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  • 1.
    Adamsson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Kommunikationskanaler vid intern nyhetsspridning: En fallstudie om hur kommunikationskanaler påverkar den upplevda kommunikationseffektiviteten vid nyhetsspridning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunikation är en förutsättning för att organisationer ska fungera och sätten att kommunicera på har utvecklats i takt med den tekniska utvecklingen. Med det stora utbudet av kommunikationskanaler som finns idag kan det vara svårt att veta vilken kommunikationskanal som lämpas i olika situationer. Den här rapporten baseras på en fallstudie där den upplevda kommunikationseffektiviteten tenderade att variera beroende på vilken kommunikationskanal som användes vid nyhetsspridning. Tidigare forskning har studerat hur valet av kommunikationskanal kan påverka kommunikationseffektiviteten ur olika perspektiv, men inte då informationstypen är en nyhet. Därför ansågs det intressant att studera hur olika kommunikationskanaler påverkar kommunikationseffektiviteten vid nyhetsspridning.

     

    Syftet med studien var att lyfta fram och beskriva hur kommunikationskanaler påverkar den upplevda kommunikationseffektiviteten, när informationstypen är en nyhet. För att uppnå syftet skulle följande forskningsfråga besvaras:

     

    • Vilka för- och nackdelar upplever anställda med kommunikationskanaler gällande kommunikationseffektiveten vid nyhetsspridning på ett stort nationellt företag?

     

    Teorier som användes för att uppnå syftet med studien var Media Richness Theory och Osgood och Schramms cirkulära kommunikationsmodell. Teorierna har använts för att förklara hur nyhetsspridning sker på fallföretaget och för att belysa och eventuellt förklara upplevda problem i samband med nyhetsspridningen.

     

    Data samlades in genom tillämpning av en kvalitativ metod och utförandet av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Undersökningen visade att det upplevdes för- och nackdelar med samtliga kommunikationskanaler, samt att den upplevda kommunikationseffektiviteten tenderade att variera, beroende på vilken nyhetstyp som kommunicerades via kommunikationskanalerna. När resultatet ställdes mot forskningsfrågan och det teoretiska ramverket visade det sig att upplevda för- och nackdelar med kommunikationskanalerna, var kopplat till huruvida nyhetstypen är rutin- eller icke rutinmässig och hur den matchas med en rik eller fattig kommunikationskanal, vilket Media Richness Theory också förklarar.

     

    Slutsatsen av studien visade att nyhetsspridning som sker face to face och via telefon möjliggör interaktion och förmedling av känslor i realtid, men där känslor inte upplevs förmedlas lika bra via telefon som face to face, de många signalerna kan dessutom upplevas som överväldigande. Mejl, anslagstavla och intranät är tidsmässigt effektivt och plats och tids oberoende i olika grad. Däremot är möjligheten till interaktion och förmedling av känslor begränsad. Resultatet tyder på att kommunikationskanalernas för- och nackdelar verkar vara kopplat till huruvida kommunikationskanalerna upplevs som lämpliga för att förmedla olika typer av nyheter. Rika kommunikationskanaler upplevs som effektiva för att förmedla icke rutinmässiga nyheter och mindre rika kanaler upplevs som effektiva för att förmedla rutinmässiga nyheter.

  • 2. Barbabella, Francesco
    Family carers: Technology-based support services2015Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Schmidt, Andrea
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Chiatti, Carlos
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    A theoretical framework for assessing the impact of ICT-based interventions for carers2012Inngår i: Gerontechnology, ISSN 1569-1101, E-ISSN 1569-111X, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 393-393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Initiatives using information and communication technologies (ICTs) as support for carers of dependent older people are reported since the early 1990s, mainly in form of phone services, computer networks, and video respite. Although the role of ICTs in home care gained increasing relevance in the last decades – for instance in the areas of social integration, care coordination and ambient assisted living (AAL) – few attempts have been made to systematically understand the potentialities of such technologies, overcoming single technology or intervention domains. In this respect, the issues of terminology ambiguity and lack of comparability represented major barriers, so that most of evaluation studies in this area led to mixed and/or inconclusive results. Drawing on the findings of the CARICT-project, this paper discusses the development of a theoretical and conceptual framework to assess the impact ofI CT-based interventions for carers. Method Literature review and a mapping exercise of 52 ICT-based initiatives for carers in 8 countries. Results & Discussion We will provide the results of a mapping exercise of 52 case studies, showing the diversity of existing good practices across Europe and carrying out a review of available impact assessment of these initiatives from a social ecological perspective (at micro-, meso- and macro-level). Subsewquently, we will discuss a theoretical and conceptual framework that is built on the basis of available evidence, leading toa proper classification of ICT-based interventions in relation to types of interactions between actors they support: an attempt is made to group the solutions in coherent and comprehensive classes, with related implications for impact assessments and comparative analysis. Main classes include: alarms, home automation, auto-communication, meta-services, information and training, cognitive stimulations and mental exercises, support group sessions, individual care and support services, and social participation tools. Finally, recommendations for future research in the field are formulated with regard to the assessment and comparability of these services, as well as to the testing and development of new solutions.

