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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    EFL teachers’ experiences with transitioning to online instruction: A study during the COVID-19 pandemic2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers need to continuously develop their Information and Communication Technology (ICT) proficiency to keep up with the rapid development of technology, and the COVID-19 pandemic has only made this more apparent. This study aims to understand how EFL-teachers exercise their teacher agency and adapt their teaching in an environment where ICT is the basis for their teaching. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six upper secondary school teachers and then analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed a significant decrease in professional development as a result of reduced contact between colleagues. Most teachers have focused on developing their toolspecific skills. Adaption of teaching strategies has seen the most success in the teaching of writing proficiency. Most teachers are familiar with integrating technology with writing. Most teachers have found strategies to increase the accessibility of information as well as increased clarity of tasks. However, teachers have found it difficult to motivate students who have a hard time working on their own. They have also found it difficult to follow students’ progress in more extensive tasks.

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  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet.
    Andraspråksinlärning och förstaspråksutveckling i en andraspråkskontext2012In: Flerspråkighet – en forskningsöversikt / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Monica Axelsson, Inger Lindberg, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2012, p. 153-246Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Helen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The British hedgerow in Sweden: Dealing with spatial differences and reader differences related to the author-reader relationship and culture-specific referents aided by a translation-oriented text analysis model2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    The British hedgerow in Sweden: Dealing with spatial differences and reader differences related to the author-reader relationship and culture-specific referents aided by a translation-oriented text analysis model
  • 4.
    Adriansson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Förstaspråks- och andraspråkselevers språkliga performans: En elevtextbedömning med performansanalysen som analysverktyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 5.
    Airey, John
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Initiating Collaboration in Higher Education: Disciplinary Literacy and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.2011In: Dynamic content and language collaboration in higher education: theory, research, and reflections / [ed] Jacobs, C., Cape Town: Cape Peninsula University of Technology , 2011, p. 57-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Airey, John
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    The relationship between teaching language and student learning in Swedish university physics2011In: Language and learning in the international university: From English uniformity to diversity and hybridity / [ed] B. Preisler, I. Klitgård & A. Fabricius, Multilingual Matters, 2011, p. 3-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala University.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014In: Book of Abstracts: The First Conference of the International Association for Cognitive Semiotics (IACS-2014), September 25-27, 2014, 2014, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

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  • 8.
    Alantie, Sonja
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland;Tampere University Hospital, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Makkonen, Tanja
    University of Turku, Finland;Tampere University Hospital, Finland.
    Renvall, Kati
    University of Turku, Finland;Macquarie University, Australia.
    Is Old Age Just a Number in Language Skills?: Language Performance and Its Relation to Age, Education, Gender, Cognitive Screening, and Dentition in Very Old Finnish Speakers2022In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 274-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:This study reports on how very old (VO) Finnish people without dementia perform in the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and two verbal fluency tasks and which demographic factors predict the performance.

    Method:The study included fifty 80- to 100-year-old community-dwelling Finnish speakers with no dementing illnesses or speech-language disabilities, who completed the WAB and two verbal fluency tasks. Multifactorial statistical analyses with recursive partitioning were carried out to determine the significant predictors out of five predictor variables (age, gender, education, dentition, and Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) for four response variables (WAB Aphasia Quotient [AQ], Language Quotient [LQ], semantic, and phonemic word fluencies).

    Results:Overall, individual variation was notable in VO speakers. All predictor variables were statistically significantly associated with one or more of the language skills. Age was the most significant predictor; the critical age of 85–86 years was associated with a decline in WAB-AQ and semantic fluency. Poor dentition and the MMSE score both predicted a decline in WAB-LQ and phonemic fluency. A high level of education was positively associated with the skills of the best-performing individuals in WAB-AQ, WAB-LQ, and semantic fluency.

    Conclusions:VO age is a significant factor contributing to language performance. However, a younger age, a good cognitive performance, intact teeth, and a higher educational level also seem to have a preservative power as regards language skills. Gender differences should be interpreted with caution. The results of this study provide culture- and language-specific normative data, which aids in differentiating typical aging from the signs of acute or degenerative neuropathology to ensure appropriate medical and therapeutic interventions.

  • 9.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visualizing dynamic text corpora using Virtual Reality2018In: ICAME 39 : Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018: Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society : Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 205-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, data visualization has become a major area in Digital Humanities research, and the same holds true also in linguistics. The rapidly increasing size of corpora, the emergence of dynamic real-time streams, and the availability of complex and enriched metadata have made it increasingly important to facilitate new and innovative approaches to presenting and exploring primary data. This demonstration showcases the uses of Virtual Reality (VR) in the visualization of geospatial linguistic data using data from the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) project (see Laitinen et al 2017). The NTS data for this demonstration comprises a full year of geotagged tweets (12,443,696 tweets from 273,648 user accounts) posted within the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The dataset includes over 50 metadata parameters in addition to the tweets themselves.

    We demonstrate the potential of using VR to efficiently find meaningful patterns in vast streams of data. The VR environment allows an easy overview of any of the features (textual or metadata) in a text corpus. Our focus will be on the language identification data, which provides a previously unexplored perspective into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region.

    Our VR prototype utilizes the HTC Vive headset for a room-scale VR scenario, and it is being developed using the Unity3D game development engine. Each node in the VR space is displayed as a stacked cuboid, the equivalent of a bar chart in a three-dimensional space, summarizing all tweets at one geographic location for a given point in time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr). Each stacked cuboid represents information of the three most frequently used languages, appropriately color coded, enabling the user to get an overview of the language distribution at each location. The VR prototype further encourages users to move between different locations and inspect points of interest in more detail (overall location-related information, a detailed list of all languages detected, the most frequently used hashtags). An underlying map outlines country borders and facilitates orientation. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the VR system provides an interface to explore the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), which enables users to explore data over time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr-time).

