthermore, it provides evidence from two countries not studied before in this context.

  • 41.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och Statistik.
    Skogh, Göran
    Linköpings universitet.
    Choices at various levels of uncertainty: An experimental test of the restated diversification theorem2006In: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, ISSN 0895-5646, E-ISSN 1573-0476, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our ``Restated diversification theorem'' (Skogh and Wu, 2005) says that risk-averse agents may pool risks efficiently without assignment of subjective probabilities to outcomes, also at genuine uncertainty. It suffices that the agents presume that they face equal risks. Here, the theorem is tested in an experiment where the probability of loss, and the information about this probability, varies. The result supports our theorem. Moreover, it tentatively supports an evolutionary theory of the insurance industry--starting with mutual pooling at uncertainty, turning into insurance priced ex ante when actuarial information is available.

  • 42.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Early health and school outcomes for children with lesbian parents: evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 43.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Edlund, Lena
    Columbia University, USA.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mueller-Smith, Mike
    Columbia University, USA.
    Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data2015In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 1243-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is afoot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994–2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage—a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples—children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization.

  • 44.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Boende med konsekvens: en ESO-rapport om etnisk bostadssegregation och arbetsmarknad2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konstaterar att även om segregationen i stort sett har varit oförändrad under 2000-talet är skillnaderna mellan olika etniska grupper stora.

    Visar att bostadssegregationen samvarierar med utrikes föddas sannolikhet att ha arbete. Det finns också en koppling till arbetsinkomsten – individer bosatta i områden med många utrikesfödda har sällan höga inkomster och individer med riktigt höga inkomster har få utrikesfödda grannar.

    För att underlätta utrikes föddas integration behövs åtgärder både på bostads- och arbetsmarknaden. Särskilt viktiga är insatser som förbättrar chanserna till egen försörjning. Med arbete och tryggad inkomst ökar möjligheterna för individerna att själva välja boende. Integrationen kan också förbättras genom att det byggs bostäder med olika upplåtelseformer i samma område. Köp rapporten så får du ta del av de kompletta analyserna och förslagen!

    Rapport till expertgruppen för studier i offentlig ekonomi (ESO). ESO ligger under Finansdepartementet.

  • 45.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Debatten är viktig - men kolla fakta först2016In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination in the credit market?: Access to financial capital among self-employed immigrants2016In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 3-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique combination of survey and register data regarding access to financial capital conducted among immigrants who are self-employed in private firms in Sweden's retail, trade, and service sectors. This study is the first to examine discrimination against self-employed immigrants in the credit market of a developed economy outside the US. The results demonstrate that non-European immigrants consider access to financial capital a more serious impediment to their self-employment activities than do native Swedes and European immigrants. Self-employed non-European immigrants report more discrimination by banks, suppliers, and customers than do natives and immigrants from European countries. Immigrant-owned firms apply for bank loans to a larger extent than do firms owned by natives. Non-European immigrants especially are more likely than natives to have a loan denied, and they are also charged higher interest rates on their bank loans than natives. The results are robust to various different robustness checks. The occurrence of ethnic discrimination in the market for bank loans is put forward as an explanation for these results. Limited or lack of access to financial capital is a major obstacle to self-employment among certain immigrant groups. This obstacle may be one explanation for the high exit rates from self-employment among immigrants, a finding that has been documented in several countries including Sweden.

  • 47.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination in the credit market?: survey based evidence of access to financial capital among self-employed immigrants2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a survey regarding access to financial capital conducted among immigrants who are self-employed in private firms in Sweden's retail, trade or service sectors. The results show that non-European immigrants consider access to financial capital as a more serious impediment to their self-employment activities than do native Swedes and European immigrants. Self-employed non-European immigrants report more discrimination by banks, suppliers and customers than do natives and immigrants from European countries. Immigrant owned firms apply for bank loans to a larger extent than do firms owned by natives. Non-European immigrants are more likely than natives of having a loan denial and they are also charged higher interest rates on their bank loans than natives are. The occurrence of ethnic discrimination in the market for bank loans is put forward as an explanation for these results. Limited or no access to financial capital is an obstacle for self-employment among certain immigrant groups. This obstacle may be one explanation for the high exit rates from self-employment among immigrants that has been documented in several countries including Sweden.

  • 48.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminering på kreditmarknaden?: en enkätundersökning bland utrikes födda egenföretagare2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 50-59Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar resultaten från en enkätundersökning riktad till utrikes födda företagare. Företagare födda i länder utanför Europa upplever sig diskriminerade av kunder, leverantörer och banker i högre grad än andra företagare. De har en högre sannolikhet att få avslag på låneansökningar i banker och betalar högre ränta på beviljade banklån. Resultaten är i linje med vad som framkommit i studier från andra länder. Vi drar slutsatsen att diskriminering, åtminstone delvis, förklarar resultaten. Då en allt större andel utrikes födda i Sverige är aktiva som egenföretagare belyser våra resultat en problematik som är central för integrationen av utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden.

  • 49.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Exits from immigrant self-employment: when, why and where to?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a study of exit rates from self-employment among immigrants in Sweden. A survey was administered to all immigrants who became self-employed during the period 2001–2005 and to the members of a native comparison group. The respondents were then followed up to the year 2010. Immigrants were found to have a lower propensity than natives of exiting self-employment for wage-employment but a higher propensity than natives of exiting self-employment for unemployment or for economic inactivity. Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions are conducted to study the extent to which different background characteristics affect differences in exit rates between immigrants and natives. In line with previous research, we find that labour market and self-employment experience prior to self-employment as well as access to financial capital are important explanations for the difference between non-European immigrants and natives in exit rates from self-employment to unemployment and to being economically inactive.

  • 50.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Flyktinginvandring: sysselsättning, förvärvsinkomster och offentliga finanser2016Report (Other academic)
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