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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet.
    Andraspråksinlärning och förstaspråksutveckling i en andraspråkskontext2012In: Flerspråkighet – en forskningsöversikt / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Monica Axelsson, Inger Lindberg, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2012, p. 153-246Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Helen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The British hedgerow in Sweden: Dealing with spatial differences and reader differences related to the author-reader relationship and culture-specific referents aided by a translation-oriented text analysis model2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    The British hedgerow in Sweden: Dealing with spatial differences and reader differences related to the author-reader relationship and culture-specific referents aided by a translation-oriented text analysis model
  • 3.
    Adriansson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Förstaspråks- och andraspråkselevers språkliga performans: En elevtextbedömning med performansanalysen som analysverktyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 4.
    Airey, John
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Initiating Collaboration in Higher Education: Disciplinary Literacy and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.2011In: Dynamic content and language collaboration in higher education: theory, research, and reflections / [ed] Jacobs, C., Cape Town: Cape Peninsula University of Technology , 2011, p. 57-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Airey, John
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    The relationship between teaching language and student learning in Swedish university physics2011In: Language and learning in the international university: From English uniformity to diversity and hybridity / [ed] B. Preisler, I. Klitgård & A. Fabricius, Multilingual Matters, 2011, p. 3-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala University.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014In: Book of Abstracts: The First Conference of the International Association for Cognitive Semiotics (IACS-2014), September 25-27, 2014, 2014, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

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  • 7.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visualizing dynamic text corpora using Virtual Reality2018In: ICAME 39 : Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018: Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society : Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 205-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, data visualization has become a major area in Digital Humanities research, and the same holds true also in linguistics. The rapidly increasing size of corpora, the emergence of dynamic real-time streams, and the availability of complex and enriched metadata have made it increasingly important to facilitate new and innovative approaches to presenting and exploring primary data. This demonstration showcases the uses of Virtual Reality (VR) in the visualization of geospatial linguistic data using data from the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) project (see Laitinen et al 2017). The NTS data for this demonstration comprises a full year of geotagged tweets (12,443,696 tweets from 273,648 user accounts) posted within the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The dataset includes over 50 metadata parameters in addition to the tweets themselves.

    We demonstrate the potential of using VR to efficiently find meaningful patterns in vast streams of data. The VR environment allows an easy overview of any of the features (textual or metadata) in a text corpus. Our focus will be on the language identification data, which provides a previously unexplored perspective into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region.

    Our VR prototype utilizes the HTC Vive headset for a room-scale VR scenario, and it is being developed using the Unity3D game development engine. Each node in the VR space is displayed as a stacked cuboid, the equivalent of a bar chart in a three-dimensional space, summarizing all tweets at one geographic location for a given point in time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr). Each stacked cuboid represents information of the three most frequently used languages, appropriately color coded, enabling the user to get an overview of the language distribution at each location. The VR prototype further encourages users to move between different locations and inspect points of interest in more detail (overall location-related information, a detailed list of all languages detected, the most frequently used hashtags). An underlying map outlines country borders and facilitates orientation. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the VR system provides an interface to explore the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), which enables users to explore data over time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr-time).

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we will also briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity.

  • 8.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Visualizing rich corpus data using virtual reality2019In: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, ISSN 1797-4453, E-ISSN 1797-4453, Vol. 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an approach that utilizes immersive virtual reality (VR) to explore and interact with corpus linguistics data. Our case study focuses on the language identification parameter in the Nordic Tweet Stream corpus, a dynamic corpus of Twitter data where each tweet originated within the Nordic countries. We demonstrate how VR can provide previously unexplored perspectives into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region and showcase its geospatial variation. We utilize a head-mounted display (HMD) for a room-scale VR scenario that allows 3D interaction by using hand gestures. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the interface enables exploration of the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), making it particularly useful for diachronic investigations.

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity. Our empirical results detail students’ reactions to working in this environment. The discussion part examines the benefits, prospects and limitations of using VR in visualizing corpus data.

  • 9.
    Alklid, Jonathan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Twitch, a Breath of Fresh Air?: An Analysis of Sexism on Twitch.tv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of sexism is arguably an important topic in modern society in several aspects of life. With the introduction of the Internet and communication over the Internet, additional potential sources of sexism have emerged. While there appears to have been a significant number of studies regarding sexism in cyberspace, Twitch.tv is a relatively new platform and seems yet to be properly explored. Therefore, while being limited in size, the present study aims to provide an introduction to Twitch.tv by performing a limited investigation of the extent of sexist behaviour and ideas expressed by users on the site, particularly against female streamers. To accomplish this, 30,000 lines of chat messages from six different chatrooms, three belonging to women and the remaining three to men, were examined for sexist behaviour, based on a variety of parameters such as differences in language complexity and instances of sexist remarks. The results suggested that several varieties of sexism existed on Twitch, and was directed at both men and women, where women seemed to be more heavily affected than men. The conclusion of the study is that Twitch does not seem to be a breath of fresh air in cyberspace as it appears to embody numerous sexist ideas. However, the author notes that Twitch could serve as a potentially useful source of data for future gender studies online.