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we will also briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity.

  • 10.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Reski, Nico
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Tyrkkö, Jukka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Visualizing rich corpus data using virtual reality2019In: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, E-ISSN 1797-4453, Vol. 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an approach that utilizes immersive virtual reality (VR) to explore and interact with corpus linguistics data. Our case study focuses on the language identification parameter in the Nordic Tweet Stream corpus, a dynamic corpus of Twitter data where each tweet originated within the Nordic countries. We demonstrate how VR can provide previously unexplored perspectives into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region and showcase its geospatial variation. We utilize a head-mounted display (HMD) for a room-scale VR scenario that allows 3D interaction by using hand gestures. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the interface enables exploration of the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), making it particularly useful for diachronic investigations.

    In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity. Our empirical results detail students’ reactions to working in this environment. The discussion part examines the benefits, prospects and limitations of using VR in visualizing corpus data.

  • 11.
    Alklid, Jonathan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Twitch, a Breath of Fresh Air?: An Analysis of Sexism on Twitch.tv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of sexism is arguably an important topic in modern society in several aspects of life. With the introduction of the Internet and communication over the Internet, additional potential sources of sexism have emerged. While there appears to have been a significant number of studies regarding sexism in cyberspace, Twitch.tv is a relatively new platform and seems yet to be properly explored. Therefore, while being limited in size, the present study aims to provide an introduction to Twitch.tv by performing a limited investigation of the extent of sexist behaviour and ideas expressed by users on the site, particularly against female streamers. To accomplish this, 30,000 lines of chat messages from six different chatrooms, three belonging to women and the remaining three to men, were examined for sexist behaviour, based on a variety of parameters such as differences in language complexity and instances of sexist remarks. The results suggested that several varieties of sexism existed on Twitch, and was directed at both men and women, where women seemed to be more heavily affected than men. The conclusion of the study is that Twitch does not seem to be a breath of fresh air in cyberspace as it appears to embody numerous sexist ideas. However, the author notes that Twitch could serve as a potentially useful source of data for future gender studies online.

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  • 12.
    Allen, Christopher
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Conceptions of Personal Learning Environments Among EFL Teachers at Upper Secondary Level in Sweden2013In: 20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from thePast, Looking to the Future. Proceedings of the 2013 EUROCALL Conference, Évora, Portugal, 2013, p. 7-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, virtual learning environments (VLEs) or course management systems (CMSs) have become commonplace in European higher education as well as making inroads into primary and secondary schools. VLEs such as Moodle, Blackboard and It's Learning offer educational institutions standardized packages in the form of a range of administrative, pedagogical and communicative tools. Teachers of English as a foreign language at secondary and tertiary levels are certainly no exceptions to this trend, employing VLEs as learning platforms to support a variety of ITC-based learning activities and tasks. VLEs have however attracted criticism from some quarters in that they may be seen merely as virtual embodiments of the classroom with all the restrictions which the 'physical' classroom has traditionally entailed (Weller 2007). Furthermore it has been argued that VLEs have failed to embrace the full advantages of Web 2.0 technologies or acknowledge trends towards informal learning afforded by social media etc. The response to this criticism has been the envisioning of Personal Learning Environments or PLEs which utilise the plethora of free, often collaborative online resources and tools now available to learners. This paper explores the conceptualisation of PLEs and their advantages / disadvantages vis-à-vis VLEs among upper secondary school teachers of English in Sweden on the basis of pedagogical principles put forward as part of the Open University's SocialLearn and OpenLearn matrices (Conole 2008). It is suggested that the mapping of the core frameworks of thinking and reflection, experience and activity, conversation and interaction and evidence and demonstration to a set of learning principles can provide the basis for the evaluation of PLEs as envisioned by teachers and learners.

  • 13.
    Almqvist, Adam Simon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Up to Standard?: A CEFR-related comparative study of Swedish and Norwegian model texts for assessing the national exam in written English for 9th graders2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at exploring the quality of the Swedish and Norwegian national tests using their respective model texts for assessing. The study does so by relating them to the CEFR and the grading tool Write & Improve within the context of the two countries and the field of language testing. The study finds there to be a set of inconsistences between what the national tests want to do and what they actually do. In particular, the study finds the Swedish national test not to be up to its own standards.

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  • 14.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    University of Kiel, Germany;Lund University, Sweden.
    Between Fall and Fall-Rise: Substance-Function Relations in German Phrase-Final Intonation Contours2005In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 62, p. 196-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates an intonation contour of German whose status has not been established yet: a globally falling contour with a slight rise at the very end of the phrase (FSR). The contour may be said to lie on a phonetic continuum between falling (F) and falling-rising (FR) contours. It is hypothesized that F, FR and FSR differ with respect to their communicative functions: F is terminal, FR is non-terminal, and FSR is pseudo-terminal, respectively. The hypotheses were tested in two steps. First, measurements in a labelled corpus of spontaneous speech provided the necessary background information on the phonetics of the contours. In the second step, the general hypothesis was approached in a perceptual experiment using the paradigm of a semantic differential: 49 listeners judged 17 systematically generated stimuli on nine semantic scales, such as ‘impolite/polite’. The hypotheses were generally confirmed. Both F and FSR were associated with a conclusive statement, while FR was more likely to be judged as marking a question. FSR differs from F in that it does not express features such as categoricalness, dominance or impoliteness. The results are interpreted as an instance of the frequency code: the addition of a slight rise means avoidance of extremely low F0; the functional consequence is a reduction of communicated dominance.

  • 15.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Expressing 'confirmation' in Swedish: The interplay of word and utterance prosody2007In: Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Jürgen Trouvain, William J. Barry, Saarbrücken: Saarland University , 2007, p. 1093-1096, article id 1442Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An exploratory study on the prosodic signaling of ‘confirmation’ in Swedish is presented. Pairs of subjects read short dialogs, constructed around selected target words, in a conversational style. A falling utterance intonation was found on the target word, and the signaling of word prosody (lexical pitch accent) appeared to be, to a certain degree, optional.

