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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    École Polytechnique of Montréal, Canada.
    Laurent, Patrick
    École Polytechnique of Montréal, Canada.
    Kihn, Anne
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Prévost, Michèle
    École Polytechnique of Montréal, Canada.
    Servais, Pierre
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Impact of temperature on nitrification in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters used for drinking water treatment2001In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 2923-2934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of temperature on nitrification in biological granular activated carbon (GAC) filters was evaluated in order to improve the understanding of the nitrification process in drinking water treatment. The study was conducted in a northern climate where very cold water temperatures (below 2°C) prevail for extended periods and rapid shifts of temperature are frequent in the spring and fall. Ammonia removals were monitored and the fixed nitrifying biomass was measured using a method of potential nitrifying activity. The impact of temperature was evaluated on two different filter media: an opened superstructure wood-based activated carbon and a closed superstructure activated carbon-based on bituminous coal. The study was conducted at two levels: pilot scale (first-stage filters) and full-scale (second-stage filters) and the results indicate a strong temperature impact on nitrification activity. Ammonia removal capacities ranged from 40 to 90% in pilot filters, at temperatures above 10°C, while more than 90% ammonia was removed in the full-scale filters for the same temperature range. At moderate temperatures (4–10°C), the first stage pilot filters removed 10–40% of incoming ammonia for both media (opened and closed superstructure). In the full-scale filters, a difference between the two media in nitrification performances was observed at moderate temperatures: the ammonia removal rate in the opened superstructure support (more than 90%) was higher than in the closed superstructure support (45%). At low temperatures (below 4°C) both media performed poorly. Ammonia removal capacities were below 30% in both pilot- and full-scale filters.

  • 2.
    Bijmans, Martijn F M
    et al.
    Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    van Helvoort, Pieter-Jan
    Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Dar, Shabir A
    Umeå University.
    Dopson, Mark
    Umeå University.
    Lens, Piet N L
    Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Buisman, Cees J N
    Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Selective recovery of nickel over iron from a nickel-iron solution using microbial sulfate reduction in a gas-lift bioreactor.2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 853-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process streams with high concentrations of metals and sulfate are characteristic for the mining and metallurgical industries. This study aims to selectively recover nickel from a nickel-iron-containing solution at pH 5.0 using a single stage bioreactor that simultaneously combines low pH sulfate reduction and metal-sulfide formation. The results show that nickel was selectively precipitated in the bioreactor at pH 5.0 and the precipitates consisted of >or=83% of the nickel content. The nickel-iron precipitates were partly crystalline and had a metal/sulfur ratio of 1, suggesting these precipitates were NiS and FeS. Experiments focusing on nickel recovery at pH 5.0 and 5.5 reached a recovery of >99.9%, resulting in a nickel effluent concentration<0.05 microM. The mixed microbial population included known sulfate reducers and acetogens. This study shows that selective metal precipitation in a single stage sulfate reducing bioreactor operated at low pH has the potential to produce metal-sulfides that can be used by the metallurgical industry as a resource for metal production.

  • 3.
    Bollmann, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Petersen, Camilla Tang
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jönsson, Karin
    Lund University.
    Vollertsen, Jes
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Bester, Kai
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 60, p. 64-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening.

  • 4. Hwang, J.W.
    et al.
    Cha, G.C.
    Jeong, T.Y.
    Kim, D.J.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710, South Korea.
    Jung, D.W.
    Chung, H.K.
    Park, Y.T.
    Choi, J.
    Abou-Shanab, R.A.I.
    Jeon, B.H.
    Effect of COD/SO42- ratio and Fe(II) under the variable hydraulic retention time (HRT) on fermentative hydrogen production2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, p. 3525-3533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO42−) ratio on fermentative hydrogen production using enriched mixed microflora has been studied. The chemostat system maintained with a substrate (glucose) concentration of 15 g COD L−1 exhibited stable H2 production at inlet sulfate concentrations of 0–20 g L−1 during 282 days. The tested COD/SO42− ratios ranged from 150 to 0.75 (with control) at pH 5.5 with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24, 12 and 6 h. The hydrogen production at HRT 6 h and pH 5.5 was not influenced by decreasing the COD/SO42− ratio from 150 to 15 (with control) followed by noticeable increase at COD/SO42− ratios of 5 and 3, but it was slightly decreased when the COD/SO42− ratio further decreased to 1.5 and 0.75. These results indicate that high sulfate concentrations (up to 20,000 mg L−1) would not interfere with hydrogen production under the investigated experimental conditions. Maximum hydrogen production was 2.95, 4.60 and 9.40 L day−1 with hydrogen yields of 2.0, 1.8 and 1.6 mol H2 mol−1 glucose at HRTs of 24, 12 and 6 h, respectively. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) fraction produced during the reaction was in the order of butyrate > acetate > ethanol > propionate in all experiments. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated the presence of Clostridium spp.Clostridium butyricumClostridium perfringens andRuminococcus flavefaciens as hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) and absence of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in our study.