  • 4. Carretero, Stephanie
    et al.
    Stewart, James
    Centeno, Clara
    Barbabella, Francesco
    Schmidt, Andrea
    Lamontagne-Godwin, Frédérique
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Can Technology-based Services support Long-term Care Challenges in Home Care?: Analysis of evidence from social innovation good practices across the EU : CARICT project summary report2012Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Deployment and use of technological services for informal carers is still limited, mainly due to users' low digital skills, the lack of demonstrated business cases, and the poor evidence of the impact and sustainability of these services. The CARICT project aimed to collect evidence-based results on the impact of ICT-enabled domiciliary care services, and to make policy recommendations to develop, scale and replicate them in the European Union. The methodology was based on a mapping of 52 ICT-based services for informal carers developed in Europe, and a cross–analysis of 12 of these initiatives to get data on their impacts, drivers, business models, success factors, and challenges. The main results show that there is a wide range of successful, not very costly and beneficial examples of ICT-based support for carers across Europe. The cross-analysis indicated that these services had positive impacts on the quality of life of elderly people and informal carers, the quality of care and the financial sustainability of the health and social systems. The data also confirm that policy at European, national, regional and local levels can promote the successful development, implementation and transferability of these services through funding, policy leadership and by promoting stronger cooperation among stakeholders including end-users, mainly from the third sector and informal carers, to create a new value chain in the provision of long-term care. These findings help to achieve the objectives of European policy defined by the 2020 Strategy, and more specifically the Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE) and the European Innovation Partnership on Healthy and Active Ageing (EIP AHA)

  • 5.
    Carretero, Stephanie
    et al.
    Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Spain.
    Stewart, James
    Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Spain.
    Centeno, Clara
    Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Spain.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Schmidt, Andrea
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Lamontagne-Godwin, Frédérique
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Austria.
    Can Technology-based Services support Long-term Care Challenges in Home Care?: Analysis of Evidence from Social Innovation Good Practices across the EU: CARICT Project Summary Report2012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Deployment and use of technological services for informal carers is still limited, mainly due to users' low digital skills, the lack of demonstrated business cases, and the poor evidence of the impact and sustainability of these services. The CARICT project aimed to collect evidence-based results on the impact of ICT-enabled domiciliary care services, and to make policy recommendations to develop, scale and replicate them in the European Union. The methodology was based on a mapping of 52 ICT-based services for informal carers developed in Europe, and a cross–analysis of 12 of these initiatives to get data on their impacts, drivers, business models, success factors, and challenges. The main results show that there is a wide range of successful, not very costly and beneficial examples of ICT-based support for carers across Europe. The cross-analysis indicated that these services had positive impacts on the quality of life of elderly people and informal carers, the quality of care and the financial sustainability of the health and social systems. The data also confirm that policy at European, national, regional and local levels can promote the successful development, implementation and transferability of these services through funding, policy leadership and by promoting stronger cooperation among stakeholders including end-users, mainly from the third sector and informal carers, to create a new value chain in the provision of long-term care. These findings help to achieve the objectives of European policy defined by the 2020 Strategy, and more specifically the Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE) and the European Innovation Partnership on Healthy and Active Ageing (EIP AHA)

  • 6.
    Davis, Megan
    et al.
    Hertfordshire University, UK.
    Otero, Nuno
    Hertfordshire University, UK.
    Dautenhahn, Kerstin
    Hertfordshire University, UK.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher L
    Hertfordshire University, UK.
    Powell, Stuart D
    Hertfordshire University, UK.
    Creating a software to promote understanding about narrative in children with autism: Reflecting on the design of feedback and opportunities to reason2007Inngår i: IEEE 6th International Conference on Development and Learning, 2007. ICDL 2007., IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, s. 64-69Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    TouchStory is a software game that aims at improving the understanding of narrative by children withautism. In fact, the underlying conceptual framework intends to investigate to what extent we can improve the children's understanding of narrative through the introduction of simple game-like tasks that address primitive components of narrative. The game has strong analogies with the concrete, physical world. Our design approach, following our knowledge regarding this particular group of learners, was to'keep things simple', introducing features only if necessary to provide each individual child with a focussed and enjoyable game, from which that particular child may learn about, or absorb, (or become more familiar with) primitive components of narrative. In this paper we concentrate on issues of reward, feedback, and opportunities for reasoning (about the task and/or their own performance) provided bysoftware. We present results from the first 7 visits of an ongoing longitudinal study involving 6 childreneach with a diagnosis of autism. We consider the children's apparent engagement with TouchStory, and in particular, we focus on the strategy each child adopts and consequent feedback from the software. This analysis prompted us to further reflect on the specificities of this group of children and the challenges to create supportive learning environments.