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  • 16.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Revisiting intonational pitch accents in Swedish: Evidence from lexical accent neutralization2010In: Presented at TIE4. The Fourth European Conference on Tone and Intonation: September 9-11, 2010. Stockholm University, Campus Frescati, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2010, p. 69-70Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 17.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Althaus, Nadja
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Bertilsson, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Löhndorf, Simone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Romøren, Anna Sara Hexeberg
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Contrastive focus production and perception in 3-5 year-old Swedish children from two regional varieties with and without categorical intonational marking of focus2023Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 18.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Lund University, Sweden.
    Althaus, Nadja
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Bertilsson, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Löhndorf, Simone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Romøren, Anna Sara Hexeberg
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Do dialect-specific prosodic properties shape the path to contrastive focus? - Production and comprehension data from 3-5 year-old children acquiring Stockholm or Scania Swedish2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cuing information structure (IS) is a fundamental function of prosody in many languages. For instance, in English or Dutch, a contrastive focus on the color adjective in a phrase like ‘the green boat’ is marked by a pitch accent on GREEN and, crucially, a lack of post-focal accent on BOAT: ‘the GREEN boat’. Listeners infer from this prosodic structure that ‘boat’ represents already activated (given) information and that the color that is specially mentioned represents one out of a set of alternatives.

    According to research findings, children achieve proficiency in the production of prosodic IS encoding within the age range of 4 to 8 years, displaying considerable variability. This variability is suggested to result from structural prosodic differences between languages. For instance, Stockholm Swedish speaking children mark (non-contrastive) focus using the Swedish prominence cuing H(igh) tone in an adult-like manner already at 4-5 years, while Dutch speaking children handle Dutch intonational pitch accents only after the age of 7-8 years. One hypothesis is that this relates to the presence of lexical pitch accents in Swedish, which could make Swedish speaking children more sensitive to prosodic contrasts; in addition, the combination of lexical accent + prominence H results in a complex contour which is particularly salient. However, studies investigating this have usually had a strict focus on speech production.

    The few previous studies that have conducted parallel production and comprehension experiments have typically used offline methods to assess comprehension. More recent studies using online methods such as eye tracking have usually not included children younger than 6 years of age and have not been complemented by production data. 

    In this study we combine production and comprehension experiments, using eye tracking, to study contrastive focus prosody in 3- to 5-year-old children speaking either Scanian or Stockholm Swedish. In Scanian, instead of adding the prominence H-tone for focus, phrase-level prominence is encoded through phonetic adjustments of the (lexical) HL accent patterns. By comparing these two Swedish varieties we can thus control for phonological features (incl. lexical tone), as well as grammar and lexicon, when exploring effects of prosodic-typological differences.

    In our production experiment we elicit adjective-noun phrases in three different focus conditions (broad, contrast on adjective, contrast on noun), using an interactive video/card game. Production data are analyzed acoustically and auditorily.

    As for comprehension, our visual-word eye-tracking experiment makes use of the same pictures of colored objects to investigate whether and how children rely on prosody for reference resolution (e.g., Where is the yellow boat? And where is the GREEN boat?). The time course of eye movements will be analyzed using growth curves. Both production and eye-tracking data will be analyzed as a function of dialect, age and standardized measures of language production and comprehension (The New Reynell Developmental Language Scales), as well as compared to data from adult controls. Data are currently being collected. 

    A preliminary analysis of eye-tracking data from 24 Scanian children (ages 3-5 years collapsed) and a subset of adults from both dialects suggests similar comprehension of focus prosody as in adults (as a mismatched focus prosody in the adjective successfully elicits looks at the foil item in all groups), although processing appears to be slower, and anticipatory strategies differ slightly from those of adults (as the color of the first-mentioned adjective in a trial elicits looks at the color-matched distractor in adults, but not in children). An analysis contrasting comprehension data for both dialects, as well as a preliminary analysis of production data will be presented at the conference.

  • 19.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Althaus, Nadja
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Bertilsson, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Löhndorf, Simone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Romøren, Anna Sara Hexeberg
    Oslo Metropolitan University OsloMet. Norway.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Produktion och perception av kontrastiv fokus hos 3- till 5-åriga barn från Stockholm och Skåne2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att lägga satsbetoningen på ordet som bör fokuseras utifrån en given informationsstruktur är något som barn enligt tidigare internationell forskning verkar bemästra relativt sent i utvecklingen av sitt förstaspråk. Förmågan att uppfatta och tolka satsbetoning verkar barn enligt vissa studier utveckla ännu senare, men få tidigare studier har genomfört parallella produktions- och perceptionstest, och få perceptionsstudier har använt sig av online metoder (så som ögonrörelsemätning) med barn yngre än sex år. En del tidigare studier har påvisat typologiska skillnader; till exempel verkar svenska barn kunna producera en vuxenlik fokusbetoning tidigare än nederländska barn. Med vår studie ämnar vi bidra till en bättre förståelse av hur barn utvecklar sin förmåga att producera och uppfatta kontrastiva fokusbetoningar (t. ex. en röd BIL, en RÖD bil), hur produktionen och perceptionen hänger ihop, och vilken roll prosodisk språktypologi kan spela i sammanhanget. Vi undersöker dessa förmågor hos (totalt ca 120) förskolebarn med stockholmsvenska respektive skånska som förstaspråk – två dialekter som representerar motpoler i en prosodisk typologi när det gäller hur satsbetoning kodas intonationsfonologiskt. I vår produktionsstudie eliciterar vi adjektiv-substantiv fraser med varierad kontrastiv fokus, och i perceptionsstudien mäter vi barnens bearbetning av prosodin i liknande fraser med hjälp av ögonrörelsemätning. Datainsamling pågår i skrivande stund, och prelimära resultat kommer att presenteras på konferensen.

