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  • 1.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Wnuk-Pel, Tomasz
    University of Lodz, Poland.
    Adamsson, Philip
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Petersson, Johannes
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    The use of environmental performance indicators in "the greenest city in Europe"2019In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 122-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: the purpose of this study, based on the Swedish city Växjö, which is called “the greenest city in Europe”, is to examine how and why municipal managers and CEOs for municipally owned companies use environmental performance indicators.   

    Design/methodology/approach: a case study approach as a research design was used. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted among managers for municipal departments, municipal company CEOs, politicians and employees at the environmental office.

    Findings: this study conclude that the environmental indicators, which are a part of the Environmental Program at the municipality, are used by department managers mainly for resource allocation, control and for teaching of the employees. The CEOs for the municipal companies are using the environmental indicators for communicating with external stakeholders and are seeing the indicators primarily as a marketing tool. Department manager´s internal use of environmental information could be explained by their inward orientation towards the municipality itself and not to the external stakeholders. The main motivation for the department managers to use the environmental information is to gain access to resources for projects within their departments. The company managers for the municipal companies express their motivation for using the environmental indicators when they do business with external stakeholders and they realize that this can help to create a competitive advantage. In summary, the explanation to why the Environmental Program is used in the municipality can be found in a strong demand from the local politicians to push the “green agenda”.  

    Research implications/limitations: as in any case study, generalizations from the research should be made with care, but since this is only one municipality further research is needed to find additional evidences.  

    Originality/value: the research adds to the literature by examining different patterns of using environmental performance indicators in an unique setting – in Växjö Municipality which is called “the greenest city in Europe”, which is one of the “pioneers” in environmental work and is extensively using performance indicators.

  • 2.
    Collin, Sven-Olof Yrjö
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Smith, Elin
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Umans, Timurs
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet.
    Mechanisms of corporate governance going international: Testing its performance effects in the Swedish economy, 20042013In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how internationalisation of corporate governance mechanisms influences firm performance.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on the data collected from annual reports of the year 2004, from all 239 Swedish corporations listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange, on which a quantitative analysis was performed.

    Findings – The findings suggest that internationalisation of corporate governance does not have a straightforward influence on firm performance, which can be due to: the fact that mechanisms with governance functions have several functions, of which governance is but one; and the fact that governance mechanisms cannot be analyzed in isolation, since they are included in a coherent corporate governance strategy.

    Originality/value – The paper is the first to investigate the corporate governance mechanisms' internationalisation issue.

  • 3.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    The effect of international experience on the degree of SME insidership in newly opened business networks2013In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 397-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to develop internationalization process theory by examining the relationship between small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) international experience and their degree of insidership in newly opened business networks. Design/methodology/approach - The study applies a quantitative approach. Data were collected on-site at 203 SMEs having entered the Baltic States, Poland, Russia and China. The data are analysed with structural equation modeling in SmartPLS. Findings - The paper reveals that international experience is positively associated with both the country and customer experience in the newly opened business network. Country experience, in turn, is strongly associated with a firm's degree of insidership in the business network. Conflicting with the hypothesized model, no support is found for the direct relationship between international experience and insidership. Nor does the analysis reveal any significant relationship between a firm's customer experience, in terms of variation, in the newly opened business network and the degree of insidership in the network. Research limitations/implications - The paper empirically discriminates different types of international experience derived from theory and examines their relationship with the degree of firm insidership in newly opened business networks. Originality/value - Theoretically this paper advances internationalization process theory by developing its network aspect as well as discriminating different experience types and their role in predicting network insidership in newly opened business networks.

  • 4.
    Oguji, Nnamdi
    et al.
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Larimo, Jorma
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Determinants of equity changes in partial acquisitions of Finnish multinationals in foreign markets2019In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 268-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose When entering foreign markets, multinationals can acquire part of a foreign firm and can increase or decrease their equity stake over time. However, extant studies have mainly focused on equity stake acquired during initial market entry. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach This study fills this gap by using the Uppsala model to analyze six cases of international acquisitions of Finnish multinationals in global markets. Findings The authors found that firms change their equity stake in partially acquired foreign subsidiaries: when they have learned about the host country and businesses of the partially acquired firms, when they have gained target-specific experience, when they build trust and ensure relationship commitment and finally, when they jointly develop and exploit opportunities. Originality/value This study is one of the first to apply the Uppsala model to empirically analyze international acquisitions, thus paving the way for behavioral and process-oriented approaches. The study contributes to knowledge of post-entry strategies of multinationals.

  • 5.
    Umans, Timurs
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Ethnic identity, power, and communication in top management teams2008In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 159-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the "black box" of top management team (TMT) processes such as communication and power distribution, examining the example of ethnically diverse TMTs in Latvia.

    Design/methodology/approach - The study relies on case studies of two multinational companies operating in Latvia.

    Findings - The findings suggest that ethnic diversity in TMTs leads to more informal and open communication in the teams, but has no clear influence on power distribution in the teams. The results highlight the importance of studying variables that could moderate the effects of ethnic diversity on communication and power distribution; throughout the study, these variables were identified as, but not limited to, environment and shared goals.

    Originality/value - This paper uses case studies to explore the black box of team processes, and proposes an alternative operationalization of cultural diversity, measured as ethnic diversity. It also advocates an alternative conceptualization of TMTs expressed in terms of decision-making power. The paper's major contribution is its opening up and exploration of team processes, usually avoided by researchers because of their assumed complexity. Moreover, the study contributes to TMT studies by presenting the Latvian environment as a unique research locus where ethnic identities are rich and various.

  • 6.
    Åkerman, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    An international learning typology: strategies and outcomes for internationalizing firms2014In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 382-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of heterogeneous strategies for new knowledge development in the internationalization processes of firms. Design/methodology/approach - A typology of international learning strategies is developed. The typology is supported by a case study of seven Swedish international firms that show heterogeneous strategies. The case study suggests links between learning strategies and international growth. Findings - The results suggest an international learning-strategy typology derived from extant theory on knowledge acquisition in internationalization, constituted by four types: Passive Learners, Endogenous Learners, Exogenous Learners, and Diversified Learners. The results further suggest that the typology is empirically relevant and, moreover, suggest a potential heterogeneity in outcomes for these strategies. The study suggests that there is a link between learning strategy and outcomes in terms of growth and international sales distribution. Research limitations/implications - The strategy for how firms learn when internationalizing has implications for the firm's international growth. The case-study design has limitations for generalizability and future quantitative validation is called for. Practical implications - Managers need to be aware of the consequences of their learning strategy for the internationalization performance. This study informs strategic decision making for how to learn from international markets. Originality/value - The results suggest a typology based on heterogeneity of international learning strategies and their consequences for internationalization.

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