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  • 1. Andersen, Otto
    et al.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Simonsen, Morten
    Walnum, Hans Jakob
    Peeters, Paul
    Neiberger, Cordula
    CO2-emissions from the transport of China’s exported goods.2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 5790-5798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in many European countries are declining, and the European Union (EU) believes it is on track in achieving emission reductions as agreed upon in the Kyoto Agreement and the EU's more ambitious post-Kyoto climate policy. However, a number of recent publications indicate that emission reductions may also have been achieved because production has been shifted to other countries, and in particular China. If a consumption perspective is applied, emissions in industrialized countries are substantially higher, and may not have declined at all. Significantly, emissions from transports are omitted in consumption-based calculations. As all trade involves transport, mostly by cargo ship, but also by air, transports add considerably to overall emissions growth incurred in production shifts. Consequently, this article studies the role of transports in creating emissions of CO2, based on the example of exports from China. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for global emission reductions and post-Kyoto negotiations.

  • 2.
    Cohen, Scott A.
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Higham, James E. S.University of Otago, New Zealand.Gössling, StefanLinnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden.Peeters, PaulNHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.
    Understanding and Governing Sustainable Tourism Mobility: Psychological and Behavioural Approaches.2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing contribution to climate change, tourist and traveller behaviour is currently not acknowledged as an important sector within the development of climate policy. Whilst tourists may be increasingly aware of potential impacts on climate change there is evidence that most are unwilling to modify their actual behaviours. Influencing individual behaviour in tourism and informing effective governance is therefore an essential part of climate change mitigation.

    This significant volume is the first to explore the psychological and social factors that may contribute to and inhibit sustainable change in the context of tourist and traveller behaviour. It draws on a range of disciplines to offer a critical review of the psychological understandings and behavioural aspects of climate change and tourism mobilities, in addition to governance and policies based upon psychological, behavioural and social mechanisms. It therefore provides a more informed understanding of how technology, infrastructure and cost distribution can be developed in order to reach stronger mitigation goals whilst ensuring that resistance from consumers for socio-psychological reasons are minimized.

    Written by leading academics from a range of disciplinary backgrounds and regions this ground breaking volume is essential reading for all those interested in the effective governance of tourism’s contribution to climate change now and in the future.

  • 3.
    Foghagen, Christer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    The blooming paradise: algae blooms, environmental change and tourism2014In: European Journal of Tourism Research, ISSN 1994-7658, E-ISSN 1314-0817, Vol. 7, p. 79-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has become an important sector for many rural areas in Sweden. For the island Öland tourism is an important economic niche and along with agriculture, the backbone of the local economy. Island tourism systems can however, be vulnerable to environmental change. Algae blooms have repeatedly affected Baltic Sea coastlines in recent years, and destination planners in Öland reported losses of 27 million Euros for the season in 2005 alone. This article investigates related impacts on tourist decisions within the camping sector, through interrelationships of algaeblooms, weather conditions, supply of camping facilities and distance to attractions outside the camping area. It goes on to evaluate how important camping visitors state these different factors to be for their choice of destination. The method used in this article is a stated preference where the respondents are requested to evaluate a number of hypothetical alternatives. The results show that camping is an important niche within Swedish summer tourism. However, high reliance on sea, sun and sand as the primary tourism product might be challenged by weather extremes, precipitation and biotic change in the future. Proactive strategies and adaptation strategies are important steps to take in order to mitigate potential negative impacts for the future.

  • 4.
    Gren, Martin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Mapping the Anthropocene and tour-ism2016In: Tourism and the Anthropocene / [ed] Martin Gren, Edward H. Huijbens, Routledge, 2016, p. 171-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gren, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Huijbens, Edward H.
    University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    The Anthropocene and tourism destinations2016In: Tourism and the Anthropocene / [ed] Martin Gren, Edward H. Huijbens, Routledge, 2016, p. 189-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gren, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Huijbens, Edward H.University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Tourism and the Anthropocene2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book brings the field of tourism into dialogue with what is captured under the varied notions of the Anthropocene. It explores issues and challenges which the Anthropocene may pose for tourism, and it offers significant insights into how it might reframe conceptual and empirical undertakings in tourism research. Furthermore, through the lens of the Anthropocene this book also spurs thinking of the role of tourism in relation to sustainable development, planetary boundaries, ethics (and what is framed as geo-ethics) and refocused tourism theory to make sense of tourism’s earthly entanglements and thinking tourism beyond Nature-Society. The multidisciplinary nature of the material will appeal to a broad academic audience, such as those working in tourism, geography, anthropology and sociology.

