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  • 1.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why Aren't Advanced High–Strength Steels More Widely Used?: Stakeholder Preferences and Perceived Barriers to New Materials2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 645-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced high-strength steels may reduce the use of nonrenewable resources and energy given that the amount of material needed is smaller, compared to traditional steel grades. Still, advanced steel grades are not utilized to the extent that could be expected. This study examines stakeholders’ preferences of steel characteristics and perceived barriers to the introduction of new materials. Focus group interviews were used to identify steel characteristics and perceived barriers. Stakeholder preferences of steel characteristics were evaluated through a conjoint analysis; the results showed that low weight was given the highest priority, followed by high impact strength and low price. Low chromium content was the steel characteristic of least interest. Perceived barriers to the introduction of high-strength steel were categorized as technical barriers, knowledge barriers, scrap management barriers, suitability barriers, and cost barriers.

  • 2.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden, Stockholm.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth and Silver in Cosmetic Products: A Source of Environmental and Resource Concern?2016In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) and silver (Ag) are used in increasing amounts and are consequently being emitted from various sources and showing high accumulation rates in soils when sewage sludge is applied on arable land. This study aimed to analyze the amounts of Bi and Ag in three cosmetic products (foundation, powder, and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. Analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (7,000 to 360,000 milligrams per kilogram) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, whereas Ag concentrations all were below the detection limit. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24% of the measured total Bi amounts per year reaching the WWTP (wastewater treatment plant), making cosmetics a major Bi source, whereas for Ag the corresponding contribution was <0.1% of the measured annual Ag amounts. The results were roughly adapted for Europe and the United States, estimating the Bi flows from cosmetics to WWTPs. On a global scale, these flows correspond to a non-negligible part of the world Bi production that, every year, ends up in sewage sludge, limiting the reuse of a valuable metal resource. From an environmental and resource perspective, foundations and powder products should be considered as significant sources of measured Bi amounts in sludge. This large Bi flow must be considered as unsustainable. For Ag, however, the three analyzed cosmetic products are not a significant source of the total Ag load to WWTPs.

  • 3.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Monitoring urban copper flows in Stockholm, Sweden: implications of changes over time2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for copper (Cu) was conducted, in which theinflow, stock, and outflow (in the form of diffuse emissions to soil and water) for Stockholmwere estimated for 2013 and compared with a previous study from 1995, hence allowing adiscussion on changes over time. A large number of applications containing Cu were analyzed(including power cables, copper alloys, heavy electrical equipment, tap water systems, roofs,cars, various consumer electronics, wood preservatives, and contact cables for the railroad).The results show that the inflow of Cu to Stockholm has increased between 1995 and 2013,both in total and per person, mainly as the result of an increase in heavy electrical equipment,power cables, and cars. The stock remains relatively unchanged, whereas the outflow hasincreased. For the outflow, the emission increase from brake linings is of greatest quantitativeimportance, with an estimated 5.8 tonnes annual emission of Cu to the environment ofStockholm in 2013 compared to 3.9 tonnes in 1995. Given that increasing inflows of limitedresources drive the global demand, continuous monitoring of flows through society andmanagement of outflow routes are crucial, including improvement of national legislationand regional environmental plans as well as efforts to increase resource-use efficiency andrecycling

  • 4.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Vattenfall Heat.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Persistent hazardous waste and the quest towards a circular economy: the example of arsenic in Chromated Copper Arsenate-treated wood2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 689-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of a circular economy is today widely accepted and advocated, but among the challenges in achieving this, we find difficulties in the implementation of legislation and policies designed to control various waste streams from society. The example used in this article is wood that has been treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which, in Sweden, has been covered by the rules for hazardous waste since 2002. One year later, in 2003, a survey showed that only 42% to 50% of the expected amount of CCA waste could be traced to the public waste management system. An updated material flow analysis for 2010 revealed that the figure had increased to 73%, whereas the fraction of correctly treated CCA wood waste had increased from 11% to 35%. However, almost one third of the expected volume was still not tracable, and half of the amount that was correctly submitted was incinerated together with nontoxic waste fractions. This results in, for example, arsenic contamination of slag and fly ashes that prevents the further use of these residue products. So, despite legislative instruments, there is still an urgent need for an improved collection of hazardous wood waste, as well as better routines for identifying hazardous flows and separating them from nonhazardous ones. For a circular economy to be achievable, a key priority should be to reduce the gap between intended directions and legislation, on one hand, and activities in practice on the other.

  • 5.
    Månsson, Nina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Arne
    Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms Stad.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Utility of substance stock and flow studies: – the Stockholm example2009In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 674-686Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Månsson, Nina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Phasing out cadmium, lead and mercury: Effects on urban stocks and flows2009In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 94-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large stocks of metals have accumulated in the urban technosphere (i.e., the physical environment altered by humanactivity). To minimize health and environmental risks, attempts were begun in the 1980s to phase out the use of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). To study the effect of this attempt, we conducted substance flow analyses (SFAs) in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1995 and in 2002–2003, which allow a comparison of the results over time.

    The SFAs showed a reduction in the stocks of Cd and Hg by approximately 25% to 30% between 1995 and 2002–2003. For Pb, the stock development was more uncertain. Cd and Hg inflow was substantially reduced during this period, but Pb inflow increased. Amounts of Cd and Pb in waste were still large, whereas Hg flows in waste were decreasing. Furthermore, although emissions of Pb decreased, Cd and Hg emissions were in the same range as in 1995.

    The application of SFAs has provided unique data on the accumulation of metals in the Stockholm technosphere, thus serving as a valuable indicator of how the phasing out progresses. The changes can be related to regulations, initiatives by industries and organizations, and the proactive attitude of the local environmental authorities and of the water company.

  • 7.
    Zapico, Jorge Luis
    et al.
    KTH Royal Insitute of Technology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH Royal Insitute of Technology.
    Turpeinen, Marko
    KTH Royal Insitute of Technology.
    Environmental metrics: The Main Opportunity from ICT for Industrial Ecology2010In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 703-706Article in journal (Refereed)
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