  • 5. Håkansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Degradation of acetonitrile through a sequence of microbial processes2005In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, p. 648-654-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of nitrogen containing organic compounds often leads to formation of ammonium and low molecular weight organic compounds. The study is focuseed on degradtion of acetonitrile in a sequence of stirred biofilm reactors, where degradation of acetonitrile to acetic acid and ammonia takes place in the first two reactors. A large fraction of the acetic acid is also degraded in these reactors. The subsequent two reactors were introduced in order to take care of the ammonia, while a fifth reactor was a polishing step before the water was released to the recipient. From earlier studies it is known that the rate of acetonitrile degradation is approximately 80 g acetonitrile/(m3 reactor h). This means that the reactors involved in remval of the nitrogen component needs to be far larger than those dealing with degradation of the more complex molecules.

  • 6.
    Kumar, Eva
    et al.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Environm Engn, Wonju 220710, Gangwon Do, South Korea.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Environm Engn, Wonju 220710, Gangwon Do, South Korea.
    Ji, Minkyu
    Jung, Woosik
    Lee, Sang-Hun
    Kim, Sun-Joon
    Lee, Giehyeon
    Song, Hocheol
    Choi, Jae-Young
    Yang, Jung-Seok
    Jeon, Byong-Hun
    Defluoridation from aqueous solutions by granular ferric hydroxide (GFH)2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 490-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions, Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters such as contact time (1 min-24 h), initial fluoride concentration (1-100 mg L(-1)), temperature (10 and 2S degrees C), pH (3-12) and the presence of competing anions on the adsorption of fluoride on GFH. Kinetic data revealed that the uptake rate of fluoride was rapid in the beginning and 95% adsorption was completed within 10 min and equilibrium was achieved within 60 min. The sorption process was well explained with pseudo-first-order and pore diffusion models. The maximum adsorption capacity of GFH for fluoride removal was 7.0 mg g(-1). The adsorption was found to be an endothermic process and data conform to Langmuir model. The optimum fluoride removal was observed between pH ranges of 4-8. The fluoride adsorption was decreased in the presence of phosphate followed by carbonate and sulphate. Results from this study demonstrated potential utility of GFH that could be developed into a viable technology for fluoride removal from drinking water.

  • 7.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, University of Lund .
    Lemkemeier, K
    Microbial mineralization of chlorinated phenols and biphenyls in sediment/water systems humic and clear-water lakes1989In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1081-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microbial mineralization of three chlorophenols and a PCB mixture was studied using natural bacterial assemblages in laboratory model systems. The systems consisted of water and surface sediment from two lake types: one with a high content of humic substances and the other with a low content. Aerobic mineralization of the 14C-ring-labelled compounds was determined as production of 14CO2 in the systems. The mineralization rates of 3,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were higher in humic cultures whereas pentachlorophenol showed higher rates in clear-water cultures. Mineralization of PCBs in the systems was low. Compared with microbial mineralization rates in cultures containing only lake water, the addition of sediment resulted in a decrease in DCP and TCP mineralization. Pentachlorophenol was mineralized at considerably higher rates in the presence of sediment. 

  • 8. Mattiasson, Bo
    et al.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Denitrification at low temperatures using a suspended carrier biofilm process2003In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 37, p. 2394-2398Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Rauch, Wolfgang
    et al.
    University Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ledin, Anna
    The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Australia.
    Hunt III, William F. (Bill)
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Stormwater in urban areas2012In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 46, no 20, p. 6588-6588Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collection, storage and treatment of stormwater in urban areas has been one of the classical disciplines of sanitary and environmental engineering in the past. Waste and pollution transported by stormwater poses quantity and quality problems, is affecting public health and threatens the quality of the environment – most important surface water ecosystems. While traditional solutions have been mostly concerned with discharge and storage, quality issues gained increasing attention over the last years. Reason being both the pollution of the receiving water due to urban stormwater management and the potential use of stormwater as an alternative source of freshwater. This special issue of Water Research covers the most important issues related to management of stormwater in 26 articles. The objective is to give the reader an overview of the state of the art by presenting the most recent findings of high quality research within the new hot topics related to stormwater.

    The first part of this issue presents findings with relation to stormwater quality. The manuscripts deal with highway runoff, toxic substances, pathogens and priority pollutants. Results are given from monitoring campaigns (mostly from US, Europe and Australia) but also in the context of comprehensive literature reviews.