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  • 20.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Lund University, Sweden.
    Althaus, Nadja
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Bertilsson, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Löhndorf, Simone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Romøren, Anna Sara Hexeberg
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Språkutveckling och prosodisk typologi: Produktion och perception av den dialektspecifika fokusmarkeringen hos 3- till 5-åriga barn från Stockholm och Skåne2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att lägga satsbetoningen på ordet som bör fokuseras utifrån en given informationsstruktur är något som barn enligt tidigare internationell forskning verkar bemästra relativt sent i utvecklingen av sitt förstaspråk. Förmågan att uppfatta och tolka satsbetoning verkar barn enligt vissa studier utveckla ännu senare, men få tidigare studier har genomfört parallella produktions- och perceptionstest, och få perceptionsstudier har i detta sammanhang använt sig av online metoder (så som ögonrörelsemätning) med barn yngre än sex år. En del tidigare studier har påvisat typologiska skillnader; till exempel verkar svenska barn kunna producera en vuxenlik fokusbetoning tidigare än nederländska barn.

    Med vår studie ämnar vi bidra till en bättre förståelse av hur barn utvecklar sin förmåga att producera och uppfatta kontrastiva fokusbetoningar (t. ex. en röd BIL, en RÖD bil), hur produktionen och perceptionen hänger ihop, och vilken roll prosodisk språktypologi kan spela i sammanhanget. Vi undersöker dessa förmågor hos (totalt ca 120) förskolebarn med stockholmsvenska respektive skånska som förstaspråk – två dialekter som representerar motpoler i en prosodisk typologi när det gäller hur satsbetoning kodas intonationsfonologiskt. I vår produktionsstudie eliciterar vi adjektiv-substantiv fraser med varierad kontrastiv fokus, och i perceptionsstudien mäter vi barnens bearbetning av prosodin i liknande fraser med hjälp av ögonrörelsemätning. Datainsamling pågår i skrivande stund, och prelimära resultat kommer att presenteras på workshopen.

  • 21.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Althaus, Nadja
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Löhndorf, Simone
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Romøren, Anna Sara H.
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Variability in (the absence of) post-focal de-accentuation in South Swedish2021In: 1st International Conference on Tone and Intonation (TAI): Book of Abstracts / [ed] Oliver Niebuhr, University of Southern Denmark , 2021, p. 40-41Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 22.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Buanzur, Tuarik C.
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Germany.
    Niebuhr, Oliver
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark;Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Germany.
    Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish2015In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] The Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2015, article id 0363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accentual rises: Statements are predominantly characterized by convex rises, questions by concave rises.

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  • 23.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carling, Gerd
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The sounds of a mixed language2014In: Scandoromani: Remnants of a Mixed Language / [ed] Gerd Carling, Lenny Lindell, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Leiden & Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2014, p. 24-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    F0 peak timing, height, and shape as independent features2014In: TAL 2014. The 4th International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages: Nijmegen, The Netherlands, May 13-16, 2014 / [ed] C. Gussenhoven, Y. Chen, D. Dediu, Nijmegen: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2014, p. 138-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable amount of evidence from several intonation languages (e.g., German, English, Italian) supports the idea that F0 peak timing, height, and shape variables form a feature bundle, which is used to encode two-fold intonational (e.g., sentence-level) pitch accent distinctions such as L+H* vs. L*+H. The three types of features in the bundle can be weighted differently but the outcome seems to be functionally equivalent. In this sense, they are ‘substitute phonetic features’. This paper presents data from two distinct prosodic dialect types of Swedish, a pitch-accent language, suggesting that these F0 variables can also be used independently of each other in order to encode two different contrasts (i.e., a three-fold contrast), each of which phonetically and functionally related to the L+H* vs. L*+H distinction in an intonation language. For Central Swedish, we observe two peak raising strategies which go along with differently shaped rises: ‘extending’ (= faster rise) and ‘shifting’ (= slower rise), which tend to be used to signal ‘speaker-related’ emphasis (e.g., ‘surprise’) or ‘message- related’ emphasis (e.g., ‘correction’), respectively. For Southern Swedish, we observe an ‘extended’ peak and an ‘extended and delayed’ peak.

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  • 25.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University.
    On the Intonation of Confirmations in Southern Swedish2013In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIth Conference, Tartu 2012 / [ed] Eva Liina Asu-Garcia, Pärtel Lippus, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2013, p. 87-96Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how confirmations are intoned by nine speakers of Southern Swedish. Test phrases like ja, det var med bilen/bilar ‘yes, it was by car’ (Accent 1)/‘...with cars’ (Accent 2) were elicited, both as new-information responses and confirmations. Speakers made a clear distinction between the utterance types using two, simultaneous intonation strategies. First, they realised the nuclear accent on the target word with a considerably lower F0 peak in con- firmations than in new-information responses. Second, they added a pre-nuclear accent on the verb in confirmations. While they maintained the word-accent distinction on the target word in confirmations, the encoding of the word accent (Accent 1) on the verb seemed to be op- tional. This suggests that the pre-nuclear accent serves a primarily intonational function and that Southern Swedish may have purely intonational pitch accents, contrary to the traditional view. 

  • 26.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The prosody of contrastive topics in Southern Swedish2012In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2012 / [ed] Anders Eriksson, Åsa Abelin, Gothenburg: Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pilot study on the prosodic marking of a contrastive topic in Southern Swedish. A test sentence was elicited in three experimental conditions: initial focus; final focus; contrastive topic (initial word) plus focus (final word). F0 patterns were analysed in recordings of 10 speakers. A majority of the speakers distinguished clearly between the conditions, but speakers employed different strategies. The most common one involved modifying the range and/or level of the F0 patterns given by the lexical pitch accents. Another frequent strategy involved a rising pitch accent on the initial word, where the lexical pitch accent would normally stipulate a fall. This result was unexpected and indicates that Southern Swedish sentence intonation might be more complex than typically assumed.

