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  • 1. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Regional Production and Utilization of Biomass in Sweden1996In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 747-764Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy use and overheating risk of Swedish multi-storey residential buildings under different climate scenarios2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 97, p. 534-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the extent to which different climate scenarios influence overheating risk, energy use and peak loads for space conditioning of district heated multi-storey buildings in Sweden are explored. Furthermore, the effectiveness of different overheating control measures and the implications of different electricity supply options for space cooling and ventilation are investigated. The analysis is based on buildings with different architectural and energy efficiency configurations including a prefab concrete-frame, a massive timber-frame and a light timber-frame building. Thermal performance of the buildings under low and high Representative Concentration Pathway climate scenarios for 2050–2059 and 2090–2099 are analysed and compared to that under historical climate of 1961–1990 and recent climate of 1996–2005. The study is based on a bottom-up methodology and includes detailed hour-by-hour energy balance and systems analyses. The results show significant changes in the buildings’ thermal performance under the future climate scenarios, relative to the historical and recent climates. Heating demand decreased significantly while cooling demand and overheating risk increased considerably with the future climate scenarios, for all buildings. In contrast to the cooling demand, the relative changes in heating demand of the buildings under the future climate scenarios are somewhat similar. The changes in the space conditioning demands and overheating risk vary for the buildings. Overheating risk was found to be slightly higher for the massive-frame building and slightly lower for the light-frame building.

  • 3.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Final energy savings and cost-effectiveness of deep energy renovation of a multi-storey residential building2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 135, p. 563-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of end-use energy efficiency measures and demonstrate its application for modelling a wide range of energy renovation measures for a typical 1970s multi-family building in Sweden. The method integrates energy balance and bottom-up economic calculations considering total and marginal investment costs of energy efficiency measures as well as net present value of total and marginal savings of the measures. The energy renovation measures explored include additional insulation to basement walls, exterior walls, and attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electric appliances and lighting, efficient water taps, glazed enclosed balcony systems, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. The measures are analysed first individually and then designed to form economic packages. Our results show that improved windows give the biggest single final energy savings while resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure for the building. We find that the cost-effectiveness of the energy renovation measures is sensitive to real discount rates and energy price increases. Cost-optimal final heat savings varies between 34% and 51%, depending on the choice of real discount rate and energy price increase. The corresponding electricity savings varies between 35% and 43%. This study shows a method and the significance of various technical and economic-related parameters in achieving deep energy savings cost-efficiently.

  • 4.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy benefits of cost-effective energy renovation of a district heated multi-family building under different energy supply systems2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 143, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union's Directive on energy performance of buildings emphasizes the need to take cost-effectiveness into account when measures are implemented for improved building energy efficiency. In this study, we investigate cost-effective energy renovation measures for a district heated building under different contexts, including varied locations, energy supply systems and economic scenarios. We determine the final and primary energy savings of cost-effective energy renovation packages for the building in the different contexts. The measures analysed include: improved insulation for attic floor, basement walls, and exterior walls; improved windows and doors; resource-efficient taps; heat recovery of exhaust ventilation air; energy-efficient household appliances and lighting. We consider three existing Swedish energy supply systems of varying district heat production scale and tariffs, and also plausible renewable-based energy supply systems. Our analysis calculates the final energy savings of the measures including the cost-effective renovation packages on hourly basis and links these to the different energy supply systems. The cost-effectiveness analysis is based on a double-stage optimization method, considering total and marginal investment costs of renovation measures as well as associated net present values of total and marginal cost savings. The results show that significant final and primary energy savings can be achieved when energy renovation measures are implemented for the building in the different contexts. This study shows that heat demand in existing Swedish building could be about halved while electricity use may be reduced considerably with cost-effective energy renovation measures. The economic viability of the renovation measures is sensitive to the economic regimes especially discount rates and energy price increase.