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  • 10.
    Allen, Christopher
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Conceptions of Personal Learning Environments Among EFL Teachers at Upper Secondary Level in Sweden2013In: 20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from thePast, Looking to the Future. Proceedings of the 2013 EUROCALL Conference, Évora, Portugal, 2013, p. 7-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, virtual learning environments (VLEs) or course management systems (CMSs) have become commonplace in European higher education as well as making inroads into primary and secondary schools. VLEs such as Moodle, Blackboard and It's Learning offer educational institutions standardized packages in the form of a range of administrative, pedagogical and communicative tools. Teachers of English as a foreign language at secondary and tertiary levels are certainly no exceptions to this trend, employing VLEs as learning platforms to support a variety of ITC-based learning activities and tasks. VLEs have however attracted criticism from some quarters in that they may be seen merely as virtual embodiments of the classroom with all the restrictions which the 'physical' classroom has traditionally entailed (Weller 2007). Furthermore it has been argued that VLEs have failed to embrace the full advantages of Web 2.0 technologies or acknowledge trends towards informal learning afforded by social media etc. The response to this criticism has been the envisioning of Personal Learning Environments or PLEs which utilise the plethora of free, often collaborative online resources and tools now available to learners. This paper explores the conceptualisation of PLEs and their advantages / disadvantages vis-à-vis VLEs among upper secondary school teachers of English in Sweden on the basis of pedagogical principles put forward as part of the Open University's SocialLearn and OpenLearn matrices (Conole 2008). It is suggested that the mapping of the core frameworks of thinking and reflection, experience and activity, conversation and interaction and evidence and demonstration to a set of learning principles can provide the basis for the evaluation of PLEs as envisioned by teachers and learners.

  • 11.
    Almqvist, Adam Simon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Up to Standard?: A CEFR-related comparative study of Swedish and Norwegian model texts for assessing the national exam in written English for 9th graders2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at exploring the quality of the Swedish and Norwegian national tests using their respective model texts for assessing. The study does so by relating them to the CEFR and the grading tool Write & Improve within the context of the two countries and the field of language testing. The study finds there to be a set of inconsistences between what the national tests want to do and what they actually do. In particular, the study finds the Swedish national test not to be up to its own standards.

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  • 12.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    Lund University.
    Between Fall and Fall-Rise: Substance-Function Relations in German Phrase-Final Intonation Contours2005In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 62, p. 196-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates an intonation contour of German whose status has not been established yet: a globally falling contour with a slight rise at the very end of the phrase (FSR). The contour may be said to lie on a phonetic continuum between falling (F) and falling-rising (FR) contours. It is hypothesized that F, FR and FSR differ with respect to their communicative functions: F is terminal, FR is non-terminal, and FSR is pseudo-terminal, respectively. The hypotheses were tested in two steps. First, measurements in a labelled corpus of spontaneous speech provided the necessary background information on the phonetics of the contours. In the second step, the general hypothesis was approached in a perceptual experiment using the paradigm of a semantic differential: 49 listeners judged 17 systematically generated stimuli on nine semantic scales, such as ‘impolite/polite’. The hypotheses were generally confirmed. Both F and FSR were associated with a conclusive statement, while FR was more likely to be judged as marking a question. FSR differs from F in that it does not express features such as categoricalness, dominance or impoliteness. The results are interpreted as an instance of the frequency code: the addition of a slight rise means avoidance of extremely low F0; the functional consequence is a reduction of communicated dominance.

  • 13.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Expressing 'confirmation' in Swedish: The interplay of word and utterance prosody2007In: Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Jürgen Trouvain, William J. Barry, Saarbrücken: Saarland University , 2007, p. 1093-1096, article id 1442Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An exploratory study on the prosodic signaling of ‘confirmation’ in Swedish is presented. Pairs of subjects read short dialogs, constructed around selected target words, in a conversational style. A falling utterance intonation was found on the target word, and the signaling of word prosody (lexical pitch accent) appeared to be, to a certain degree, optional.

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  • 14.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Revisiting intonational pitch accents in Swedish: Evidence from lexical accent neutralization2010In: Presented at TIE4. The Fourth European Conference on Tone and Intonation: September 9-11, 2010. Stockholm University, Campus Frescati, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2010, p. 69-70Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 15.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Buanzur, Tuarik C.
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Germany.
    Niebuhr, Oliver
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark;Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Germany.
    Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish2015In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] The Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2015, article id 0363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accentual rises: Statements are predominantly characterized by convex rises, questions by concave rises.

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  • 16.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carling, Gerd
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The sounds of a mixed language2014In: Scandoromani: Remnants of a Mixed Language / [ed] Gerd Carling, Lenny Lindell, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Leiden & Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2014, p. 24-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    F0 peak timing, height, and shape as independent features2014In: TAL 2014. The 4th International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages: Nijmegen, The Netherlands, May 13-16, 2014 / [ed] C. Gussenhoven, Y. Chen, D. Dediu, Nijmegen: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2014, p. 138-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable amount of evidence from several intonation languages (e.g., German, English, Italian) supports the idea that F0 peak timing, height, and shape variables form a feature bundle, which is used to encode two-fold intonational (e.g., sentence-level) pitch accent distinctions such as L+H* vs. L*+H. The three types of features in the bundle can be weighted differently but the outcome seems to be functionally equivalent. In this sense, they are ‘substitute phonetic features’. This paper presents data from two distinct prosodic dialect types of Swedish, a pitch-accent language, suggesting that these F0 variables can also be used independently of each other in order to encode two different contrasts (i.e., a three-fold contrast), each of which phonetically and functionally related to the L+H* vs. L*+H distinction in an intonation language. For Central Swedish, we observe two peak raising strategies which go along with differently shaped rises: ‘extending’ (= faster rise) and ‘shifting’ (= slower rise), which tend to be used to signal ‘speaker-related’ emphasis (e.g., ‘surprise’) or ‘message- related’ emphasis (e.g., ‘correction’), respectively. For Southern Swedish, we observe an ‘extended’ peak and an ‘extended and delayed’ peak.