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  • 27.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bruce, Gösta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Revisiting South and Central Swedish intonation from a comparative and functional perspective2012In: Understanding Prosody: The role of context, function and communication / [ed] Oliver Niebuhr, Berlin & Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2012, p. 135-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Auditory vs. audiovisual prominence ratings of speech involving spontaneously produced head movements2022In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Speech Prosody 2022 / [ed] Frota S., Cruz M., Vigario M., International Speech Communication Association , 2022, p. 352-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual information can be integrated in prominence perception, but most available evidence stems from controlled experimental settings, often involving synthetic stimuli. The present study provides evidence from spontaneously produced head gestures that occurred in Swedish television news readings. Sixteen short clips (containing 218 words in total) were rated for word prominence by 85 adult volunteers in a between-subjects design (44 in an audio-visual vs. 41 in an audio-only condition) using a web-based rating task. As an initial test of overall rating behavior, average prominence across all 218 words was compared between the two conditions, revealing no significant difference. In a second step, we compared normalized prominence ratings between the two conditions for all 218 words individually. These results displayed significant (or near significant, p<.08) differences for 28 out of 218 words, with higher ratings in either the audiovisual (13 words) or the audio-only-condition (15 words). A detailed examination revealed that the presence of head movements (previously annotated) can boost prominence ratings in the audiovisual condition, while words with low prominence tend to be rated slightly higher in the audio-only condition. The study suggests that visual prominence signals are integrated in speech processing even in a relatively uncontrolled, naturalistic setting.

  • 29.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal prominence ratings: Effects of screen size and audio device2019In: Book of Abstracts MMSYM 2019, University of Leuven , 2019, p. 2-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosodic prominence is a multimodal phenomenon involving both acoustic and kinematic dimensions. In order to study the multimodal nature of prominence, we need to collect prominence ratings based on audio-visual speech material from large groups of speakers. This is feasible by means of a web-based crowdsourcing set-up, allowing volunteers to participate using a private computer or mobile phone. However, this freedom also implies a certain reduction of experimental control due to variation in hardware used by the raters. 

    In this pilot study we explore potential effects of two hardware features – screen size and audio device (headphones vs. loudspeakers) – on multimodal prominence ratings. To this end, 16 brief clips from Swedish television news (218 words in total) were rated by 31 native Swedish volunteers using a web-based set-up. In our GUI, orthographic representations of the text were displayed below the video player. Each word was to be rated as either non-prominent, moderately prominent, or strongly prominent, by means of clicking on the word in question until the desired prominence level was encoded through a specific color (yellow: moderate; red: strong). Participants were free to use a mobile phone, a tablet, or a computer, and headphones or loudspeakers, and we collected information about their hardware using a questionnaire. In addition, we automatically logged the screen size of the participant’s computer/phone. 

    We applied two different approaches to analyze the participant’s rating behavior as a function of the hardware features under discussion. First, we calculated a selection of five variables from the raw prominence ratings: (i) the sum of all ratings (over all 218 words), (ii) the percentage of words rated as (moderately or strongly) prominent, (iii) among prominent words, the proportion of words rated as strongly prominent, and (iv-v) the relative prominence rating of two selected words. Effects of screen size and audio device on these variables were analyzed using linear regression models. Second, we calculated inter-rater reliability for multiple raters using Fleiss’ kappa, both for all raters as a reference and for subgroups concerning audio device and screen size. 

    The results reveal a significant model fit for variable (iii) defined above (proportion of strong ratings; F(5;21) = 5.332; p=.0022**), suggesting a significantly higher proportion of strong prominent ratings obtained with loudspeakers (34.0% of words rated as prominent on average) compared to with headphones (18.3%; t=2.944; p=.0073**), as well as with medium size screens (34.2%) compared to with small screens (24.4%; t=2.433; p=.0232*); however, the proportion of strong prominent ratings tended to be lowest with large screens (14.2% on average). Effects of screen size were also reflected in inter-rater reliability, revealing the highest kappa for users with medium-sized screens (kappa=.566, when ratings are recoded to a binary decision) compared to large (kappa=.485) and small screens (mobile phones, kappa=.437). However, inter-rater reliability was less affected by the listening condition (headphones vs. loudspeakers). 3 

    To conclude, the choice of hardware might have effects on multimodal prominence ratings, which has to be considered in crowdsourcing approaches. More detailed results will be presented at the conference.

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  • 30.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Perceiving head movements in news readings: Evidence from web-based auditory vs. audiovisual prominence ratings2021In: Working Papers 56. 2021: Proceedings of Fonetik 2021, Lund, June 8–9, 2021 / [ed] Anna Hjortdal; Mikael Roll, Lund: Lund University , 2021, p. 36-41Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that visual information can be integrated in the perception of prominence, but the available evidence stems mostly from controlled experimental settings, often making use of synthetic stimuli. The present study provides evidence from spontaneously produced head gestures that occurred in Swedish television news readings. Materials were rated for word prominence by 85 adult volunteers in a between-subjects design (audio-visual vs. audio-only ratings) using a crowd-sourcing approach. Accented words accompanied by a head movement were perceived as more prominent than accented words lacking a head movement. Crucially, the difference in perceived prominence level between words with and without a head gesture was found to be larger in an audio-visual rating condition compared to an audio-only condition. The results suggest that visual prominence signals are integrated in speech processing even in a relatively uncontrolled, naturalistic setting, such as watching the news. 