  • 5.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 718-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we modelled the influence of different simulation assumptions on energy balances of two variants of a residential building, comprising the building in its existing state and with energy-efficient improvements. We explored how selected parameter combinations and variations affect the energy balances of the building configurations. The selected parameters encompass outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and household electrical equipment including technical installations. Our modelling takes into account hourly as well as seasonal profiles of different internal heat gains. The results suggest that the impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is somewhat small and relatively more noticeable for an energy-efficient building in contrast to a conventional building. We find that the influence of parameters combinations is more apparent as more individual parameters are varied. The simulations show that a building's calculated space heating demand is significantly influenced by how heat gains from electrical equipment are modelled. For the analyzed building versions, calculated final energy for space heating differs by 9-14 kWh/m(2) depending on the assumed energy efficiency level for electrical equipment. The influence of electrical equipment on calculated final space heating is proportionally more significant for an energy-efficient building compared to a conventional building. This study shows the influence of different simulation assumptions and parameter combinations when varied simultaneously. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    District Heating Systems and Energy Conservation: Part I1994In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    District Heating Systems and Energy Conservation: Part II1994In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Energy Efficiency and Competitiveness for Biomass-Based Energy Systems1997In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 959-967Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Johansson, B
    Svenningsson, P
    Reducing CO2 Emissions by Substituting Biomass for Fossil Fuels1995In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1097-1113Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Bülow-Hübe, Helena
    An Environmentally Benign Energy Future for Western Scania, Sweden1992In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 809-822Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karlsson, Å
    Department of Technology and Society, Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University,.
    Heating Detached Houses in Urban Areas2003In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 851-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems using cogeneration, as well as local fuel-based and electric heating systems for detached houses, are analysed. The analysis includes the whole energy system, from the natural resource to the end user, with respect to primary energy use, emission and cost. The end-use technologies studied are heat pumps, resistance heaters and boilers. It was assumed that the base-load electricity, except for the cogenerated electricity, was produced in stand-alone power plants using wood chips or natural gas, while peak-load electricity and fuel used for transportation were produced from crude oil. The heat pump and district heating systems are found to be most energy efficient, followed by the local fuel-based systems. The wood-fuel-based systems emit about one tenth of the greenhouse gases emitted by the natural-gas-based systems. The sulphur and nitrogen oxide emission, however, is higher for wood-fuel-based systems. Systems based on natural gas are less expensive than the corresponding wood-fuel-based systems. Decarbonization and carbon dioxide sequestration, however, do not reduce the carbon dioxide emission to the low level of the wood-fuel-based systems and, in addition, make the natural-gas-based systems more expensive than the wood-fuel-based systems.

  • 12.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, R
    CEPE—Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum WEC, CH-8092, Zurich, Switzerland.
    CO2 Mitigation Costs of Large-scale Bioenergy Technologies in Competitive Electricity Markets2003In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 28, no 14, p. 1405-1425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO2 mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO2 mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the socio-political will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO2 mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural-gas-fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost-competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $ 150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $ 90/t C.

  • 13.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Bioenergy pathways for cars: Effects on primary energy use, climate change and energy system integration2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 1779-1789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different pathways and technologies can be used to convert woody biomass to transport services, but the biomass use and climate implications vary strongly between the alternatives. This study focuses on primary energy use and climate change effects of using bioenergy for transportation in the context of a renewable-based energy system. Integrated pathways to improve the energy efficiency of power and transportation sectors and integrated intermittent renewable energy are considered. The results show that the bioenergy pathway that produces biomotor fuels to replace fossil fuels leads to high primary energy use and instantaneous biogenic CO2 emission per km of driving distance, thus increasing global warming during the first 40e50 years, compared to fossil alternatives. The electric vehicle pathway using bioelectricity from combined heat and power plants leads to immediate global cooling and much greater climate benefits in the long run compared to biomotor fuels. Climate change effects of light-duty vehicles could be strongly reduced by changes in technology together with system integration that links the transport sector to the electricity and heating sectors. The use of biomass should be considered in the context of the overall integrated energy system, and in relation to the development of energy conversion technologies between different sectors.

  • 14.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Coproduction of district heat and electricity or biomotor fuels2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 6263-6277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of a district heating system depends on the heat load demand, which varies throughout the year. In this paper, we analyze the coproduction of district heat and electricity or biomotor fuels. We demonstrate how three different taxation scenarios and two crude oil price levels influence the selection of production units to minimize the district heat production cost and calculate the resulting primary energy use. Our analysis is based on the annual measured heat load of a district heating system. The minimum-cost district heat production system comprises different production units that meet the district heat demand and simultaneously minimize the district heat production cost. First, we optimize the cost of a district heat production system based on the cogeneration of electricity and heat with and without biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle technology. We considered cogenerated electricity as a byproduct with the value of that produced by a condensing power plant. Next, we integrate and optimize different biomotor fuel production units into the district heat production system by considering biomotor fuels as byproducts that can substitute for fossil motor fuels. We demonstrate that in district heating systems, the strengthening of environmental taxation reduces the dependence on fossil fuels. However, increases in environmental taxation and the crude oil price do not necessarily influence the production cost of district heat as long as biomass price is not driven by policy measures. Biomotor fuel production in a district heating system is typically not cost-efficient. The biomotor fuels produced from the district heating system have to compete with those from standalone biomotor fuel plants and also with its fossil-based counterparts. This is also true for high oil prices. A carbon tax on fossil CO2 emissions based on social cost damage will increase the competitiveness of biomass-based combined heat and power plants, especially for BIGCC technology with its high electricity-to-heat ratio.