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  • 18.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University.
    On the Intonation of Confirmations in Southern Swedish2013In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIth Conference, Tartu 2012 / [ed] Eva Liina Asu-Garcia, Pärtel Lippus, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2013, p. 87-96Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how confirmations are intoned by nine speakers of Southern Swedish. Test phrases like ja, det var med bilen/bilar ‘yes, it was by car’ (Accent 1)/‘...with cars’ (Accent 2) were elicited, both as new-information responses and confirmations. Speakers made a clear distinction between the utterance types using two, simultaneous intonation strategies. First, they realised the nuclear accent on the target word with a considerably lower F0 peak in con- firmations than in new-information responses. Second, they added a pre-nuclear accent on the verb in confirmations. While they maintained the word-accent distinction on the target word in confirmations, the encoding of the word accent (Accent 1) on the verb seemed to be op- tional. This suggests that the pre-nuclear accent serves a primarily intonational function and that Southern Swedish may have purely intonational pitch accents, contrary to the traditional view. 

  • 19.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The prosody of contrastive topics in Southern Swedish2012In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2012 / [ed] Anders Eriksson, Åsa Abelin, Gothenburg: Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pilot study on the prosodic marking of a contrastive topic in Southern Swedish. A test sentence was elicited in three experimental conditions: initial focus; final focus; contrastive topic (initial word) plus focus (final word). F0 patterns were analysed in recordings of 10 speakers. A majority of the speakers distinguished clearly between the conditions, but speakers employed different strategies. The most common one involved modifying the range and/or level of the F0 patterns given by the lexical pitch accents. Another frequent strategy involved a rising pitch accent on the initial word, where the lexical pitch accent would normally stipulate a fall. This result was unexpected and indicates that Southern Swedish sentence intonation might be more complex than typically assumed.

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  • 20.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bruce, Gösta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Revisiting South and Central Swedish intonation from a comparative and functional perspective2012In: Understanding Prosody: The role of context, function and communication / [ed] Oliver Niebuhr, Berlin & Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2012, p. 135-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal prominence ratings: Effects of screen size and audio device2019In: Book of Abstracts MMSYM 2019, University of Leuven , 2019, p. 2-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosodic prominence is a multimodal phenomenon involving both acoustic and kinematic dimensions. In order to study the multimodal nature of prominence, we need to collect prominence ratings based on audio-visual speech material from large groups of speakers. This is feasible by means of a web-based crowdsourcing set-up, allowing volunteers to participate using a private computer or mobile phone. However, this freedom also implies a certain reduction of experimental control due to variation in hardware used by the raters. 

    In this pilot study we explore potential effects of two hardware features – screen size and audio device (headphones vs. loudspeakers) – on multimodal prominence ratings. To this end, 16 brief clips from Swedish television news (218 words in total) were rated by 31 native Swedish volunteers using a web-based set-up. In our GUI, orthographic representations of the text were displayed below the video player. Each word was to be rated as either non-prominent, moderately prominent, or strongly prominent, by means of clicking on the word in question until the desired prominence level was encoded through a specific color (yellow: moderate; red: strong). Participants were free to use a mobile phone, a tablet, or a computer, and headphones or loudspeakers, and we collected information about their hardware using a questionnaire. In addition, we automatically logged the screen size of the participant’s computer/phone. 

    We applied two different approaches to analyze the participant’s rating behavior as a function of the hardware features under discussion. First, we calculated a selection of five variables from the raw prominence ratings: (i) the sum of all ratings (over all 218 words), (ii) the percentage of words rated as (moderately or strongly) prominent, (iii) among prominent words, the proportion of words rated as strongly prominent, and (iv-v) the relative prominence rating of two selected words. Effects of screen size and audio device on these variables were analyzed using linear regression models. Second, we calculated inter-rater reliability for multiple raters using Fleiss’ kappa, both for all raters as a reference and for subgroups concerning audio device and screen size. 

    The results reveal a significant model fit for variable (iii) defined above (proportion of strong ratings; F(5;21) = 5.332; p=.0022**), suggesting a significantly higher proportion of strong prominent ratings obtained with loudspeakers (34.0% of words rated as prominent on average) compared to with headphones (18.3%; t=2.944; p=.0073**), as well as with medium size screens (34.2%) compared to with small screens (24.4%; t=2.433; p=.0232*); however, the proportion of strong prominent ratings tended to be lowest with large screens (14.2% on average). Effects of screen size were also reflected in inter-rater reliability, revealing the highest kappa for users with medium-sized screens (kappa=.566, when ratings are recoded to a binary decision) compared to large (kappa=.485) and small screens (mobile phones, kappa=.437). However, inter-rater reliability was less affected by the listening condition (headphones vs. loudspeakers). 3 

    To conclude, the choice of hardware might have effects on multimodal prominence ratings, which has to be considered in crowdsourcing approaches. More detailed results will be presented at the conference.