  • 7.
    Gren, Martin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Huijbens, Edward H.
    Tourism Theory and the Earth2012In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 155-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that tourism is an “earthly business”, why is it that the Earth rarely explicitly appears in tourism studies and tourismtheory? In an attempt to grapple with this paradox, this paper seeks to contribute to a conceptual re-cognition of the Earth in tourismtheory by probing some theoretical obstacles and possibilities. The paper demonstrates how the Earth has been conceptually erased in tourismtheory by a privileging of the mapping of tourism and tourists onto the reference plane of the social. As an alternative the paper seeks to provide a geo-philosophically informed conceptualisation of the Earth as a primary plane of reference of which tourism is a particular form of de/re-territorialisation.

  • 8.
    Grodzińska-Jurczak, Małgorzata
    et al.
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    University of North Texas, USA.
    Kamal, Sristi
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Gutowska, Justyna
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Effectiveness of Nature Conservation: A Case of Natura 2000 Sites in Poland2012In: Protected Area Management / [ed] Barbara Sladonja, InTech, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Western Norway Res Inst, Sogndal, Norway.
    National emissions from tourism: An overlooked policy challenge?2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 59, p. 433-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has been recognized as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sector on a global scale. Yet, only few studies assess tourism's share in national emissions. This paper compares and analyses existing inventories of national emissions from tourism. Studies are difficult to compare, because they use different system boundaries and allocation principles, omitting or including lifecycle emissions and GHG other than CO2. By outlining and analysing these differences, the paper estimates the contribution made by tourism to national emissions, and its greenhouse gas intensity in comparison to other economic sectors. Results indicate that while emissions from tourism are significant in all countries studied, they may, in some countries, exceed 'official' emissions as calculated on the basis of guidelines for national emission inventories under the Kyoto Protocol. This is a result of the fact that bunker fuels are not considered in national GHG inventories, leading to underestimates of the energy- and GHG intensity of tourism economies. While further growth in tourism emissions can be expected in all countries studied, energy-related vulnerabilities are already considerable in many of these. Climate policy for tourism, on the other hand, is largely non-existent, calling for immediate action to consider this sector in national legislation. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Freytag, T
    Die Globalisierung des Tourismus in Europa aus der Perspektive des Klimawandels2012In: Geographische Rundschau, ISSN 0016-7460, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 36-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Western Norway Research Institute, Sogndal, Norway.
    Hall, C. M
    Ekström, F
    Brudvik Engeset, A
    Aall, C
    Transition management: a tool for implementing sustainable tourism scenarios?2012In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 899-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is academic, political and industry consensus that tourism should achieve greater sustainability, a process requiring stakeholder involvement on various levels. It is less clear how significant actor numbers can be mobilized to pro-actively work towards sustainability goals, achieving significant systemic change. This paper explores the transition management literature to provide a theoretical framework for stakeholder involvement and policy implementation processes in sustainable tourism. A selection of sustainable tourism initiatives by global tourism and transport organizations are reviewed and discussed with regard to the mechanisms and approaches used to involve stakeholders, and their success or otherwise in achieving change. This is compared to the results of a national tourism sustainability initiative by the Norwegian government initiated in 2010. The initiative brought together 62 leading stakeholders from all tourism interests, except airlines, for a series of six intensive discussion and goal setting sessions. Evaluation shows that stakeholder awareness and knowledge appear to have improved substantially, and potential government policy initiatives legitimized – though few tangible results can yet be seen. Overall results suggest that transition management provides a valuable theoretical framework to understand change processes, while the dialetics of stakeholder involvement and policy implementation are an essential precondition for successful governance.

