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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Mould susceptibility of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood: Impact of drying, thermal modification, and copper-based preservative2013Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 85, s. 284-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of mould on wood surfaces depends on several factors. Although mould does not affect the mechanical properties of wood, it greatly reduces the aesthetic value of wood such as the sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which is very prone to mould. In addition, adverse health effects of mould on humans are a great concern. Different types of dried and treated wood were used to observe whether they had enhanced durability against mould following an accelerated laboratory test method in a climate chamber. Samples were green, air-dried, industrially thermally modified, treated with copper-based preservative, and kiln-dried wood, which were tested within a single test run. The test produced the following main results: The thermal modification increased the durability of the wood, and the protective effectiveness of alternative treatments was comparable to that of commercially available copper-based treatment. However, the initial moisture content of the samples during mould exposure had a great influence on the onset of mould growth. The risk of mould susceptibility of industrial kiln-dried lumber can be reduced by drying using the double-layering technique and planing off the nutrient enriched evaporation surfaces.

  • 2.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Biodegradation of azo and anthraquinone dyes in continuous systems2011Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 227-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to develop a complete microbiological model system for the treatment of wastewater

    from textile mills in developing countries. Arti

    fi

    cial wastewater was treated by microorganisms growing

    on wood shavings from Norway spruce during unsterile conditions. The microorganisms were inoculated

    from forest residues. Mixtures of the azo dyes Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 were degraded in

    batch as well as continuous experiments. Reactive Red 2 mixed with the anthraquinone dye Reactive

    Blue 4 was also treated in the continuous system. The system consisted of three reservoirs

     

     

    e the fi

    rst two

    with an anaerobic environment and the third with an aerobic. The dye concentrations were 200 mg l

     

     

    1

    of

    each dye in the continuous system and the retention time was approximately 4 days and 20 h per

    reservoir. Samples from the process were analysed with spectrophotometer and LC/MS to monitor the

    degradation process. 86-90% of the colour was removed after a treatment of 4 days and 23 h in the

    continuous process. Two metabolites were found in the outlets of reactors one and two, but they were

    degraded to below the detection limit in the aerobic reactor.

     

     

     

  • 3.
    Gascón-Garrido, P
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Oliver-Villanueva, JV
    Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain.
    Ibiza-Palacios, MS
    Furniture and Packaging Research Institute, Spain.
    Militz, H
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Mai, C
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany ; Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Resistance of wood modified with different technologies against Mediterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.)2013Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 82, s. 13-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory no-choice test following the standard EN-117 was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of wood modified with different technologies against subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes spp. European beech modified with DMDHEU, acetylated radiata pine, and furfurylated Southern yellow pine were used for termite testing. Before the bioassay, half the number of the specimens (including controls) was subjected to an accelerated aging test according to EN-84. The specimens were exposed for 8 wk to the termites. Additionally, mass losses were measured. The results indicated that the feeding pressure was sufficient according to EN-117 for a valid test. Acetylated wood and DMDHEU-modified wood were classified as durable, showing excellent termite resistance. Furfurylated wood was resistant in the case of non-leached specimens; however, the leaching process led to a classification of non-durable. Thus, the new modification technologies open a real possibility of their use in the Mediterranean region as alternative preventive treatments against subterranean termites.

  • 4.
    Kielmann, B
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany ; Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Greece.
    Militz, H
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Mai, C
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Decay resistance of ash, beech and maple wood modified with N-methylol melamine and a metal complex dye2014Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 89, s. 110-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the decay resistance of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and maple (Acer platanoides L.) wood impregnated by a full cell process with N-methylol melamine (NMM) and combined NMM-metal complex dye (NMM-BS) in aqueous solutions. Basidiomycete decay testing involved incubation with Coniophora puteana (brown rot) and Trametes versicolor (white rot) according to a modified EN 113 (1996) standard, while for the soft rot fungal resistance was evaluated following the standard ENv 807 (2001). NMM and NMM-BS modifications at a WPG range of 7–11% provided decay protection against brown rot resulting in a mass loss less than the required limit (3%). The NMM and NMM-BS modified wood showed increased resistance to white rot decay; however, a higher WPG is needed to prohibit attack from this hardwood specific fungus. The metal-complex dye alone revealed biocidal effects against basidiomycetes. An increased WPG in NMM or NMM-BS had a positive impact against soft rot decay and the lowest mass losses after 32 weeks of exposure were obtained with NMM modification at about 18–21% WPG. NMM modification at this WPG range, however, was not sufficient to protect the wood from soft rot decay. The wood of beech and maple showed slightly higher resistance to all decay types than ash, probably due to the poorer degree of modification of the latter.