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  • 31.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards understanding the multimodality of prominence production and perception2021In: 4th Phonetics and Phonology in Europe, Phonetics and Phonology: Real-world applications, 21-23 June 2021: Book of Abstracts, Pompeu Fabra University , 2021, p. 78-79Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 32.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Frid, Johan
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Web-based, audio-visual prominence ratings of Swedish news reading materials: Effects of head movements, rating condition, and hardware2023Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 33.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Word prominence ratings in Swedish television news readings: effects of pitch accents and head movements2020In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Speech Prosody: 25-28 May 2020, Tokyo, Japan / [ed] Nobuaki Minematsu, Mariko Kondo, Takayuki Arai, Ryoko Hayashi, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2020, p. 314-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosodic prominence is a multimodal phenomenon where pitch accents are frequently aligned with visible movements by the hands, head, or eyebrows. However, little is known about how such movements function as visible prominence cues in multimodal speech perception with most previous studies being restricted to experimental settings. In this study, we are piloting the acquisition of multimodal prominence ratings for a corpus of natural speech (Swedish television news readings). Sixteen short video clips (218 words) of news readings were extracted from a larger corpus and rated by 44 native Swedish adult volunteers using a web-based set-up. The task was to rate each word in a clip as either non-prominent, moderately prominent or strongly prominent based on audiovisual cues. The corpus was previously annotated for pitch accents and head movements. We found that words realized with a pitch accent and head movement tended to receive higher prominence ratings than words with a pitch accent only. However, we also examined ratings for a number of carefully selected individual words, and these case studies suggest that ratings are affected by complex relations between the presence of a head movement and its type of alignment, the word’s F0 profile, and semantic and pragmatic factors.

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  • 34.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    House, David
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Accentual falls and rises vary as a function of accompanying head and eyebrow movements2018In: Proceedings FONETIK 2018: The XXXth Swedish Phonetics Conference / [ed] Åsa Abelin, Yasuko Nagano-Madsen, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg, 2018, p. 5-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine prosodic prominence from a multimodal perspective. Our research question is whether the phonetic realization of accentual falls and rises in Swedish complex pitch accents varies as a function of accompanying head and eyebrow movements. The study is based on audio and video data from 60 brief news readings from Swedish Television (SVT Rapport), comprising 1936 words in total, or about 12 minutes of speech from five news anchors (two female, three male). The results suggest a tendency for a cumulative relation of verbal and visual prominence cues: the more visual cues accompanying, the higher the pitch peaks and the larger the rises and falls.

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  • 35.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    House, David
    Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Sweden.
    Acoustic features of multimodal prominences: Do visual beat gestures affect verbal pitch accent realization?2017In: The 14th International Conference on Auditory-Visual Speech Processing (AVSP2017) / [ed] Slim Ouni, Chris Davis, Alexandra Jesse, Jonas Beskow, Stockholm: KTH , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interplay of verbal and visual prominence cues has attracted recent attention, but previous findings are inconclusive as to whether and how the two modalities are integrated in the production and perception of prominence. In particular, we do not know whether the phonetic realization of pitch accents is influenced by co-speech beat gestures, and previous findings seem to generate different predictions. In this study, we investigate acoustic properties ofprominent words as a function of visual beat gestures in a corpus of read news from Swedish television. The corpus was annotated for head and eyebrow beats as well as sentence-level pitch accents. Four types of prominence cues occurredparticularly frequently in the corpus: (1) pitch accent only, (2) pitch accent plus head, (3) pitch accent plus head plus eyebrows, and (4) head only. The results show that (4) differs from (1-3) in terms of a smaller pitch excursion and shorter syllable duration. They also reveal significantly larger pitch excursions in (2) than in (1), suggesting that the realization of a pitch accent is to some extent influenced by the presence of visual prominence cues. Results are discussed in terms of the interaction between beat gestures and prosody with a potential functional difference between head and eyebrow beats.

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  • 36.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Is phonetic prominence underlyingly multimodal?2019In: Phonetics and Phonology in Europe 2019 satellite workshop: Prominence between cognitive functions and linguistic structures (CoFLiS) / [ed] Francesco Cangemi, Stefan Baumann, Michelina Savino, Martine Grice, Köln: University of Cologne , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download (pdf)
    abstract
  • 37.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal levels of prominence: the use of eyebrows and head beats to convey information structure in Swedish news reading2016In: ISGS Conference 2016. Gesture, Creativity, Multimodality: Book of abstracts, Paris: New Sorbonne University Paris 3 , 2016, p. 319-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download (pdf)
    abstract
  • 38.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal prominences: Exploring the patterning and usage of focal pitch accents, head beats and eyebrow beats in Swedish television news readings2017In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 95, p. 100-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial beat gestures align with pitch accents in speech, functioning as visual prominence markers. However, it is not yet well understood whether and how gestures and pitch accents might be combined to create different types of multimodal prominence, and how specifically visual prominence cues are used in spoken communication. In this study, we explore the use and possible interaction of eyebrow (EB) and head (HB) beats with so-called focal pitch accents (FA) in a corpus of 31 brief news readings from Swedish television (four news anchors, 986 words in total), focusing on effects of position in text, information structure as well as speaker expressivity. Results reveal an inventory of four primary (combinations of) prominence markers in the corpus: FA+HB+EB, FA+HB, FA only (i.e., no gesture), and HB only, implying that eyebrow beats tend to occur only in combination with the other two markers. In addition, head beats occur significantly more frequently in the second than in the first part of a news reading. A functional analysis of the data suggests that the distribution of head beats might to some degree be governed by information structure, as the text-initial clause often defines a common ground or presents the theme of the news story. In the rheme part of the news story, FA, HB, and FA+HB are all common prominence markers. The choice between them is subject to variation which we suggest might represent a degree of freedom for the speaker to use the markers expressively. A second main observation concerns eyebrow beats, which seem to be used mainly as a kind of intensification marker for highlighting not only contrast, but also value, magnitude, or emotionally loaded words; it is applicable in any position in a text. We thus observe largely different patterns of occurrence and usage of head beats on the one hand and eyebrow beats on the other, suggesting that the two represent two separate modalities of visual prominence cuing.

