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  • 1.
    Anderholm, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Marshall, Rupert C
    Aberystwyth University, UK.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    SOVON Dutch Centre for Field Ornithology, The Netherlands ; Vogeltrekstation Dutch Centre for Avian Migration and Demography, The Netherlands.
    Waldeck, Peter
    University of Gothenburg.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University.
    Andersson, Malte
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nest parasitism in the barnacle goose: evidence from protein fingerprinting and microsatellites2009In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geese are often seen as one of nature's best examples of monogamous relationships, and many social pairs stay together for life. However, when parents and young are screened genetically, some chicks do not match their social parents. Although this has often been explained as adoption of foreign young after hatching, conspecific nest parasitism is another possibility. We used nondestructive egg albumen sampling and protein fingerprinting to estimate the frequency and success of nest parasitism in a Baltic Sea population of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis. Among the 86 nests for which we had the most complete information, 36% were parasitized, and 12% of the eggs were parasitic. Almost 80% of the parasitic eggs were laid after the host began incubation. Hatching of these eggs was limited to the few cases where the host female incubated longer than normally because her own eggs failed to hatch. Conspecific nest parasitism in this population therefore seems mainly to be an alternative reproductive tactic of lower fitness than normal nesting. Comparison with DNA profiling of chicks (with 10–14 microsatellites) and other evidence confirmed the suitability of protein fingerprinting for analysis of nest parasitism. It can often provide more data than microsatellites, if eggs are albumen-sampled soon after being laid, before most losses occur.

  • 2.
    Forslund, Pär
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Intraspecific nest parasitism in the barnacle gooseFjärrlån IN: behavioural tactics of parasites and hosts1995In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 509-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific nest parasitism in the barnacle goose,Branta leucopsis, was recorded by direct observations of females trying to lay eggs in the nests of other females. This was observed on 36 occasions. Parasitic egg-laying attempts were observed both in mornings and evenings, and lasted on average at least 20 min. Parasitic females approached host nests very fast and immediately sat down on or close to the nest. Host females attacked parasitic females intensively, but host males were much less aggressive. Males paired to the parasitic females were sometimes seen, but they never took any active part in the parasitic egg-laying attempts. Parasitic females probably successfully laid an egg most of the times, as the clutch size in host nests was on average 0·9 eggs larger than in nests where parasitic egg-laying attempts were not observed. Host females were observed to retrieve eggs laid outside the nest cup. Of 27 known cases, parasitic females made their egg-laying attempts before or at the host's start of incubation on 12 occasions, and after the start of incubation 15 times. It is suggested that parasitic females exploited features in the behaviour of potential hosts, such as egg retrieval and low aggressiveness in host males, to succeed in their egg-laying attempts. Nest parasitism seems to be a facultative, ‘best-of-a-bad-job’ tactic in barnacle geese, as parasitic females were observed to have nests of their own before or after the year they behaved parasitically, but never in that particular year.

  • 3. Guevara-Fiore, P.
    et al.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Endler, J.A.
    Sex as moderator of early life experiences: interaction between rearing environment and sexual experience in male guppies2012In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 1023-1029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of learning have been neglected in studies of sexual selection because previous researchers have assumed, implicitly or explicitly, that sexual behaviour is genetically fixed. To understand the role of learning in sexual selection, it is important to investigate how early experience interacts with adult experience to determine the use of different mating strategies. We explored this interaction by comparing the sexual behaviour of male guppies, Poecilia reticulata, raised in different social environments before and after they gained sexual experience. Males raised with other males performed long courtship displays at first, but decreased their courtship after they had gained sexual experience. However, for males raised only with females, sexual experience did not modify courtship duration. Males raised exclusively with females exhibited high rates of forced copulation attempts in their first encounter with a female, but reduced this behaviour after sexual experience. In contrast, males raised with other males did not modify their forced copulations. Adult sexual experience appeared to mitigate the behavioural differences caused by variation in rearing environment. Sexual experience helps males to find an optimal balance between courtship displays and forced copulation attempts. We also show that more males exhibited male–male aggression after sexual experience if they had social interactions with other males early in life. This study highlights that courtship and other sexual strategies are not fixed, and that several potential sources of variation exist in the development of an animal's sexual behaviour. Importantly, juvenile and adult experiences can interact to shape sexual behaviour in males.

  • 4.
    Göransson, Görgen
    et al.
    Departments of Animal Ecology, University of Lund .
    Schantz, T von
    Fröberg, I
    Helgée, A
    Wittzell, H
    Male characteristics, viability, and harem size in a wild population of pheasants.1990In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A population of pheasants was studied for 4 years in southern Sweden to determine how sexual selection operates among males. Morphological characters, viability, dominance, territory quality, date of territorial establishment, harem size and reproductive success of males were measured; 81 males and 101 females were radio-tracked. The spur length of males was the most important predictor of harem size. Phenotypic condition and viability were significantly related to spur length, the best single predictor of the reproductive success of males. These are the first data to show that a sexually selected male character correlates significantly with male viability. The results support models suggesting that viability-based processes can contribute to the evolution of mate choice and secondary sexual characters. 