  • 7.
    de Kervenoael, Ronan
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey;Aston Business School, UK.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Cetin, Seda
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Soylu, Yesim
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Adopting the experiential values propositions as e-atmospherics: an illustration through the case of e-banking2008Inngår i: Paper presented at the 15th International EIRASS Conference on recent advances in Retailing and Services Science (EIRASS), Zagreb, Croatia, July 14-17, 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For a couple of years now, the Columbia Business School and in particular Bernd Schmitt have been advocating for more work to be done regarding 'experiential marketing'. Taking the case of e-atmospherics in Turkish e-banking practices, we revisit the theory of strategic experiential modules which are sense, feel, think, act and relate. Two major ebanking experience providers' types of communication, product design, retail presence and epresence have been unpacked. These are Garanti Bank, who's known with its many award winning web site, and Akbank who has a standard web site. The Turkish banking at the border of the EU and under global influences has expended and liberalized dramatically over the last decade making the most of new technologies, hence offering an interesting perspective in a non-homogenous society where the technological divide remains important. First a qualitative content analysis of both bank's homepages is conducted. This is followed by 43 online surveys, where 18 is Garanti Bank consumer, 19 is Akbank consumer and 6 is both Garanti and Akbank consumer, to explore how e-atmospherics experiential features currently recognized by users. Our findings indicate that experiential marketing in e-banking can be expected to be the key to greater online migration of consumers and differentiation among the players. Yet, while the first two steps sense and feel are explicitly developed by both players, act and relate still remain poor. Moreover, 'think' is discovered to be a key moderator where both banks seem to lack clear strategy.

  • 8.
    de Kervenoael, Ronan
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey;Aston Business School, UK.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Eryarsoy, Enes
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Kasap, Nihat
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Categorizing ‘intention to use’ e-government services through mobile phone: the importance of front loading activities2008Inngår i: Paper presented at the International Conference on Information Resources Management (Conf-IRM), Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, May 18-20, 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    E-government has often been heralded as the new way forwards for emerging countries. While many such countries are already offering e-government services and are gearing up for further growth, little is actually known of the forming stages that are necessary to ensure a greater rate of success and avoid the traditional failure traps linked to new technology and information system adoption and diffusion. We situate our research in the case of mobile phone as a reflection of the current market situation in emerging countries. We contend, in this paper, that more research is needed to understand future intention to use e-government services through mobile phone technology. Front loading activities both from a government and technology perspectives are required to facilitate the decision making process by users.

  • 9.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Reddy, Kishore
    Institute of Technology in Madras, India.
    The AUGMENT Project: Co-constructive Mapping and Support of Accessibility and Participation2010Inngår i: Electronic Participation: Second IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 29 – September 2, 2010. Proceedings / [ed] Efthimios Tambouris ; Ann Macintosh ; Olivier Glassey, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, s. 95-103Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ongoing multi-disciplinary research-and development project in which we are exploring emerging methods and practices for participatory design of tools and content of accessibility information in India and Sweden, based on user created content. The initial development of the AUGMENT-Project also includes the production of a prototype for sharing information. The joint set up and unfolding of public digital spaces and cooperative creation of processes and infrastructure for user-driven accessibility information is making use of existing handheld mobile phones which offer the possibility to upload pictures and comments via an application with a map-based interface. The research initiative is exploring and comparing cross-cultural participatory methods for cultivation of shared transformational spaces. The paper discusses both the notion of user-driven content and co-creation of tools and methods, drawing upon the tradition of Scandinavian Systems Design, explicitly arguing for direct user-representation in systems development.

  • 10.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge institute of technology.
    Making an exit in research: ethical and practical implications in a society dependent on sustainability2004Inngår i: Public Proofs: Science technology and democracy, Paris, 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws upon experiences and involvement in several joint research- and development (R&D) projects, organised as a kind of “micro innovation system”, involving multi-organisational and multi-disciplinary cooperators, mainly within the area of e-government or IT-support for homecare. Each project was organised around development or costumization of a computer application, supporting for instance on-line public services, citizen participation or IT-support for home care within the public sector. However, after realisation of the projects, only a few of the applications are maintained. These projects could be regarded as concrete examples of the ongoing reconfiguration of a cluster in a regional innovation system (Miettinen, 2002, p.17, OECD, 1999), and not just as single, stand-alone projects in an expanding region, but also as vital parts in ongoing enactment and refiguration of an extensive national innovation system. The issue then becomes : what implications does this joint innovative growth-stimulation have for the question of completion of research in a growth-intense region, which is concentrating not solely on quick fixes but also on stabilizing innovation? What are the practical and ethical consequences of “making an exit” in the middle of an ongoing mustering of strength – for instance for the citizens, the researchers and the society? These issues are discussed in relation to empirical material gathered during involvement in the start-up of an e-government arena, within the framework of TANGO (Thematic arenas Nourish Growth Opportunities), a program partly funded through Innovative Actions within the European Regional Development Funding (ERDF). Findings, reflections and insights show tensions and ongoing negotiations concerning different perspectives expressed as process- as well as product-orientation in the development. The large amount of ICT-projects, are seen from another perspective, also contributing to the increasing growth in the region. One of the municipalities was appointed “National Leader in Growth municipality” in the year of 2001. The TANGO project itself may actually also be seen as a result of increased regional growth. But the question still remains: is it ever possible to stabilize innovation?