  • 15.
    Joelsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and oil use by DME (di-methyl ether) and FT Fischer-Tropsch) diesel production in chemical pulp mills2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 363-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using energy systems analysis, we examine the potential to reduce CO2 emissions and oil use by integrating motor biofuel production with pulp mills. BLG-DME (black liquor gasification with di-methyl ether production) is compared with solid biomass gasification with BIG-Fr (solid biomass gasification with Fischer-Tropsch fuel production). The studied systems are expanded with stand-alone production of biomass-based electricity and motor fuel so that they yield the same functional unit in terms of motor fuel and electricity as well as pulp or paper product, in order to facilitate comparison. More motor biofuel can be produced in integration with the studied mills with BLG-DME than with BIG-FT because the black liquor flow is large compared with other fuel streams in the mill and the integration potential for BIG-FT is limited by the mill's heat demand. When both systems are required to produce the same functional unit, the BLG-DME system achieves higher system efficiency and larger reductions in CO2 emissions and oil use per unit of biomass consumed. In general, integration of motor biofuel production with a pulp mill is more efficient than stand-alone motor biofuel production. Larger reductions in CO2 emissions or oil use can, however, be achieved if biomass replaces coal or oil in stationary applications.

  • 16.
    Joelsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Swedish biomass strategies to reduce CO2 emission and oil use in an EU context2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 448-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish energy strategies for transportation, space heating and pulp industries were evaluated with a focus on bioenergy use. The aims were to 1) study trade-offs between reductions in CO2 emission and oil use and between Swedish reductions and EU reductions, 2) compare the potential contributions of individual reduction measures, 3) quantify the total CO2 emission and oil use reduction potentials. Swedish energy efficiency measures reduced EU CO2 emission by 45-59 Mt CO2/a, at current biomass use and constant oil use. Doubling Swedish bioenergy use yielded an additional 40 Mt CO2/a reduction. Oil use could be reduced, but 36-81 kt of reductions in CO2 emission would be lost per Pi of oil use reduction. Swedish fossil fuel use within the studied sectors could be nearly eliminated. The expansion of district heating and cogeneration of heat with a high electricity yield were important measures. Plug-in hybrid electric cars reduced CO2 emission compared with conventional cars, and the difference was larger with increasing oil scarcity. The introduction of black liquor gasification in pulp mills also gave large CO2 emission reduction. Motor fuel from biomass was found to be a feasible option when coal is the marginal fuel for fossil motor fuel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Financing off-grid rural electrification: Country case Nepal2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 2194-2201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 61% of the total population of Nepal has no access to electricity. The majority is poor and live in rural areas. In recent years, rural electrification has had high priority in government policies, and micro hydro and solar PV have been the most commonly adopted off-grid technologies. The financial mix in the off-grid rural electrification is generally characterized by subsidy, equity and credit. In this paper, we analyze how rural electrification has been funded and the impact of subsidy policies on the renewable energy market, focusing on the projects implemented under the ‘subsidy policy 2000’. Our study is based on official data obtained from authorities in Nepal and a survey carried out among private supply and installation companies, NGOs and financial institutions. The study shows that awareness levels in adopting RE-technologies and willingness of people to access and pay for electricity have increased significantly. However, there is a huge financial gap between the cost of electrification and the affordability. Bridging this gap is a crucial issue that needs to be addressed for the smooth expansion of rural electrification in the country.

  • 18.
    Morgalla, Mario
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Decomposition of benzene using char aerosol particles dispersed in a high-temperature filter2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 118, p. 1345-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the tar-removal suitability of char particles finely dispersed in a high-temperature filter was investigated. Benzene was selected as the model tar. An aerosol-based method was designed and used to investigate the benzene decomposition behaviour. Two types of char were used: commercially available activated charcoal and pine char prepared in the laboratory. The conversion behaviour of both chars was investigated in the temperature range between 750 and 900 °C using steam as the gasification medium. During the experiments, different benzene concentrations, amounts of deposited char and gas residence times were tested. The results indicate that both activated carbon and pine char reduced the benzene concentration. Activated carbon generally produced higher and more stable benzene conversions compared to the pine char particles. Decreasing the benzene concentration or increasing the gas residence time or char mass improved the benzene conversion. It was concluded that the char gasification rate became slower while benzene was simultaneously converted. The aerosol-based method was also used to investigate benzene decomposition behaviour while continuously supplying fresh char particles together with steam at 1000 °C. In that way, the deactivated and gasified char particles were steadily replaced, preventing the benzene conversion from decreasing over time.