  • 5.
    Karpestam, Einat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland;Univ Turku, Finland.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Size variability effects on visual detection are influenced by colour pattern and perceived size2018In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 143, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most animals including humans use vision to detect, identify, evaluate and respond to potential prey items in complex environments. Theories predict that predators' visual search performance is better when targets are similar than when targets are dissimilar and require divided attention, and this may contribute to colour pattern polymorphism in prey. Most prey also vary in size, but how size variation influences detectability and search performance of predators that utilize polymorphic prey has received little attention. To evaluate the effect of size variability on prey detection we asked human subjects to search for images of black, grey and striped pygmy grasshoppers presented on computer screens in size-variable (large, medium and small) or in size-invariable (all medium) sequences (populations) against photographs of natural grasshopper habitat. Results showed that size variability either increased or reduced detection of medium-sized targets depending on colour morph. To evaluate whether bias in perceived size varies depending on colour pattern, subjects were asked to discriminate between two grasshopper images of identical size that were presented in pairs against a monochromatic background. Subjects more often incorrectly classified one of the two identical-sized targets as being larger than the other in colour-dimorphic than in monomorphic presentations. The distinctly patterned (striped) morph elicited stronger size perception biases than the dorsally grey or black morphs, and striped grasshoppers were incorrectly classified more often as smaller than grey grasshoppers. The direction of the effect of size variability on detection changed across colour patterns as the bias in perceived size increased. Such joint effects of variation in size and colour pattern on detection and perception can impact the outcome of behavioural and evolutionary interactions between visually oriented predators and their camouflaged prey. This may have consequences for population dynamics, evolution of polymorphisms, community species composition and ecosystem functioning. (C) 2018 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tegelström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Forslund, Pär
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Intraspecific nest parasitism and adoption of young in the barnacle goose: effects on survival and reproductive performance1995In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 1349-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA fingerprinting was used to determine the proportion of extra-pair young in a population of barnacle geese, Branta leticopsis, breeding in the Baltic area, Sweden. Of 137 analysed fledged young 17% were found to be extra-pair young. One or more extra-pair young were found in 27% of the 63 analysed families. The proportion of extra-pair young differed between years. No case of extra-pair fertilization was detected. All extra-pair young at fledgling originated either from intraspecific nest parasitism or from adoptions of foreign hatched young. Broods with extra-pair young at fledgling were significantly larger than broods without extra-pair young. However, the number of within-pair young did not differ significantly in broods with and without extra-pair young. Body mass, survival or subsequent reproductive performance did not differ between parents with and without extra-pair fledged young. Post-fledgling survival and age at first breeding were not significantly different between the three analysed classes of fledged young, i.e., within-pair young in families without extra-pair young, within-pair young in families with at least one extra-pair young, and extra-pair young. It is concluded that possible costs or benefits associated with caring for extra-pair fledged young are small or absent in this population.

  • 7.
    Thorley, Jack
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, UK.;Kuruman River Reserve, South Africa.
    Mendonca, Rute
    Kuruman River Reserve, South Africa;Univ Neuchatel, Switzerland.
    Vullioud, Philippe
    Univ Cambridge, UK;Kuruman River Reserve, South Africa.
    Torrents-Tico, Miquel
    Kuruman River Reserve, South Africa.
    Zöttl, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Cambridge, UK;Kuruman River Reserve, South Africa.
    Gaynor, David
    Kuruman River Reserve, South Africa;Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    Clutton-Brock, Tim
    Univ Cambridge, UK;Kuruman River Reserve, South Africa;Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    No task specialization among helpers in Damaraland mole-rats2018In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 143, p. 9-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The specialization of individuals in specific behavioural tasks is often attributed either to irreversible differences in development, which generate functionally divergent cooperative phenotypes, or to agerelated changes in the relative frequency with which individuals perform different cooperative activities; both of which are common in many insect caste systems. However, contrasts in cooperative behaviour can take other forms and, to date, few studies of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates have explored the effects of age, adult phenotype and early development on individual differences in cooperative behaviour in sufficient detail to discriminate between these alternatives. Here, we used multinomial models to quantify the extent of behavioural specialization within nonreproductive Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis, at different ages. We showed that, although there were large differences between individuals in their contribution to cooperative activities, there was no evidence of individual specialization in cooperative activities that resembled the differences found in insect societies with distinct castes where individual contributions to different activities are negatively related to each other. Instead, individual differences in helping behaviour appeared to be the result of age-related changes in the extent to which individuals committed to all forms of helping. A similar pattern is observed in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, and there is no unequivocal evidence of caste differentiation in any cooperative vertebrate. The multinomial models we employed offer a powerful heuristic tool to explore task specialization and developmental divergence across social taxa and provide an analytical approach that may be useful in exploring the distribution of different forms of helping behaviour in other cooperative species. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

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