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  • 22.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund university.
    House, David
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Acoustic features of multimodal prominences: Do visual beat gestures affect verbal pitch accent realization?2017In: The 14th International Conference on Auditory-Visual Speech Processing (AVSP2017) / [ed] Slim Ouni, Chris Davis, Alexandra Jesse, Jonas Beskow, Stockholm: KTH , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interplay of verbal and visual prominence cues has attracted recent attention, but previous findings are inconclusive as to whether and how the two modalities are integrated in the production and perception of prominence. In particular, we do not know whether the phonetic realization of pitch accents is influenced by co-speech beat gestures, and previous findings seem to generate different predictions. In this study, we investigate acoustic properties ofprominent words as a function of visual beat gestures in a corpus of read news from Swedish television. The corpus was annotated for head and eyebrow beats as well as sentence-level pitch accents. Four types of prominence cues occurredparticularly frequently in the corpus: (1) pitch accent only, (2) pitch accent plus head, (3) pitch accent plus head plus eyebrows, and (4) head only. The results show that (4) differs from (1-3) in terms of a smaller pitch excursion and shorter syllable duration. They also reveal significantly larger pitch excursions in (2) than in (1), suggesting that the realization of a pitch accent is to some extent influenced by the presence of visual prominence cues. Results are discussed in terms of the interaction between beat gestures and prosody with a potential functional difference between head and eyebrow beats.

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  • 23.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Is phonetic prominence underlyingly multimodal?2019In: Phonetics and Phonology in Europe 2019 satellite workshop: Prominence between cognitive functions and linguistic structures (CoFLiS) / [ed] Francesco Cangemi, Stefan Baumann, Michelina Savino, Martine Grice, Köln: University of Cologne , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 24.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal levels of prominence: the use of eyebrows and head beats to convey information structure in Swedish news reading2016In: ISGS Conference 2016. Gesture, Creativity, Multimodality: Book of abstracts, Paris: New Sorbonne University Paris 3 , 2016, p. 319-319Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 25.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Multimodal prominences: Exploring the patterning and usage of focal pitch accents, head beats and eyebrow beats in Swedish television news readings2017In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 95, p. 100-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial beat gestures align with pitch accents in speech, functioning as visual prominence markers. However, it is not yet well understood whether and how gestures and pitch accents might be combined to create different types of multimodal prominence, and how specifically visual prominence cues are used in spoken communication. In this study, we explore the use and possible interaction of eyebrow (EB) and head (HB) beats with so-called focal pitch accents (FA) in a corpus of 31 brief news readings from Swedish television (four news anchors, 986 words in total), focusing on effects of position in text, information structure as well as speaker expressivity. Results reveal an inventory of four primary (combinations of) prominence markers in the corpus: FA+HB+EB, FA+HB, FA only (i.e., no gesture), and HB only, implying that eyebrow beats tend to occur only in combination with the other two markers. In addition, head beats occur significantly more frequently in the second than in the first part of a news reading. A functional analysis of the data suggests that the distribution of head beats might to some degree be governed by information structure, as the text-initial clause often defines a common ground or presents the theme of the news story. In the rheme part of the news story, FA, HB, and FA+HB are all common prominence markers. The choice between them is subject to variation which we suggest might represent a degree of freedom for the speaker to use the markers expressively. A second main observation concerns eyebrow beats, which seem to be used mainly as a kind of intensification marker for highlighting not only contrast, but also value, magnitude, or emotionally loaded words; it is applicable in any position in a text. We thus observe largely different patterns of occurrence and usage of head beats on the one hand and eyebrow beats on the other, suggesting that the two represent two separate modalities of visual prominence cuing.

  • 26.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal prominences: How eyebrow and head beats are combined with pitch accents to encode information structure in Swedish news readings2017In: The 6th conference of the Scandinavian Association for Language and Cognition: Book of abstracts, Lund: Lund University , 2017, p. 21-22Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 27.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodality in prominence production and its sensitivity for lexical prosody2019In: Abstract booklet: PaPE, Lecce, 17-19 June 2019 / [ed] Barbara Gili Fivela, Cinzia Avesani, Michelina Savino, University of Salento , 2019, p. 121-122Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 28.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anastasia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The prosody of topics in two varieties of Swedish: Effects of contrast and referential status2016In: Presented at TIE2016, the 7th Conference on Tone and Intonation in Europe: Canterbury, UK, September 1-3, 2016, Canterbury: University of Kent , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 29.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Niebuhr, Oliver
    University of Provence, France.
    Dip and hat pattern: a phonological contrast of German?2008In: Speech Prosody 2008, Fourth International Conference: Campinas, Brazil, May 6-9, 2008 / [ed] Pl?nio A. Barbosa, Sandra Madureira, Cesar Reis, Campinas: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2008, p. 269-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is the high plateau in a ‘hat pattern’ a phonetic artefact, or does it reflect a phonological feature? Can it contrast with a low plateau, i.e. a ‘dip pattern’? The presented perception experiment supports the phonological point of view, since it shows that the dip/hat contrast can disambiguate German oder-constructions, which are interpretable as ‘alternative’ or ‘yes/no-questions’. This specific function may be derived from a more general substance–function relation: While a hat pattern has a ‘bracketing function’, a dip signals detachment.