  • 12.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Peeters, Paul
    Hall, C. Michael
    Ceron, Jean-Paul
    Dubois, G
    Lehmann, L
    Scott, D
    Aall, Carlo
    Tourism and Water: Supply, demand, and security. An International Review2012In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews direct freshwater consumption in tourism from both quantitative and qualitative viewpoints to assess the current water demand of the tourism sector and to identify current and future management challenges. The article concludes that even though tourism increases global water consumption, direct tourism-related water use is considerably less than 1% of global consumption, and will not become significant even if the sector continues to grow at anticipated rates of around 4% per year (international tourist arrivals). The situation differs at the regional level because tourism concentrates traveller flows in time and space, and often-in dry destinations where water resources are limited. Furthermore, the understanding of tourism’s indirect water requirements, including the production of food, building materials and energy, remains inadequately understood, but is likely to be more substantial than direct water use. The article concludes that with expected changes in global precipitation patterns due to climate change, it is advisable in particular for already water scarce destinations to engage in proactive water management. Recommendations for managing tourism’s water footprint are made.

  • 13.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Schumacher, Kim Philip
    Conceptualizing the Survival Sector in Antananarivo, Madagascar.2012In: Antipode, ISSN 0066-4812, E-ISSN 1467-8330, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 321-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article calls for the recognition of a subsector of the informal economy, which is conceptualized as the “survival sector”. Based on empirical evidence from Antananarivo, Madagascar it is suggested that beggars, street children and other marginalized people constitute a separate, non-productive subsector of the economy, which is also distinguishable from formal and informal economies because of other aspects, such as the character of its social and economic networks, survival strategies, patterns of social and physical mobility, and the social and public spaces occupied. Given the vast number of marginalized people in the world, it seems useful to consider a survival sector of its own that is, despite interlinkages, fundamentally different from other components of the informal economy.

  • 14.
    Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gössling, StefanLinnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University, Sweden ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.Scott, DanielUniversity of Waterloo, Canada.
    The Routledge Handbook of Tourism and Sustainability2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability remains one of the major issues in tourism today. Concerns over climate and environmental change, the fallout from the global economic and financial crisis, and the seeming failure to meeting UN Millennium development goals have only reinforced the need for more sustainable approaches to tourism, however they be defined. Given the centrality of sustainability in tourism curricula, policies, research and practice it is therefore appropriate to prepare a state of the art handbook on the relationship between tourism and sustainability.

    This timely Handbook of Tourism and Sustainability is developed from specifically commissioned original contributions from recognised authors in the field, providing a systematic guide to the current state of knowledge on this area. It is interdisciplinary in coverage and international in scope through its authorship and content. The volume commences with an assessment of tourism’s global environmental, e.g. climate, emissions, energy use, biodiversity, water use, land use, and socio-economic effects, e.g. economic impacts, employment and livelihoods, culture. This then provides the context for sections outlining the main theoretical frameworks and constructs that inform tourism and sustainability, management tools and approaches, and the approaches used in different tourism and travel industry sectors. The book concludes by examining emerging and future concerns in tourism and sustainability such as peak-oil, post-carbon tourism, green economy and transition tourism.

    This is essential reading for students, researches and academics interested in the possibilities of sustainable forms of tourism and tourism’s contribution to sustainable development. Its assessment of tourism’s global impact along with its overviews of sectoral and management approaches will provide a benchmark by which the sustainability of tourism will be measured for years to come.