  • 11.
    Eriksén, Sara
    et al.
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hansson, Christina
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Winter, Jeff
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    What Have We Learned from the TANGO Arena for Regional Cooperation Around e-Government in Southern Sweden?2004Inngår i: Electronic Government: Third International Conference, EGOV 2004, Zaragoza, Spain, August 30-September 3, 2004. Proceedings / [ed] Roland Traunmüller, Springer: Springer, 2004, s. 156-163Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The TANGO e-government arena is a project in Southern Sweden, funded by the Innovative Actions of the European Regional Development Fund. The project is now nearing its end, and we are thus at the stage of reflectively reviewing what has actually been accomplished and how this relates to the original goals of the project. In July 2002, when the project began, the aim was to establish cooperation between the public sector, private enterprise and university-based research in designing public e-services. In cooperating around development of new, integrated services, catering to various categories of users as well as to a growing diversity of mobile technologies, we have aimed towards establishing feedback channels between practice and theory, between use and design, and between different academic disciplines where we see a need to synchronize the models and methods we work with. Our research questions have focused on exploring and managing multi-perspectivity as a resource for design. In this paper we look at how we organized our cooperation around these goals, and attempt to address those basic summing-up-the-project questions; How well have we succeeded? What have we learned in the process?

  • 12.
    Gibney, Michele
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Disruptive but not disreputable: Discussing open access2019Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The open access landscape is highly disruptive to established publishing practices and large changes are taking place globally in this arena. Some dismiss and resist the evolution of open access publishing practices as disreputable progress and wish to turn back the clock while others laud it as the future rise of scholarship.

    This presentation will provide a broad overview of the open access discussion and focus on several research projects currently underway to ascertain faculty, student, and alumni reactions to their own open access author- and reader-ship from both developed and transition countries.

  • 13.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Applying the Analytical Lens of Constructive alignment and Conversational Framework for Course and E-learning Platform Development2013Inngår i: Proceedings of Norwegian konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi, NOKOBIT -2013. / [ed] Fallmyr Terje et al., Oslo / Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, Vol. 21, s. 159-172Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of educational needs for offering a master’s degree program in Information Security both to campus and distance students is of extreme importance in order to improve curriculum design as well as e-learning platform. The case of an Internet Security course and e-learning platform were analyzed. The theoretical framework based on constructive alignment theory (Biggs, 1996) and conversational frame-work (Laurillard, 2002) has been used as an analytical lens to analyze the case and guide the ongoing research process for improvement in the courses as well as for the development and improvement of e-learning platform. It is proposed that in order to improve the quality of teaching and enhance the e-learning platform all the courses included in MSc program in Information Security should be developed systematically based on specific pedagogical principles. The systematic development approach will help the instructors to enhance understanding and provide guidelines to incorporate the mindset of construc-tive alignment. Information Security education benefits greatly from hands-on laboratory oriented exer-cises. Therefore, e-learning platform including InfoSec lab must be designed and developed based on pedagogical principles. In this way we can argue for the true benefits of the learning technology being developed for a specific purpose. Hence, learning technology is not considered as merely a knowledge-transmitting tool but viewed as an ensemble artifact. This article attempts to put forward a theoretical framework to provide pedagogical guidelines for alignment of courses and for the selection of suitable e-learning platform.

  • 14.
    Kazeem, Ganiat Omolara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Technology In Policing: An ethnographic study of the use of information and communication technology within Bedfordshire police force2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Policing in The United Kingdom is an intricate business, balancing the enforcement of statute and other laws while dealing with public safety and security. Policing engages a diverse and complicated set of organisational structures and processes relying heavily on the skill and expertise of officers on the ground. Their role in preventing and or intercepting crime before, during and after it occurs is integral to sustaining peace, security, law and order in communities. The police operational and logistics staff work day to day with information and communication technologies, ranging from conventional databases and information systems to ubiquitous and specialised tools.  Understanding the use of technology and its management in policing has formed the backbone of this research conducted through a qualitative approach.

    This study adopted an interpretive paradigmic analytical lens using ethnography situated in the workplace as a methodology. The qualitative study took the form of field immersion for nine months using interviewing, and shadowing/observation to suit the complexity of the socio-technical context. Analysis was conducted using thematic analytical methods. Understanding how the police force interact with and shape the way that information and communication technologies enable them to fight crime is, then, the subject of this thesis.

    The findings highlighted the complexities and  intricacies involved in the use of technology, identifying unique differentiations in the way technology is engaged and integrated into policing including comparative understanding relative to other sectors and industries.  On the whole the central features of this work highlight understanding of the role information and communication technologies; usefulness, usage in practice and operational activity, strategic business goals, knowledge management, business intelligence and intelligence led architecture, governance and performance models in policing the county of Bedfordshire, England. 