  • 5.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Université de Montréal, Canada.
    St-Arnaud, Marc
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bell, Terrence H.
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Hijri, Mohamed
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Petroleum biodegradation capacity of bacteria and fungi isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil2017Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 116, s. 48-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation by 95 bacterial and 160 fungal strains isolated from a former petrochemical plant. We tested whether soil origin, culture media type, and strain taxonomy influenced the degradation of added petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. Preliminary screening was based on two colorimetric tests using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and piodonitrotetrazolium indicators, to assess microbial strain tolerance to crude oil. Top-performing strains in these screening assays were then assessed for their ability to mineralize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) for 49 days, using GC-MS quantification. The aerobic activity of these candidate strains was also assessed by respirometry over the first 24 days of incubation. On average, PAH degradation by microbial isolates from soil that was lightly, moderately, and highly contaminated with petroleum was equally efficient, and the type of culture medium used did not significantly impact mean biodegradation. Phylogenetic affiliation had a strong and significant effect on PAH biodegradation. Fungal isolates belonging to the group Sordariomycetes, and bacterial isolates belonging to the groups Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria showed high potential for PAH degradation. Three of the strains tested by GC-MS, Rhodococcus sp., Trichoderma tomentosum, and Fusarium oxysporum, significantly degraded all four PAH compounds in the mixture compared to the control. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Wagner, Leopold
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    de Borst, Karin
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Fungal degradation of softwood cell walls: Enhanced insight through micromechanical modeling2014Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 93, s. 223-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Fungal degradation is among the greatest hazards for standing trees as well as timber constructions. Herein we aim at gaining more detailed insight into the degradation strategies of wood destroying fungi and the consequences on the mechanical performance of wood. At the macroscale, the occurring losses of mass and of mass density mask effects of altered chemical composition and microstructure. Thus, it is necessary to step down the hierarchical organization of wood to the cell wall scale in order to resolve these changes and their mechanical impact. We present a multiscale micromechanical model which is used to estimate the stiffnesses of the S2 cell wall layer and the compound middle lamella of fungal degraded wood. Data from a detailed chemical, microstructural and micromechanical characterization of white rot and brown rot degraded Scots pine sapwood is analyzed. Comparing predicted cell wall stiffnesses with measured ones confirms the suitability of the approach. The model enables to establish structure–stiffness relationships for fungal degraded wood cell walls and to test hypotheses on yet unknown effects of fungal decay. The latter include the evolution of porosity, modifications of the cell wall polymers resulting in changes of their stiffnesses, as well as increasing cell wall crystallinity. The model predictions in general showed good agreement with the predictions not considering pores in the cell wall. However, this finding does not rule out the formation of porosity. Other degradation related effects like modifications of the cell wall polymers as well as increased crystallinity have the potential to account for stiffness decreases upon the formation of pores.

  • 7.
    Welander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Decolourization of reactive azo dyes with microorganisms growing on soft wood chips2009Ingår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, ISSN 0964-8305, Vol. 63, s. 752-758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The decolourization of a mixture of 200 mg/l each of Reactive Black 5 and Reactive REd 2 dye was studied in batch experiments using microorganisms growing on forest residue wood chips in combination with or without added white-rot fungus, Bjerakndera sp. BOL 13. The study was performed as a first stage in the development of a relatively simple treatement process for textile wastewater, designed to work in developing countries. Forest residue wood chips contain a mixture of fungi and bacteria which is an advantage when complex molecules should be degraded. The wood chips furthermore provide the microorganisms with carbon source which make the addition of e.g. glucose unnecessary. The results showed that the microorganisms growing on the forest residue wood chips decolourized the mixture of the two dyes; adding extra nutrients approximately doubled the decolourization rate. The time needed for decolourization was approximately 18 days when nutrients were added. Lignocellulosic material is complex and so were the analysis, microorganisms were therfore transferred to ordinary soft wood chips from forest residue wood chips, Decolourization was measured with spectrophotometer an in order to determine intermediates HPLC was used.

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