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  • 30.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson Lundmark, Malin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Head beats and eyebrow movements as a function of phonological prominence levels and word accents in Stockholm Swedish news broadcasts2015In: Presented at MMSYM 2015, The 3rd European Symposium on Multimodal Communication: Dublin, Ireland, September 17-18, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 31.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson Lundmark, Malin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Head Movements, Eyebrows, and Phonological Prosodic Prominence Levels in Stockholm Swedish News Broadcasts2015In: FAAVSP 2015. The 1st Joint Conference on Facial Analysis, Animation, and Auditory-Visual Speech Processing: Kardinal König Haus, 11 – 13 September 2015, Vienna, Austria, Vienna: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2015, p. 42-42Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 32.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson Lundmark, Malin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal levels of prominence: A preliminary analysis of head and eyebrow movements in Swedish news broadcasts2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015: Lund, June 8–10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2015, Vol. 55, p. 11-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first analysis of the distribution of head and eyebrow movements as a function of (a) phonological prominence levels (focal, non-focal) and (b) word accent (Accent 1, Accent 2) in Swedish news broadcasts. Our corpus consists of 31 brief news readings, comprising speech from four speakers and 986 words in total. A head movement was annotated for 229 (23.2%) of the words, while eyebrow movements occurred much more sparsely (67 cases or 6.8%). Results of χ2-tests revealed a dependency of the distribution of movements on the one hand and focal accents on the other, while no systematic effect of the word accent type was found. However, there was an effect of the word accent type on the annotation of ‘double’ head movements. These occurred very sparsely, and predominantly in connection with focally accented compounds (Accent 2), which are characterized by two lexical stresses. Overall, our results suggests that head beats might have a closer association with phonological prosodic structure, while eyebrow movements might be more restricted to higher-level prominence and information-structure coding. Hence, head and eyebrow movements can represent two quite different modalities of prominence cuing, both from a formal and functional point of view, rather than just being cumulative prominence markers.

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  • 33.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Tronnier, Mechtild
    Lund University.
    Talets Atomer2013In: Språket, människan och världen: Människans språk 1-2 / [ed] Victoria Johansson, Gerd Carling, Arthur Holmer, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, p. 125-164Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Blomberg, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Cohn, Neil
    Hansson, Kristina
    The First Step to Study Neurophysiological Processing of Visual and Verbal Language in Children with Developmental Language Disorder2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Blomberg, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Crosslinguistic influence in the processing of L2 verb semantics?: An auditory ERP study2019In: EuroSLA 29, The 29th Conference of the European Second Language Association: Book of Abstracts, Lund University , 2019, p. 235-235Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Lund University.
    Standing avocados, or when ratings of sentences and brain processing tells different stories2018In: The ASLA Symposium 2018, Karlstad: Karlstad University , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages differ in how placement events are described. Swedish has three obligatory placement verbs for events where objects have support from below: sätta ’set’, ställa ’stand’, and lägga ’lay’. These verbs are highly frequent yet difficult to acquire for learners of Swedish. The verb choice depends on object properties, and the direction of the object’s extension from the ground. We extend previous findings by introducing event-related potentials (ERPs) and appropriateness ratings of verb usage to investigate the interaction between verb semantics and event properties. Native speakers of Swedish watched still images of placement events followed by visually presented sentences describing these events while ERPs were recorded. Participants also did appropriateness ratings offline. Object properties (Base/Without base), symmetry (Symmetric/Asymmetric), and orientation from the ground (Vertical/Horizontal) were varied and each placement verb was combined with each image across participants. Previous ERP-studies have shown that different types of violations are related to different types of ERP effects. Semantic congruency affect a centro-medial negativity—the N400 (Kutas & Hillyard, 1980) while a centro-parietal positivity—the P600 is affected when real-world knowledge is violated (e.g., using a screwdriver as a key, Balconi & Caldiroli, 2011). Results showed an increased amplitude of both ERP effects when placement verbs were incongruent with the depicted event including objects with a base. For objects without a base the ERP effects were in addition related to incongruency with real world knowledge—e.g., avocados are usually not vertically placed i.e., standing on a table. With the inclusion of the neurophysiological measure sensitivity to event features not captured by ratings was revealed. Combined results corroborate and elucidate existing analyses of the complexity of verb semantics. A better understanding of native speakers’ processing of placement verbs opens new options for probing the difficulties of learning Swedish placement verbs for adult second language learners.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Att läsa och förstå: En studie av förstaspråks- och andraspråkselevers resultat på nationella provets läsförståelse för årskurs 92011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här undersökningen är att unersöka och analysera förstaspråks- och andraspråkselevers resultat på nationella provets läsförståelsedel i svenska och svenska som andraspråk för att se om det finns några skillnader och/eller likheter i deras läsförståelse och om de i så fall kan kopplas till forskningen om genrekunskapens och ordförrådets betydelse för läsförståelsen.