  • 15. Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Scott, Daniel
    Gössling, Stefan
    Lunds universitet.
    The Primacy of Climate Change for Sustainable International Tourism2013In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 112-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Huijbens, Edward H.
    et al.
    University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Gren, Martin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Tourism and the Anthropocene: an urgent and emerging encounter2016In: Tourism and the Anthropocene / [ed] Martin Gren, Edward H. Huijbens, Routledge, 2016, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17. Hübner, Anna
    et al.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Tourist perceptions of extreme weather events in Martinique2012In: Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, ISSN 2212-571X, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Climate change is expected to lead to an increase in extreme weather situations, such as storms, heat waves or intense and prolonged rainfall. This paper explores in situ tourist perceptions of an extreme weather situation in the Caribbean island of Martinique. In a situation of prolonged, heavy rains in what is usually the dry season in April/May, a study was conducted including 240 questionnaires and 28 semi-structured interviews. Results indicate that tourists have a predetermined understanding of local climate conditions, which in the case of repeat visitors is also based on previous in-situ experiences. Frequent and intense rains as experienced by the tourists during the survey period are largely in conflict with weather expectations, but (largely negative) perceptions are negotiated in relation to a range of aspects, such as travel motives, explanatory information about the events, and climate change. Findings are discussed with regard to their implications for demand responses and travel behavior.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Jan Henrik
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Lunds universitet.
    Tourist responses to extreme environmental events: the case of Baltic Sea algal blooms.2013In: Tourism Planning and Development, ISSN 2156-8316, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 32-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural environment is an important element in destination choice. Regional environmental change and extreme environmental events including outbreaks of species perceived as disturbing to tourists or diminishing perceived environmental quality should consequently affect tourism. However, few studies appear to have investigated these interrelationships in particular with a view to climate change, which in the future is likely to fundamentally affect landscapes, ecosystems and individual species. Coastal landscapes and marine environments are of particular importance in this context, as nature-based tourism and sun, sand and sea tourism constitute two of the most important sub-sectors of global tourism. Focusing on algal blooms occurring in the Baltic Sea in the period 2002–2006, this article investigates tourist reactions to these events in southern Sweden. Results from an online survey with 3,217 respondents indicate that perceptions of algal blooms vary widely, ranging from disinterest to annoyance and avoidance. Results also indicate that a significant share of respondents have shortened or cancelled their holidays in the regions affected because of algal blooms. Insights derived from responses are also discussed in the context of media reports on algal blooms.

  • 19.
    Razzaq, Serrin
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Prayag, Girish
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    The capacity of New Zealand to accommodate the halal tourism market: or not2016In: Tourism Management Perspectives, ISSN 2211-9736, E-ISSN 2211-9744, Vol. 18, p. 92-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halal tourism and hospitality, also referred to as Islamic or sharia tourism, has implications for both the consumption and production of tourism and hospitality products. A number of potential attributes of halal accommodation are identified and applied to an analysis of accommodation provider websites in Auckland and Rotorua, two major tourist destinations in New Zealand, a country that is increasingly seeking to position itself as a halal friendly destination in Asia and the Middle East. The analysis of 367 accommodation websites found only three sites that specifically mentioned halal and also identified a number of attributes that may deter more conservative halal tourists. The findings raise significant questions with respect to the capacity of the New Zealand accommodation sector to both convey appropriate accommodation information to the Islamic market as well as provide satisfying experiences to those who do stay. Substantial improvements in training, education and communication strategies are recommended.

  • 20.
    Scott, Danel
    et al.
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. University of Canterbury, New Zealand ; University of Oulu, Finland ;University of Eastern Finland ; University of Johannesburg, South Africa ; University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Lund University ; Western Norway Research Institute, Norway.
    A report on the Paris Climate Change Agreement and its implications for tourism: why we will always have Paris2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 933-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Sustained international diplomatic efforts culminated in the signing of the Paris Climate Agreement by 196 countries in December 2015. This paper provides an overview of the key provisions of the agreement that are most relevant to the tourism sector: much strengthened and world-wide participation in greenhouse gas emission reduction ambitions, an enduring framework for increased ambitions over time, improved transparency in emissions reporting and a greater emphasis on climate risk management through adaptation. The declared carbon emission reduction ambitions of the tourism sector and international aviation are found to be broadly compatible with those of the Paris Agreement, however, claims of reduced emission intensity in the tourism sector since 2005 and a roadmap by which emission reduction ambitions for 2020 and 2035 might realistically be achieved both remain equivocal. The need for international tourism leadership to improve sectoral scale emission monitoring capacity to meet the increasing requirements for transparency, convene an assessment of risks from climate change and climate policy, foster greater collaboration on destination climate resilience and accelerate technological, policy and social innovation to put tourism firmly on a pathway to the low-carbon economy are all emphasized, as is the need for dialogue between tourism and tourism researchers.

  • 21.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    et al.
    University of North Texas, USA.
    Grodzińska-Jurczak, Małgorzata
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Pietrzyk-Kaszyńska, Agata
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Empowerment – human dimension in nature conservation2013In: Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą, ISSN 0009-6172, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both practitioners and scholars have neglected the social aspects of nature conservation. e recent socio- economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe has led to increasing awareness of the necessity to integrate the needs of communities into the management of natural environments. e authors argue that in Poland the growing awareness of the connection between local communities and the nature conservation needs to be followed by more community participation in the management of natural environments. By highlighting the human element in nature conservation and the concept of empowerment, the article discusses the validity of using participatory approaches to biodiversity management in CEE and in Poland.