  • 19.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Climate effects of electricity production fuelled by coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 122, p. 711-723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the climate implications of producing electricity in large-scale conversion plants using coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture and storage (CCS). We calculate the primary energy, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission profiles, and the cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of different systems that produce the same amount of electricity. We find that using slash or waste for electricity production instead of coal somewhat increases the instantaneous CO2 emission from the power plant, but avoids significant subsequent emissions from decaying slash in forests or waste in landfills. For slash used instead of coal, we find robust near- and long-term reductions in total emissions and CRF. Climate effects of using waste instead of coal are more ambiguous: CRF is reduced when CCS is used, but without CCS there is little or no climate benefits of using waste directly for energy, assuming that landfill gas is recovered and used for electricity production. The application of CCS requires more fuel, but strongly reduces the CO2 emissions. The use of slash or waste together with CCS results in negative net emissions and CRF, i.e. global cooling.

  • 20.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy use implications of different design strategies for multi-storey residential buildings under future climates2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 138, p. 846-860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of climate change on the final and primary energy use of versions of a multi-storey residential building have been analysed. The building versions are designed to the Swedish building code (BBR 2015) and passive house criteria (Passive 2012) with different design and overheating control strategies under different climate scenarios. Future climate datasets are based on Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios for 2050–2059 and 2090–2099. The analysis showed that strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the Passive 2012 building version remained the same under all climate scenarios. In contrast, strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the BBR 2015 version varied, as cooling demand became more significant under future climate scenarios. Cooling demand was more dominant than heating for the Passive 2012 building version under future climate scenarios. Household equipment and technical installations based on best available technology gave the biggest reduction in total primary energy use among considered strategies. Overall, annual total operation primary energy decreased by 37–54% for the building versions when all strategies are implemented under the considered climate scenarios. This study shows that appropriate design strategies could result in significant primary energy savings for low-energy buildings under changing climates.

  • 21.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy implications of different design strategies for an apartment building2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 104, p. 132-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored the effects of different design strategies on final and primary energy use for production and operation of a newly constructed apartment building. We analysed alternatives of the building “As built” as well as to energy efficiency levels of the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. Our approach is based on achieving improved versions of the building alternatives from combination of design strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demand and primary energy use, respectively. We found that the combination of design strategies resulting in the improved building alternatives varies depending on the approach. The improved building alternatives gave up to 19–34% reduction in operation primary energy use compared to the initial alternatives. The share of production primary energy use of the improved building alternatives was 39–54% of the total primary energy use for production, space heating, space cooling and ventilation over 50-year lifespan, compared to 31–42% for the initial alternatives. This study emphasises the importance of incorporating appropriate design strategies to reduce primary energy use for building operation and suggests that combining such strategies with careful choice of building frame materials could result in significant primary energy savings in the built environment.

  • 22.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Effects of energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings on energy supply2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 142, p. 1114-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the final and primary energy savings for different energy efficiency measures in a multi-apartment building when heated by small-, medium- or large-scale district-heat production systems (DHSs). The small-scale system is based on heat-only boilers, whereas the other two also include cogeneration of district heat and electricity. In the systems with cogeneration units, a change in building's heat demand may influence cogenerated electricity and hence the overall power system. For the building analyzed, the estimated annual total final heat and electricity savings were 136 (54%) and 30 MWh (52%), respectively, giving total annual primary energy savings of 177–289 MWh. This varies as the ratio of primary and final heat savings depends on the type of energy efficiency measure and the energy supply. For the same heat savings measure, a system with a heat-only boiler gave the highest primary energy savings, whereas a system based mostly on cogeneration of district heat and electricity in combination with averaged-efficiency standalone power plants gave the lowest primary energy savings. When the energy supply is based on energy-efficient renewable-based system, the differences in primary energy savings between large- and small-scale DHSs are minor for the same energy efficiency measure.

  • 23.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Renewable-based heat supply of multi-apartment buildings with varied heat demands2015In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 93, p. 1053-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the cost and primary energy use to heat an existing multi-apartment building in Sweden, before and after deep energy efficiency renovation, with different types of renewable-based systems. District heating systems of different scales as well as local heat production based on bioelectric boilers, ground-source bioelectric heat pumps and wood pellet boilers with or without solar heating are considered. The annual energy demand of the building, calculated hour by hour, with and without energy efficiency improvements, are matched against the renewable-based heat supply options by techno-economic modeling to minimize cost for each considered heat supply option. The results show that the availability of heating technologies at the building site and the scale of the building's heat demand influence the cost and the primary energy efficiency of the heating options. District heat from large-scale systems is cost efficient for the building without energy-efficiency improvement, whereas electric heat pumps and wood pellet boilers are more cost efficient when implementing energy-efficiency improvement. However, the cost difference is small between these alternatives and sensitive to the size of building. Large-scale district heating with cogeneration of power is most primary energy efficient while heat pumps and medium-scale district heating are nearly as efficient.

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