        I min undersökning använder jag mig av tjugo elevers läsförståelseprov från nationella provet 2010. Jag har rättat proven och analyserat både elevernas svar samt texterna och de tillhörande frågorna utifrån en analysmodell där jag undersöker och analyserar de genrer och ord som används.

        Andraspråkseleverna klarar av provet sämre än vad förstaspråkseleverna gör men man ser tydliga skillnader beroende på vilka genrer det gäller och även förstaspråkseleverna visar att de har problem med de mer abstrakta och kognitivt krävande uppgifterna. Min undersökning har visat att både genrekunskap, ordkunskap och kännedom om innehållet i en text är viktigt för hur bra man lyckas med läsförståelsen.

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    Andersson, Elin: Att läsa och förstå
  • 38.
    Andersson, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Metaphor in writing: A study on metaphor usage in the online sports sections of two British newspapers2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to investigate the use of metaphors in the sports section of two British newspapers; a broadsheet, The Telegraph, and a tabloid, The Mirror, and locate whether there are any differences between them in terms of metaphor usage. To accomplish this, a total number of twenty sports articles written by four different journalists – two from each newspaper – were analyzed for both conventional and novel metaphors. In order to properly locate and identify metaphors, a method known as MIP (Metaphor Identification Procedure) was used in coordination with the Macmillan Online Dictionary as well as the Oxford English Dictionary in order to deduce the conventionality of the investigated metaphors. The yielded results then showed that both newspapers were very similar in their use of both conventional and novel metaphors, with The Telegraph journalists being slightly more inclined to use novel metaphorical expressions than their colleagues from The Mirror.

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  • 39.
    Angel, Alma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Erlandsson, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Att främja skrivutvecklingen för lågstadieelever med skrivsvårigheter.: Framgångsrika didaktiska kompetenser och undervisningsmetoder2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte är att med hjälp av internationell och svensk forskningundersöka vilka undervisningsmetoder lärare kan arbeta utifrån för att främjaskrivutvecklingen för elever med skrivsvårigheter på lågstadiet. Studienbelyser även bakomliggande faktorer som kan påverka att elever fårskrivsvårigheter och lärares didaktiska kompetens att tidigt se tecken på ifallen elev är i riskzonen för att utveckla skrivsvårigheter. De huvudbegrepp sombehandlas i denna studie är läs- och skrivsvårigheter, fonologisk medvetenhet,didaktisk kompetens, undervisningsmetoder och stöttning. Metoden som valtstill denna studie är systematisk litteratursökning. Denna metod valdes för attfå tillgång till kvalitativ och kvantitativ forskning inom det valda området.Sökningarna har gjorts i den internationella databasen ERIC och den svenskadatabasen SwePub. Efter urvalsprocessen av sökträffarna i databaserna valdessammanlagt nio publikationer varav fem är internationella och fyra är svenska.Utifrån det sammanställda resultatet av de nio publikationerna har vi funnit tvååterkommande resultat som i denna studie delas in i två kategorier, läraresdidaktiska kompetens vid skrivsvårigheter samt undervisningsmetoder vidskrivsvårigheter. Slutsatsen av resultatet är att lärares didaktiska kompetensatt tidigt se tecken på skrivsvårigheter är lika viktig som att lärare användervarierande undervisningsmetoder. Resultatet visar även vikten av att lärare harkompetens att motivera elever med skrivsvårigheter och främja derasskrivutveckling. Några framgångsrika undervisningsmetoder som presenterasi resultatet är: processkrivning, stöttning och wittingmetoden.

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    Att främja skrivutvecklingen för lågstadieelever med skrivsvårigheter
  • 40.
    Auer, Anita
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Mobility, Variability and Changing Literacies in Modern Times (Preface)2018In: Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, ISSN 0028-3754, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 172p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Auer, Anita
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Laitinen, MikkoLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Mobility, Variability and Changing Literacies in Modern Times: Special issue of Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, Bulletin of the Modern Language Society, volume 1192018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Auer, Anita
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Gordon, Moragh
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Fairman, Tony
    An Electronic Corpus of Letters of Artisans and the Labouring Poor (England, c. 1750‐1835): Compilation Principles and Coding Conventions2014In: RECENT ADVANCES IN CORPUS LINGUISTICS: DEVELOPING AND EXPLOITING CORPORA / [ed] Vandelanotte, L; Davidse, K; Gentens, C; Kimps, D, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2014, p. 9-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a collaborative project that focuses on letters of artisans and the labouring poor in England, c. 1750-1835 (LALP). The project's objective is to create a corpus that allows for new research perspectives regarding the diachronic development of the English language by adding data representing language of the lower classes. An opportunity for an insight into the language use of the labouring poor has been provided by the laws for poor relief which permitted people in need to apply for out-relief from parish funds during the period 1795-1834. For the last 18 years, the independent scholar Tony Fairman has collected and transcribed more than 2000 poor relief application letters and other letters by artisans and the labouring poor. In this project Fairman's letter collection is being converted into an electronic corpus. Apart from converting the material into electronic form, the transcribed texts will be supplemented with contextual information and manuscript images. This paper presents the letter material, it describes the conversion of the letter collection into a corpus and discusses some of the problems and challenges in the conversion process.(1)