  • 39.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal prominences: How eyebrow and head beats are combined with pitch accents to encode information structure in Swedish news readings2017In: The 6th conference of the Scandinavian Association for Language and Cognition: Book of abstracts, Lund: Lund University , 2017, p. 21-22Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 40.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodality in prominence production and its sensitivity for lexical prosody2019In: Abstract booklet: PaPE, Lecce, 17-19 June 2019 / [ed] Barbara Gili Fivela, Cinzia Avesani, Michelina Savino, University of Salento , 2019, p. 121-122Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 41.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    House, David
    KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Sweden.
    Phonetic realization of Swedish complex pitch accents as a function of accompanying head and eyebrow movements2018Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 42.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    House, David
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Probing effects of lexical prosody on speech-gesture integration in prominence production by Swedish news presenters2022In: Laboratory Phonology, E-ISSN 1868-6354, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the multimodal implementation of prosodic-phonological categories, asking whether the accentual fall and the following rise in the Swedish word accents (Accent 1, Accent 2) are varied as a function of accompanying head and eyebrow gestures. Our purpose is to evaluate the hypothesis that prominence production displays a cumulative relation between acoustic and kinematic dimensions of spoken language, especially focusing on the clustering of gestures (head, eyebrows), at the same time asking if lexical-prosodic features would interfere with this cumulative relation. Our materials comprise 12 minutes of speech from Swedish television news presentations. The results reveal a significant trend for larger fo rises when a head movement accompanies the accented word, and even larger when an additional eyebrow movement is present. This trend is observed for accentual rises that encode phrase-level prominence, but not for accentual falls that are primarily related to lexical prosody. Moreover, the trend is manifested differently in different lexical-prosodic categories (Accent 1 versus Accent 2 with one versus two lexical stresses). The study provides novel support for a cumulative-cue hypothesis and the assumption that prominence production is essentially multimodal, well in line with the idea of speech and gesture as an integrated system.

  • 43.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    House, David
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    The role of head and eyebrow movements for the production and perception of prosodic prominence: Evidence from Swedish news readings and spontaneous dialogue2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk focuses on the role of eyebrow and head gestures for the multimodal construction of prominence. We will summarize results from our recent studies (in progress or submitted) on the co-occurrence of gestures and pitch accents in two different genres (news readings and spontaneous dialogue). Special foci will lie on (1) phonetic and phonological aspects of the co-production of head movements, eyebrow movements and pitch accents in news readings, (2) the audio-visual integration of pitch accents and head movements in the perception of prominence, and (3) some preliminary data on the occurrence of head and eyebrow movements in spontaneous Swedish dialogue. To highlight our key findings, (1) in a data set consisting of 60 brief news readings (12 minutes of speech in total; 1936 words) we have observed a tendency for a more pronounced phonetic realization of pitch accents (in terms of larger fo-rises) as a function of co-occurring head and eyebrow movements, which, we argue, suggests prominence production to be underlyingly multimodal and cumulative. (2) Using a web-based rating task (involving 85 participants: 44 in an audio-visual and 41 in an audio-only condition), we collected prominence ratings for a selection of clips taken from our news reading materials (218 words). The results displayed a small but significant effect of the visual modality, as a stronger perceptual distinction was made between accented words with and without head movements in the audio-video condition compared to the audio-only condition. (3) Finally, in four 5- minute excerpts from the Spontal Corpus, we automatically identified head movements using a motion capture technique, revealing that only 19% of “simple head movements” co-occurred with pitch accents, as opposed to 71% in our news reading data. Hence, in the spontaneous dialogues, head movements serve a multitude of expressive and communicative functions, while in news readings, their function may indeed be primarily related to the signaling of prominence. An annotation of eyebrow movement in the spontaneous speech data is in progress. Overall, our findings suggest an essentially multimodal nature of prominence production and perception, as well as large differences in the usage of gestures between genres. 

  • 44.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anastasia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The prosody of topics in two varieties of Swedish: Effects of contrast and referential status2016In: Presented at TIE2016, the 7th Conference on Tone and Intonation in Europe: Canterbury, UK, September 1-3, 2016, Canterbury: University of Kent , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 45.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Niebuhr, Oliver
    University of Provence, France.
    Dip and hat pattern: a phonological contrast of German?2008In: Speech Prosody 2008, Fourth International Conference: Campinas, Brazil, May 6-9, 2008 / [ed] Pl?nio A. Barbosa, Sandra Madureira, Cesar Reis, Campinas: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2008, p. 269-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is the high plateau in a ‘hat pattern’ a phonetic artefact, or does it reflect a phonological feature? Can it contrast with a low plateau, i.e. a ‘dip pattern’? The presented perception experiment supports the phonological point of view, since it shows that the dip/hat contrast can disambiguate German oder-constructions, which are interpretable as ‘alternative’ or ‘yes/no-questions’. This specific function may be derived from a more general substance–function relation: While a hat pattern has a ‘bracketing function’, a dip signals detachment.