  • 15.
    Keller, Damián
    et al.
    Federal University of Acre, Brazil.
    Otero, Nuno
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME).
    Lazzarini, Victor
    National University of Ireland, Ireland.
    Pimenta, Marcelo Soares
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    de Lima, Maria Helena
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Johann, Marcelo
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Costalonga, Leandro
    Federal University of Espirito Santo, Brazil.
    Interaction Aesthetics and Ubiquitous Music2015Inngår i: Creativity in the Digital Age / [ed] Nelson Zagalo and Pedro Branco, Springer, 2015, s. 91-105Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two recent approaches to interaction design have good potential to address creative practice in everyday settings: interaction aesthetics and ubiquitous music. We discuss the theoretical and methodological issues raised by both perspectives and highlight the similarities and differences among the two approaches. Through the analysis of a series of experiments, a common theme emerges: relational properties may provide a useful target for creativity-oriented experimental work.

  • 16.
    Kleijn Edvardsson, Monita
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    IKT i förskolan: Datorn som ett pedagogiskt verktyg för lärandet2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 17.
    Ljungkvist, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för medier och journalistik (MJ).
    The myth of social media: A qualitative study of deliberation and power in Facebook-pages of the Swedish Police2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of social media by the Swedish Police for democratic purposes. The idea of citizen empowerment is closely related to the development of new communication technologies such as social media. Yet many studies indicate that governmental institutions rarely make use of the assumed potentials of social media.

    In this study, the democratic potential of social media is derived from Habermas normative concept of deliberative participation. Operational definitions emphasize discursive equality, interactive reciprocity and external impact. The analytical framework is combined with qualitative text analysis to highlight the conditions of interaction between representatives of the Police and citizens.

    In conclusion: the democratic potential of social media, from a Habermasian point of view, is to a significant extent neglected at the expense of its strategic advantages. In fact, the promise of interactive reciprocity obscures the passivisation and disempowerment of citizens. However, the study is limited to a specific sphere of influence and does not account for other forms of citizen participation made possible with social media or modern ICT.

  • 18. Mckay, Elspeth
    et al.
    Askenäs, Linda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Aidemark, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Participatation Learning: Designing for mobile enhanced self-managed healthcare (MESH)2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Nordbeck, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Lika barn leka bäst?: Hur påverkas engagemang av att motparten inte är en människa utan en dator?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan som denna rapport ställer sig är hur en användares engagemang i en aktivitet påverkas av vetskapen att motparten är en datorstyrd, dels jämfört med om motparten är en människostyrd Agent jämfört med en människostyrd Avatar och dels beroende på om den datorstyrda Agenten uppvisar ett mer mänskligt beteende, till motsats till ett mer maskin-likt.

    I syfte att besvara denna fråga har en utförlig litteraturstudie gjorts, som dels utforskat konceptet Engagemang, men även utforskat andra koncept, såsom Social närvaro, Ethopoeia och Simulering av mänskligt beteende.

    Dessa teorier har sedan använts för att utveckla ett webbaserat experiment, vars mål har varit att samla empiriska data. Experimentet gick ut på att lösa en serie enklare matematiska uppgifter, vissa mot datorn och andra med en mänsklig administratör som deltog på distans, och det som mättes var s.k. Dwell time, d.v.s. hur länge användaren var engagerad nog att ha fokus på aktiviteten.

    Resultatet visade att det fanns klara indikationer på att engagemanget i aktiviteten är lägre om motparten styrs av en dator, jämfört med om den styrs av en människa. Den andra ”delfrågan” var svårare att definitivt svara på, men författaren anser att det går att tolka resultatet som att engagemanget blir högre.

  • 20.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Samuelsson, Ulli
    Jönköping University.
    Viscovi, Dino
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    At risk of exclusion?: Degrees of ICT access and literacy among senior citizens2018Inngår i: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 55-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on data derived from a nationwide postal survey (n = 1264) with a simple random sample of Swedes between ages 65 and 85 (response rate: 63%), the article analyses the general patterns of: (a) degrees of information and communication (ICT) access and (b) ICT-literacy among Swedish senior citizens. The overall patterns of access and literacy are analysed in light of senior citizens’ assets – conceptualized as material, discursive and social resources – and their age and gender. The analysis reveals a positive correlation between levels of material (e.g., income), discursive (e.g., English skills) and social (e.g., social networks) resources and access to ICT. With greater resources, the average number of devices increases. The analysis also reveals a positive correlation between discursive and social resources and ICT-literacy. Gender has no bearing on access to devices, but might have some effect on ICT-literacy. The correlation between age, access and literacy is negative. With increasing age, both access and literacy decreases. In this respect, the study reveals a generational effect. However, since all three resources tend to decrease over the life cycle, the results are also discussed in terms of an age effect. These data and our analyses are contextualized by a critical discussion that reflects on the implications of these general patterns: What do they mean for senior citizens’ abilities to be included and participate in a continuously digitalizing society?

  • 21.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Samuelsson, Ulli
    Jönköping university.
    Viscovi, Dino
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Var femte äldre stängs ute i det nya digitala samhället2017Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 2 oktober, s. 1s. 6-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Viscovi, Dino
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Samuelsson, Ulli
    Jönköping University.
    Not a Generation of Non-Users: Variations in Elderly’s Online Practices2017Inngår i: NordMedia 2017, Tampere, Finland, 2017, s. 1-26Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within both research and public debates, internet based media are mainly perceived as young people’s media. This becomes particularly obvious in popular conceptualizations such as “the Digital generation”, “the Internet generation”, or “the Facebook generation”. When referring to statistical studies of internet use and internet usage, this perception is also to some extent verified; younger users present both more and more varied patterns of usage. Young people in Sweden, between 16 and 25, spend an average of nearly 40 hours a week on the Internet. However, 50 percent of the elderly (75+) are still non-users. Hence, there is some substance in the generational view of users of online media.