  • 43.
    Avery, Helen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Acquérir les gestes qu’il faut: les mathématiques scolaires comme interaction et savoir-faire2019In: AREF 2019: Livret des résumés – Ce document répertorie l’ensemble des résumés des contributions au congrès AREF 2019, AREF , 2019, p. 286-287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the synthesis of a series of studies on support measures for pupils with additional languages in Sweden, with a particular focus on the consequences of language support measures for teaching and learning school mathematics. The analysis identifies several critical aspects in mathematics teaching when the pupils transition from one school system to another, and particularly when they do not yet have a shared language to communicate among each other or with their teachers. Three aspects with relevance to language support will be discussed and illustrated with examples from the studies: the notion of mathematics as a formal language; the notion of levels and absolute progression in mathematics; the notion that learning mathematics means understanding "concepts".

  • 44.
    Avery, Helen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Lund University, Sweden.
    Entre les « mesures spéciales » de soutien et « l’enseignement »: la réception des nouveaux arrivants en Suède2020In: Allophonie: Inclusion et langues des enfants migrants à l’école / [ed] Catherine Mendonça Dias, Brahim Azaoui, Fatima Chnane-Davin, Limoges: Lambert-Lucas, 2020, p. 39-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Axelsson, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Stockholm University.
    Inledning: nyanlända barn och ungdomar i de nordiska länderna2016In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 5-12Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 46.
    Axelsson, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Juvonen, PäiviStockholm University.
    Nordand : Nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning. Årgång 11, Nr. 2-2016: Temanummer : Nyanlända barn och ungdomar i de nordiska länderna2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Beganovic, Armin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Justifying Operation Iraqi Freedom - A Study of Moral Metaphors in Political Statements2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the way George W. Bush used moral metaphors to intensify the language in his statements on Operation Iraqi Freedom. Three moral metaphors are presented within two different models that are applied on the data.

    The collected material for the metaphors is constituted of cognitive linguistic books from prominent linguists, such as George Lakoff, Alan Cruse and William Croft, and the data is collected from the official White House website. The scientific method used in this study has been qualitative text analysis where the hermeneutic approach has been an essential part of it.

    The main question: In what way did George W. Bush use moral metaphors in his statements to justify Operation Iraqi Freedom?, resulted in use of moral metaphors that sermons people’s moral values, depict Saddam Hussein’s characteristics as immoral, activate people’s moral priorities to help the Iraqi people, and addresses both conservatives and liberals in America.

    The conclusion of my study is that President Bush deliberately intensified the language in his statements through moral metaphors to justify Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Keywords: Cognitive Linguistics, Metaphor, Figurative Language, Operation Iraqi Freedom, War on Terror, George W. Bush, Saddam Hussein, USA, Iraq, Qualitative Text Analysis, Hermeneutics.

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  • 48.
    Bengtsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Gender equality in the subject of English in Swedish schools2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The National Agency for Education (Skolverket) and The Swedish National Curriculum have stated that equality between female and male students is important. The present study investigates students in the subject English in Swedish upper secondary school and municipal school for adult education from the perspective of gender dominance in English conversation with a teacher present, with the focus on turn-taking. Two separate observations were made in three classes in adult education and two classes in upper secondary school. The research questions of this investigation are; which gender dominates the on-going conversation in English with a teacher present, how the turns were allocated, given or taken, and if the gender patterns differ between a municipal school for adults and an upper secondary school. The potential impact of the teacher’s sex on the patterns of domination is also taken into consideration. Female dominance as well as male dominance is revealed in the result of the investigated classes’ gender patterns. The results also reveal that the teacher’s sex could have an impact on the patterns of domination.

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    Gender equality in the subject of English in Swedish schools, degree project GO1304 Marie Bengtsson
  • 49.
    Bentzen, Kristine
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Anderssen, Merete
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Object shift in spoken Mainland Scandinavian2013In: 25th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics : Reykjavík, May 13-15, 2013: Workshop 5 : Information Structure in Scandinavian Language, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Object Shift (OS) has been studied extensively across the Scandinavian languages (Holmberg 1986, 1999, Vikner 2006). Traditionally, OS is assumed to apply to all weak pronominal objects in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. However, based on written corpora, Andréasson (2008, 2009, 2010) shows that while OS is obligatory with weak pronominal objects in Danish, these elements may marginally remain in situ in Swedish (cf. also Josefsson 2010 for similar Swedish results based on grammaticality judgments). In an elicited production study, Anderssen et al. (2012) find that Norwegian speakers consistently shift such objects, (1). Moreover, Andréasson also shows that not all weak pronominal objects behave the same way. While pronouns with nominal referents typically undergo OS, weak pronoun det ‘it’ referring to a clause or VP may remain in situ in Swedish. In contrast, in Danish also this latter type usually shifts. Anderssen & Bentzen (2012) argue that det with non-individuated (clausal/VP/type DP) referents generally remains in situ in Norwegian, (2).

    In this study, we investigate OS in spontaneous speech of adults in large Danish, Norwegian and Swedish child language corpora (Plunkett 1985, 1986; Simonsen 1990, Anderssen 2006; and Plunkett & Strömqvist 1992, Strömqvist et al. 1993, respectively).