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  • 46.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson Lundmark, Malin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Head beats and eyebrow movements as a function of phonological prominence levels and word accents in Stockholm Swedish news broadcasts2015In: Presented at MMSYM 2015, The 3rd European Symposium on Multimodal Communication: Dublin, Ireland, September 17-18, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 47.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson Lundmark, Malin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Head Movements, Eyebrows, and Phonological Prosodic Prominence Levels in Stockholm Swedish News Broadcasts2015In: FAAVSP 2015. The 1st Joint Conference on Facial Analysis, Animation, and Auditory-Visual Speech Processing: Kardinal König Haus, 11 – 13 September 2015, Vienna, Austria, Vienna: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2015, p. 42-42Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 48.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svensson Lundmark, Malin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multimodal levels of prominence: A preliminary analysis of head and eyebrow movements in Swedish news broadcasts2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015: Lund, June 8–10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2015, Vol. 55, p. 11-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first analysis of the distribution of head and eyebrow movements as a function of (a) phonological prominence levels (focal, non-focal) and (b) word accent (Accent 1, Accent 2) in Swedish news broadcasts. Our corpus consists of 31 brief news readings, comprising speech from four speakers and 986 words in total. A head movement was annotated for 229 (23.2%) of the words, while eyebrow movements occurred much more sparsely (67 cases or 6.8%). Results of χ2-tests revealed a dependency of the distribution of movements on the one hand and focal accents on the other, while no systematic effect of the word accent type was found. However, there was an effect of the word accent type on the annotation of ‘double’ head movements. These occurred very sparsely, and predominantly in connection with focally accented compounds (Accent 2), which are characterized by two lexical stresses. Overall, our results suggests that head beats might have a closer association with phonological prosodic structure, while eyebrow movements might be more restricted to higher-level prominence and information-structure coding. Hence, head and eyebrow movements can represent two quite different modalities of prominence cuing, both from a formal and functional point of view, rather than just being cumulative prominence markers.

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  • 49.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Tronnier, Mechtild
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Is duration a (true) correlate of the Swedish word accents?2021In: Fonologi i Norden: Abstract Booklet, FiNo 2021, University of Helsinki, 2021, p. 2-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish exhibits a binary tonal word-accent distinction (Accent 1, Accent 2) which is acoustically manifested in the fundamental frequency (fo) contour. Further acoustic correlates beyond fo have hardly been acknowledged in the past, although minor differences in segmental durations between A1 and A2 have been observed in some previous studies (e.g., Elert, 1964; Lundmark Svensson et al., 2017). In this study, we aim to scrutinize these durational patterns for two Swedish dialects (Scania and Stockholm Swedish) by means of testing whether duration as a correlate of Swedish word accents can be observed independently of effects such as focal lengthening and final lengthening. The few previously reported duration data for A1 and A2 in Swedish are, we will argue, not well in line with the numerous available reports on tone languages, which suggest that more complex tonal patterns are reflected by longer durations (e.g., K hnlein, 2015, and references therein). For Swedish, however, previous research has not consequently revealed longer durations where it would be predicted based on tonal complexity. For instance, for Stockholm Swedish, Elert (1964) observed a longer stressed vowel in A1 than in A2, although longer durations could be predicted for the more complex H*LH-pattern in A2 than for the (H)L*H in A1. One possible explanation of this inconsistency could be that the Swedish word accents per se might not significantly differ in duration at all, and the small durational differences between A1 and A2 are, instead, a bi-product of sentence-level prosody, which might, for reasons to be discussed at the conference, affect one of the word accents stronger than the other. In this study, we therefore compare segmental durations for A1 and A2 in focal and non-focal conditions in different positions in the utterance. Furthermore, we present two parallel analyses for two dialects of Swedish – Stockholm and Scania – which differ critically in the tonal composition (or rather timing) of the word accents, as well as in how focus is marked tonally.

    The analyses are based on recordings from 24 speakers in total (6 women and 6 men per dialect), and 36 utterances per speaker (12 conditions, 3 repetitions). Speakers were asked to read variants of the sentence Boven/ar hade vinet/er i bilen/ar ‘(The) villain(s) had wine(s) in (the) car(s)’, where the three test words (villain, wine, car) are associated either with A1 (= def. sg. form) or A2 (= indef. pl.); a few relevant combinations of A1 and A2 forms were selected for this study. Furthermore, a narrow focus was elicited (using context questions) on either the first, second or third test word. Data are analyzed using linear mixed regression models. The results reveal an overall stable and uniform effect of word accent on the duration of the vowel in the stressed syllable (/i:/ in vin and bil) and the subsequent consonant (either /n/ or /l/), irrespective of focus condition, position in utterance (vin vs. bil) and dialect: both segments tend to be slightly longer in A2 than in A1 (except in the /l/ in post-focal bilen in Stockholm Swedish).

    To conclude, this study suggests duration as a systematic correlate of the Swedish word accents, which, however, does not obviously seem to relate to tonal composition or complexity. We aim to collect fruitful comments and explanatory accounts from the conference delegates.

    References

    Elert, C.-C. (1964). Phonologic Studies of Quantity in Swedish. Based on Material from Stockholm Speakers. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

    Köhnlein, B. (2015). The complex durational relationship of contour tones and level tones: Evidence from diachrony. Diachronica, 32(2), 231-267. doi:10.1075/dia.32.2.03koh

    Lundmark Svensson, M., Ambrazaitis, G., & Ewald, O. (2017). Exploring multidimensionality: Acoustic and articulatory correlates of Swedish word accents. Proc. INTERSPEECH 2017, Stockholm, Sweden. http://dx.doi.org/10.21437/Interspeech.2017-1502

  • 50.
    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Tronnier, Mechtild
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Segmental durations as a correlate of Swedish word accents: Evidence from Stockholm and Scania Swedish2021In: Working Papers 56. 2021: Proceedings of Fonetik 2021, Lund, June 8–9, 2021 / [ed] Anna Hjortdal; Mikael Roll, Lund: Lund University , 2021, p. 13-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to scrutinize the role of segmental duration as acorrelate of the two Swedish word accents, asking whether it is a robust correlate, independent of tonal complexity and phrase-level prosodic factors. To this end, we examined segmental durations of Accent 1 and Accent 2 words in two regional dialects, controllingfor focus and phrase finality. Recordings from 24 speakers were analysed. Theresults showed that thevowel in the stressed syllable and the post-vocalic consonant wereproduced longer with Accent 2 than with Accent 1, irrespective ofthe speakers¶ dialect,focus condition and positionin the utterance.

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