    There are, however, at least two different but interrelated problems affiliated with such a view. Firstly, the generational view very easily overlooks differences in-between young users. For instance, the notion “Facebook generation” implicitly treats all contemporary individuals in their early twenties as habitual users of social media. Nevertheless, within this category there are in fact also very modest users of social media, and even absolute non-users. Secondly – and most importantly within the frames of this paper – a generational view of internet based media implicitly, by default, treats older people in general and senior citizens in particular as non-users.

    Rather than understanding senior citizens as a coherent generation of (non-)users, this paper departs from an ambition to illustrate variations in use of online media among senior citizens. It draws on a large scale Swedish survey (n=1264, response rate 63%). The paper deploys multiple regression analysis in order to map overarching user profiles among Swedish senior citizens. More specifically, it identifies and elaborates on five profiles: administration, consumption, welfare service, media usage and production. The analysis further relates these varying profiles to senior users’ assets in terms of material, discursive and social resources. The latter analysis reveals, for instance, how discursive resources (such as “skills in English”) have a positive impact on all five user profiles, while social (for instance “having children”) and material resources (such as “income”) have a positive impact on three and two profiles respectively.

    The paper concludes by reflecting on the potential implications of these varying user profiles among senior citizens. What do the variations between different segments of senior citizens mean in terms of their inclusion in or exclusion from a society in which both commercial and public services are reshaped from analogue to digital formats?

  • 23.
    Otero, Nuno
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Oakley, Ian
    Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.
    External representations and the design of seamless learning systems: Toward a conceptual framework to analyze empirical evidence regarding learning benefits2019Inngår i: Seamless Learning: Perspectives, Challenges and Opportunities / [ed] Chee-Kit LooiLung-Hsiang WongChristian GlahnSu Cai, Springer, 2019, s. 53-72Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in technology-enhanced learning highlight the increasing importance of mobile digital tools in learning scenarios; seamless learning, or learning that spans contexts and activities within and without the classroom, is becoming mainstream. Despite the growing body of the literature in this area, this chapter highlights a general focus on technological issues and perspectives and a lack of theoretically driven discussion. We argue that theoretically/conceptually inspired literature reviews covering pedagogy and cognitive aspects of learning are currently needed to establish a grounded framework for future research in this area. This paper contributes one such analysis—it proposes and reflects on the issues raised when considering seamless learning from the perspective of the established literature on external representations (ERs), a core concept in distributed or embodied accounts of cognition. Core issues we discuss are: (a) what are the challenges facing seamless learning from an ERs perspective? (b) how can knowledge about ERs be applied to seamless learning systems?, and (c) what methodological challenges will emerge if seamless learning systems are studied from the perspective of ERs? This discussion is intended as a bridge between practical and applied work in seamless learning and theoretical or laboratory-based work in ERs—it seeks to drive the field of seamless learning forward by highlighting best practices from an established theoretical perspective. By elaborating on a theoretically grounded lens, we seek to empower researchers to identify promising approaches for the design and evaluation of next-generation high impact seamless learning solutions. © 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

  • 24.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Bahcesehir University, Turkey.
    The rise and fall of a fake psychologist as an Instagram celebrity2017Annet (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    de Kervenoael, Ronan
    Aston Business School, UK.
    Kasap, Nihat
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Eryarsoy, Enes
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Mobile phone and e-government in Turkey: practices and technological choices at the crossroad2008Inngår i: Paper presented at the International Conferences on Mobile Government and the Mobile Society, Antalya, Turkey, September 16-19, 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced data services through mobile phones are expected to be soon fully transactional and embedded within future mobile consumption practices. While private services will surely continue to take the lead, others such as government and NGOs will become more prominent m-players. It is not yet sure which form of technological standards will take the lead including enhance SMS based operations or Internet based specifically developed mobile phone applications. With the introduction of interactive transactions via mobile phones, currently untapped segment of the populations (without computers) have the potential to be accessed. Our research, as a reflection of the current market situation in an emerging country context, in the case of mobile phones analyzes the current needs or emergence of dependencies regarding the use of m/e-government services from the perspective of municipality officers. We contend that more research is needed to understand current preparatory bottlenecks and front loading activities to be able to encourage future intention to use e-government services through mobile phone technologies. This study highlights and interprets the current emerging practices and praxis for consuming m-government services within government.

  • 26.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    et al.
    Istanbul Bilgi Univ, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Sengun, Sercan
    Istanbul Bilgi Univ, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Pleasure in Pain: How Accumulation in Gaming Systems Can Lead to Grief2016Inngår i: Gamer Psychology and Behavior / [ed] Bostan, B, Springer, 2016, s. 41-55Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter applies the concepts of regulatory focus and regulatory fit into gaming structures and articulates their effects especially inside massively multiplayer games to understand the behavior of players inside gaming structures, as well as emotional transitions associated with them.