    Our corpus data display both similarities and differences with the patterns reported above. Concerning non-contrastive weak pronominal objects with a nominal referent, our data show a similar pattern to that of previous studies. In Danish and Norwegian, these objects occur in a shifted position 80-90%, while in Swedish the majority of such objects remain in situ (57%). With respect to det ‘it’ with a non-individuated referent, our spoken data are quite different from those reported in Andréasson. While she found that these elements relatively frequently undergo OS in Swedish, we see a strong tendency for non-individuated det to remain unshifted (found in shifted position less than 3% in both Swedish and Norwegian). Moreover, for Danish, Andréasson reports that non-individuated det practically never remains in situ, while in our Danish data, such elements remain in situ as much as 86% of the time.

    Despite these discrepancies, our investigation confirms the picture regarding OS that has emerged in recent years (Andréasson 2008, 2009, 2010, Mikkelsen 2010, Josefsson 2010, Anderssen & Bentzen 2012), namely that OS is not a uniform phenomenon. There is much variation both depending on type of pronoun (and its referent), and across the Mainland Scandinavian languages. To account for some of the variation, Andréasson links OS to accessibility and cognitive status of the pronominal object. Similarly, Anderssen & Bentzen argue that Norwegian OS is clause-internal topicalization of familiar topical objects with an individuated referent, while this position is generally unavailable to pronouns with a non- individuated referent. Since OS clearly depends on information structure, the discrepancies between our data and those of Andréasson may be due to the different types of corpora studied (spoken vs. written discourse).

    Against this backdrop, we investigate the various factors influencing the position of pronominal objects across spoken Danish, Norwegian and Swedish.

    Examples:

    (1) A: Så    du  husetNEUT?       B: Ja,  jeg likte  detNEUT ikke.

              saw you house.the              yes I     liked it          not

              ‘Did you see the house?’     ‘Yes, I didn’t like it.’

    (2) A: Spiste du  noe  frukt?        B: Nei, jeg gjorde {*detVP} ikke {detVP}.

              ate     you any fruit.MASC        no   I    did          it.NEUT  not    it.NEUT

             ‘Did you eat any fruit?’            ‘No, I didn’t.’              (det = ‘eat any fruit’)

    References

    Anderssen, Merete & Kristine Bentzen. 2012. ‘Norwegian Object Shift as IP-internal topicalization,’ Nordlyd 39.1: The Grammar of Objects, 1-23.

    Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen & Yulia Rodina. 2012. ‘Topicality and complexity in the acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift,’ Language Acquisition 19.1: 39-72.

    Anderssen, Merete. 2006. The Acquisition of Compositional Definiteness. PhD dissertation, University of Tromsø.

    Andréasson, Maia. 2008. ‘Not all objects are born alike — accessibility as a key to pronominal object shift in Swedish and Danish,’ in Miriam Butt and Tracy Halloway King (eds), Proceedings of the LFG08 Conference, CSLI Publications, Stanford, 26-45.

    Andréasson, Maia. 2009. ‘Pronominal object shift — not just a matter of shifting or not,’ Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 84, 1-20.

    Andréasson, Maia. 2010. ‘Object shift or object placement in general,’ in Miriam Butt and Tracy Halloway King (eds), Proceedings of the LFG10 Conference, CSLI Publications, Stanford, 26-42.

    Holmberg, Anders. 1986. Word order and syntactic features in the Scandinavian languages and English. Doctoral dissertation, University of Stockholm.

    Holmberg, Anders. 1999. Remarks on Holmberg’s Generalization,’ Studia Linguistica 53.1: 1- 39.

    Josefsson, Gunlög. 2010. ‘Object Shift and optionality: An intricate interplay between syntax, prosody and information structure,’ Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 86, 1-24.

    Mikkelsen, Line. 2011. ‘On prosody and focus in Object Shift,’ Syntax 14.3, 230-264.

    Plunkett, Kim & Sven Strömqvist. 1992. ‘The acquisition of Scandinavian languages,’ in Dan I. Slobin (ed), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 457-556.

    Plunkett, Kim. 1985. Preliminary approaches to language development. Århus: Århus University Press.

    Plunkett, Kim. 1986. Learning strategies in two Danish children’s language development. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 27, 64–73.

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram. 1990. Barns fonologi: system og variasjon hos tre norske og et samoisk barn. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo.

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    Vikner, Sten. 2006. ‘Object Shift,’ in Martin Everaert and Henk van Riemsdijk (eds.), The Blackwell companion to syntax, Vol III, Blackwell, Oxford, 392-436. 

  • 50.
    Bentzen, Kristine
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Anderssen, Merete
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University.
    Object shift in spoken mainland Scandinavian: a corpus study of Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish2013In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 36, no 2, Special Issue, p. 115-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work on Object Shift (OS) suggests that this is not as uniform an operation as traditionally assumed. In this paper, we examine OS in the spontaneous speech of adults in large Danish, Norwegian and Swedish child language corpora in order to explore variation with respect to OS across these three languages. We evaluate our results against three recent strands of accounts of OS, namely a prosodic/phonological account, an account in terms of cognitiv status, and an account in terms of information structure. Our investigation shows that there is both withing-language and across-language variation in the application of OS, and that the three accounts can explain some of our data. However, all accounts are faced with challenges, especially when explaining exceptional cases.

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