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  • 1.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    et al.
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy..
    Chiatti, Carlos
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy..
    Rimland, Joseph M
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy..
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy..
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy..
    Lattanzio, Fabrizia
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy..
    Socioeconomic Predictors of the Employment of Migrant Care Workers by Italian Families Assisting Older Alzheimer's Disease Patients: Evidence From the Up-Tech Study2016In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 514-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The availability of family caregivers of older people is decreasing in Italy as the number of migrant care workers (MCWs) hired by families increases. There is little evidence on the influence of socioeconomic factors in the employment of MCWs.

    METHOD: We analyzed baseline data from 438 older people with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), and their family caregivers enrolled in the Up-Tech trial. We used bivariate analysis and multilevel regressions to investigate the association between independent variables-education, social class, and the availability of a care allowance-and three outcomes-employment of a MCW, hours of care provided by the primary family caregiver, and by the family network (primary and other family caregivers).

    RESULTS: The availability of a care allowance and the educational level were independently associated with employing MCWs. A significant interaction between education and care allowance was found, suggesting that more educated families are more likely to spend the care allowance to hire a MCW.

    DISCUSSION: Socioeconomic inequalities negatively influenced access both to private care and to care allowance, leading disadvantaged families to directly provide more assistance to AD patients. Care allowance entitlement needs to be reformed in Italy and in countries with similar long-term care and migration systems.

  • 2.
    Burholt, Vanessa
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Windle, Gill
    University of Wales, UK.
    Ferring, Dieter
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Balducci, Cristian
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Thissen, Frans
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Weber, Germain
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Wenger, Clare G.
    University of Wales, UK.
    Reliability and Validity of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) Social Resources Scale in six European Countries2007In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 371-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The purpose of this article is to examine data quality, reliability, and construct validity of the Older Americans Resources and Services social resources scale in six European countries (The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Austria, the United Kingdom, and Sweden).

    Methods. A questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews in five countries, and postal interview in the sixth, to representative populations of adults aged 50 to 90 living independently (N = 12,478). This article examines missing values and distribution of items in the social resources scale, and consistency of skew and kurtosis across countries. We performed item–total correlations and ran confirmatory factor analyses to test a three-factor model obtained in previous U.S. and Spanish analyses. Cronbach's alpha determined the reliability of the factors.

    Results. We observed a relatively large proportion of missing data for one item (have someone who would help you). All items correlated with a score equal to or greater than 0.20. Although the confirmatory factor analyses generally supported the acceptability of the three-factor structure in the European data, the reliability of two dimensions (dependability and affective) was unacceptably low.

    Discussion. Differences across countries make it unlikely that researchers can develop a single social resources scale that would have item equivalence in multiple countries.

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