  • 27.
    Perez, David
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Memeti, Suejb
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Pllana, Sabri
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A simulation study of a smart living IoT solution for remote elderly care2018Inngår i: 2018 Third International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC), Barcelona, Spain: IEEE, 2018, s. 227-232Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a simulation study of a smart living IoT solution for elderly people living in their own houses. Our study was conducted in the context of BoIT project in Sweden that investigates the use of various IoT devices for remote housing and care-giving services. We focus on a carephone device that enables to establish a voice connection via IP with care givers or relatives. We have developed a simulation model to study the IoT solution for elderly care in the Vaxjo municipality in Sweden. The simulation model can be used to address various issues, such as determining the lack or excess of resources or long waiting times, and study the system behavior when the number of alarms is increased. Simulation results indicate that a 15% increase in the arrivals rate would cause unacceptable long waiting times for patients to receive the care.

  • 28.
    Platanias, Efthymios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Exploring User Experience of IT-artefacts: A Human-centred approach on handheld devices2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Master thesis focuses on the interaction of humans with technology with a special focus on User Experience (UX). Drawing on the theory of Human Computer Interaction, this interpretive research study explores the User Experience of handheld devices acting as IT-artefacts with a Human-Centred Design approach. Specifically, the Master thesis through a series of semi-structured interviews explores the users’ perceptions of the current use of Handheld Laser Barcode Scanners which are utilized in a large Swedish food retail chain store. Furthermore, it explores users’ desired characteristics of the Handheld Laser Barcode Scanners regarding User Experience, in order to derive suggestions that direct the design of more human-centred handheld IT-artefacts. Through its findings, the research study confirms that users’ expectations play an important role in designing technological artefacts, while technology also shapes users’ expectations

  • 29.
    Reneland-Forsman, Linda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Toward a broader understanding of social talk in Web-based courses2012Inngår i: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 349-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactive potential of computer-mediated communication has proved more difficult to realize than expected. This study tries to break away from the normative status of speech underlining computer-mediated communication by asking how social talk is manifested in web-based learning environments. The asynchronous communication of 55 students during a study period of 18 weeks was studied using mediated discourse analysis. Students were training for pre-school teachers in 4-years program. Students’ ability to create a group culture seemed significant for how they developed group autonomy and were able to handle unexpected incidents or a loose framing. Communication was narrative and lengthy in character and trusts and confidences were dropped off as part of a constant construction of group culture. These students did not adopt or develop known means of compensating for the loss of non-verbal clues. There were indications of sharing private concerns and information from other practices in life as a conditional aspect of participation. When having trouble to cope, it was the youngest students who failed.

  • 30.
    Rosenqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Wendel, Louise
    Kommunikation och relation mellan lärare elev via IKT: En kvalitativ studie av elevers erfarenhet i gymnasiet2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad som är en god relation till eleverna och hur det skapas via kommunikation är en kunskap

    som lärare hanterar dagligen i sin yrkesroll. Vi ser ett problem i relationen kring lärare elev

    relationen om vi lärare inte möter upp våra elever via IKT. Dagens ungdomar har växt upp i en

    värld där mobiltelefoner, datorer och internet ger ständiga möjligheter till att kommunicera.

    Samspel och relation är den viktigaste faktorn för att föra kunskap vidare till nästa generation,

    nu finns det även en ny arena för denna kunskapsöverföring och det är IKT. Vårt syfte är att se

    vilka erfarenheter eleverna har av olika kommunikationsformer via IKT med sina lärare. Samt

    elevens erfarenhet av relationen när kommunikationen via IKT sker mellan lärare elev ur ett

    elevperspektiv. Vi lärare har en viktig roll i förändringarna som sker genom att kommunicera

    via IKT, möter vi eleverna så kan vi på så vis skapa ett samspel över IKT.

  • 31.
    Shidende H., Nima
    et al.
    University of Dodoma.
    Igira T., Faraja
    Institute of Finance Management.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    An Ethnographically Informed Participatory Design of Primary Healthcare Information Technology in a Developing Country Setting2017Inngår i: Participatory Design & Health Information Technology / [ed] Kanstrup, A.M., Bygholm, A., Bertelsen, P. & Nøhr, C, Amsterdam, Berlin, Washington DC: IOS Press, 2017, 233, s. 131-147Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnography, with its emphasis on understanding activities where they occur, and its use of qualitative data gathering techniques rich in description, has a long tradition in Participatory Design (PD). Yet there are limited methodological insights in its application in developing countries. This paper proposes an ethno- graphically informed PD approach, which can be applied when designing Primary Healthcare Information Technology (PHIT). We use findings from a larger multi- disciplinary project, Health Information Systems Project (HISP) to elaborate how ethnography can be used to facilitate participation of health practitioners in developing countries settings as well as indicating the importance of ethnographic approach to participatory Health Information Technology (HIT) designers. Further- more, the paper discusses the pros and cons of using an ethnographic approach in designing HIT.