  • 22.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    et al.
    University of North Texas, USA.
    Gutowska, Justyna
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Grodzińska-Jurczak, Małgorzata
    Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    The superfluous obstacle or the prerequisite for sustainable development: exposing participation in Leader and Natura 2000 in Poland2014In: Ekonomia i Środowisko, ISSN 0867-8898, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 46-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades Poland has experienced socio-economic and political changes with the most important stepping stone toward transition from a communist to a democratic political system was the collapse of the Communist Regime in 1989. Since the early 90s, the European Union (EU) has become a primary agent of political transition through different policies and funding mechanisms, having significant impacts on how rural development is implemented. After the country’s accession to the EU in 2004, regional and local rural programs promoted participatory mechanisms with communities acting as the legitimate stakeholder to determine conditions for rural development.

  • 23.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    et al.
    University of North Texas, USA.
    Josiam, Bharath
    University of North Texas, USA.
    Spears, Daniel L.
    University of North Texas, USA.
    Monterrubio, J. Carlos
    Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, Mexico.
    Looking At Residents’ Attitudes towards Spring Break Tourism in Texas through the Lens of Community Attachment2014In: Florida International University Hospitality Review, ISSN 0739-7011, Vol. 31, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of spring break tourism in many destinations has become problematic, predominantly due to the excessive behaviour of college students. This paper examines residents’ attitudes toward spring break tourism in South Padre Island (located in Texas, USA) through the lens of community attachment. By understanding the attitudes of residents of the host communities, tourism planners and policy-makers can create policies to shape the character of tourism according to the residents’ needs. The findings suggest that, at this point in time, community residents perceive that the benefits of spring break tourism benefits exceed its’ costs. Also, the short and intense season of spring break tourism allows residents to better deal with social costs.

  • 24.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    et al.
    University of North Texas, USA.
    Wicks, Bruce E.
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
    Community Participation and Empowerment in Rural Post-Communist Societies: Lessons from the Leader Approach in Pomerania, Poland2015In: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, E-ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 381-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empowerment, community participation and social capital have all been heavily researched within tourism development, yet few have looked at how they apply in a post-communist rural society. Filling the gap, this work helps to understand the community participation and empowerment in rural post-communist communities. The study demonstrates that despite there being an agreement that sustainable tourism development must consider residents’ needs and involve them in planning processes, empowering communities in the post-communist Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) setting is challenging owing to the unique political culture of the CEE. The qualitative approach was used to better capture tourism stakeholders' perspectives and experiences of challenges to community participation in tourism development in a post-communist setting.

  • 25. Tervo-Kankare, Kaarina
    et al.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Univ Oulu, Dept Geog, Oulu, Finland & Univ Canterbury, Dept Management, Christchurch 1, New Zealand.
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    Christmas Tourists' Perceptions to Climate Change in Rovaniemi, Finland2013In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 292-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rovaniemi in Finnish Lapland is the self-proclaimed official home of Santa Claus.' However, in recent years, after several warm and snowless season starts, Christmas tourism businesses have expressed concern about the future of the region's winter tourism industry. This paper examines the challenges of winter tourism operators to adapt to changing environmental conditions by surveying the responses of tourists to potential changes in winter conditions. In the light of climate change projections, maintaining the attractive image of a snow-covered winter wonderland may become impossible. Results indicate that tourists react negatively to estimated changes and planned adaptation mechanisms. This situation may force tourism entrepreneurs and destination managers to reconsider the consequences of current adaptation strategies and develop new attractions and marketing strategies in order to attract new markets and/or rebrand the destination.

  • 26.
    Öztürkcan, Selcen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Globalization and Economic Growth2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization describes the ongoing global trend toward the freer flow of trade and investment across borders and the resulting integration of the international economy. Because it expands economic freedom and spurs competition, globalization is believed to raise the productivity and living standards of people in countries that open themselves to the global marketplace. Globalization has evolved since Columbus and de Gama sailed from Europe more than 500 years ago. This paper surveys the economic growth associated with globalization. Doing so, it investigates the dynamics between openness, poverty, inequality, and globalization. It also explores the methods that could have been utilized by the developing countries.

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