  • 32.
    Stigmar, Martin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Pagden, Nicholas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Körnefors, Rune
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    The Modified Role of University Teachers in ICT-supported Flexible Learning2012Inngår i: Intelligent Decision Technologies, ISSN 1872-4981, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 113-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades there have been extensive investments in order to stimulate ICT-supported flexible learning. The increased interest in flexible learning has heightened the need for a critical analysis of the consequences of on-line teaching. However, critics argue that the new teacher role has not yet been thoroughly scrutinized. The aim of this paper is to trigger a debate about the changes and challenges related to the modified teacher role at universities. The methodology follows empirical data from interviews and literature surveys as well as our own experience in different flexible courses and continuous training of colleagues. Results of this study problematize both positive and negative implications on the teacher role in ICT-supported flexible learning, e.g. tendencies of teacher de-professionalization, increased ICT-dependency and uncertainty of quality in learning outcome. In conclusion our findings emphasize the need for increased teacher training in using ICT in educational settings.

  • 33.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Zapico, Jorge Luis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME).
    Sustainable food systems with ICT?2016Inngår i: 4th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S 2016), Atlantis Press , 2016, Vol. 46, s. 194-201Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The food system is burdened by many and severe negative environmental and social impacts. Two of the reasons for the impacts are the increasing scale and globalisation of the food system. ICT has been put forward as a means to enhance sustainability in society, yet the potential for food systems is underexplored. In this paper we review ICT solutions for improved sustainability of food systems, which are used in practice or are discussed as potential solutions. The aim is to identify ICT solutions that can potentially enhance sustainability in the food system. We review mostly scientific literature. The ICT solutions are categorized according to four main purposes of the approach, to 1) efficiency through monitoring and assessment of environmental impact, 2) enhance transparency and traceability in the food system, 3) creating network between actors in the food chains, 4)influence and change food practices. We conclude that there is no coherent research field covering ICT in food systems. The papers reviewed are scattered over several disciplines and scientific journals. We also conclude that there is a predominance of research on monitoring of food production and ransparency and traceability in the food chain. More research is needed that take on holistic approaches and include several parts of the food system.Furthermore, we would also like to see more research onwhat sustainable food systems could be like and how ICT couldsupport and perhaps sometimes hinder such developments.

  • 34. Torp, Steffen
    et al.
    Bing-Jonsson, PC
    Hanson, Elizabeth
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Experiences with using information and communication technology to build a multi-municipal support network for informal carers2013Inngår i: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 265-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This multi-municipal intervention study explored whether informal carers of frail older people and disabled children living at home made use of information and communication technology (ICT) to gain knowledge about caring and to form informal support networks, thereby improving their health. Seventy-nine informal carers accessed web-based information about caring and an e-based discussion forum via their personal computers. They were able to maintain contact with each other using a web camera and via normal group meetings. After the first 12 months, 17 informal carers participated in focus group interviews and completed a short questionnaire. Four staff members were also interviewed. Participant carers who had prior experiences with a similar ICT-based support network reported greater satisfaction and more extensive use of the network than did participants with no such prior experience. It seems that infrequent usage of the service may be explained by too few other carers to identify with and inappropriate recruitment procedures. Nevertheless, carers of disabled children reported that the intervention had resulted in improved services across the participant municipalities. To achieve optimal effects of an ICT-based support network due attention must be given to recruitment processes and social environment building for which care practitioners require training and support.

  • 35.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Sharp, Linda
    Maskinteknik i Oskarshamn AB.
    Teaching PD: Learning from a Small Industrial Project2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference: Short Papers, Interactive Exhibitions, Workshops - Volume 2, New York: ACM Press, 2016, s. 33-36Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we reflect on teaching PD, in an experience report of a student project taking place in an industrial context. The paper contributes to discussions in the PD community about how PD is, and could be, taught. It looks at what happened in the project, and issues that arose, from the point of view of the students and the company. It looks at the way in which uncertainty and power relations have played a role in the project, and how the students have been affected by them. It discusses the importance of the co-design that took place, mainly around prototyping, and the difficulties students experienced when working with PD methods. It looks at the importance of the roles involved in the project. We end with important points for discussion concerning teaching PD.

  • 36.
    Zapico, Jorge Luis
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för medieteknik (ME). Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Ulrica, Bohné
    Royal Institute of Technology, (KTH).
    Rebecka, Milestad
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Eco-feedback Visualization for Closing the Gap of Organic Food Consumption2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the  NordiCHI '16: The 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction : Game Changing Design, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, artikkel-id 75Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of EcoPanel, an eco-feedback visualization created in collaboration with a Swedish food retailer. The visualization uses automatic data gathering to provide consumers with detailed information and long-term trends about their organic food consumption. The results from a five months test with 65 users show an increase in organic purchases compared to the control group, especially for the users who overestimated their percentage of organic food before the test. From the results we point out the possibilities of using visualization as a way of creating insight on behaviors such as food consumption, that are difficult to grasp from individual actions. This insight can be a way of closing the gap between attitudes and actual behavior, helping users that are already aware and willing to change, to perform more sustainable.

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