    The second half of the issue deals more broadly with a wider spectrum of topics. Papers are covering hydraulic aspects, filtration and clogging of stormwater facilities like swales, permeable pavement and biofilters. Another range of papers accounts for design principles of stormwater management, specifically focusing on sustainable solutions but also on the effect to pluvial flooding. Modeling, data treatment and uncertainty analysis with relation to stormwater concludes the special issue.

    The editors hope that by reading these papers major challenges will be visualized to the readers but also that there are promising solutions available to these challenges. We appreciate the valuable support of our colleagues who have devoted their time to review the manuscripts and thus ensure the quality of this issue. We also express sincere thanks to the staff of Water Research for their valuable editorial support.

  • 10. Repo, Eveliina
    et al.
    Warchol, Jolanta K.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mudhoo, Ackmez
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Aminopolycarboxylic acid functionalized adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water2013In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 47, no 14, p. 4812-4832Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the excellent chelating properties of aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCAs), they can be used for the removal of metals from contaminated waters. This paper reviews the research results obtained for both commercial and self-prepared adsorbents functionalized with four most common APCAs: iminodiacetic acid (IDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The structural characteristics and unique metal binding properties of these chelating adsorbents are presented. The theory of the adsorption phenomena is discussed based on the kinetics of adsorption, equilibrium adsorption isotherm models, and thermodynamic models. The most important applications of APCA-functionalized adsorbents are also described. APCA-functionalized adsorbents are found to be highly promising materials for metal removal from contaminated waters. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Revitt, Mike
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1549-1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used for highlighting the potential fate of a election of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the wider urban water cycle. Potential potable water savings of up to 43% are predicted for greywater recycling based on Danish water use statistics and priority substance monitoring at a greywater treatment plant in Denmark. Adsorption represents an important mechanism for the removal of cadmium, nickel, lead and nonylphenol from influent greywater and therefore the disposal route adopted for the generated sludge can exert a major impact on the overall efficiency and environmental sustainability of greywater treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Svensson, Henric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ekstam, Börje
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Removal of organic pollutants from oak leachate in pilot scale wetland systems: How efficient are aeration and vegetation treatments?2015In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 84, p. 120-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of aeration and/or vegetation in experimental constructed wetlands (CWs) as mesocosms on the removal of pollutants in oak wood leachate. Twelve outdoor wetland mesocosms, with randomized replicated treatment combinations of vegetation (Phragmites australis) and aeration was monitored during the second and third year after construction. The investigation included control tanks with no aeration and no vegetation. The parameters monitored were polyphenols (PPs), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and water colour. The reduction of COD after 28 days was approx. 50% and more than 50% of PPs, whereas only 40% of the water colour was removed. Aeration increased the effect of both COD and PP removal. The vegetation treatment had a small but significant effect on removal of COD. The vegetation + aeration treatment, as well as aeration alone, increased the removal efficiency of COD from 9.5 g m(-3) d(-1) in the control to 11 g m(-3) d(-1). The results suggest that CWs can be used to treat stormwater contaminated by oak wood leachate. Further, it is suggested that the main processes for removal of pollutants in the leachate occur in the open-water habitat and that the hydraulic retention time is more important for removal than aeration and vegetation related processes.

  • 13.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Quantification of uncertainty in modelled partitioning and removal of heavy metals (Cu, Zn) in a stormwater retention pond and a biofilter2012In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 46, no 20, p. 6891-6903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) discharges from stormwater drainage systems require accurate estimation of the potential MP removal in stormwater treatment systems. However, the high uncertainty commonly affecting stormwater runoff quality modelling also influences stormwater treatment models. This study identified the major sources of uncertainty when estimating the removal of copper and zinc in a retention pond and a biofilter by using a conceptual dynamic model which estimates MP partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases as well as environmental fate based on substance-inherent properties. The two systems differ in their main removal processes (settling and filtration/sorption, respectively) and in the time resolution of the available measurements (composite samples and pollutographs). The most sensitive model factors, identified by using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA), were related to the physical characteristics of the simulated systems (flow and water losses) and to the fate processes related to Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The model prediction bounds were estimated by using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) technique. Composite samples and pollutographs produced similar prediction bounds for the pond and the biofilter, suggesting a limited influence of the temporal resolution of samples on the model prediction bounds. GLUE highlighted model structural uncertainty when modelling the biofilter, due to disregard of plant-driven evapotranspiration, underestimation of sorption and neglect of oversaturation with respect to minerals/salts. The results of this study however illustrate the potential for the application of conceptual dynamic fate models base on substanceinherent properties, in combination with available datasets and statistical methods, to estimate the MP removal in different stormwater treatment systems and compare with environmental quality standards targeting the dissolved MP fraction.

  • 14.
    Welander, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Henrysson, Tomas
    Welander, Thomas
    Biological nitrogen removal from municipal landfill leachate in a pilot-scale suspended carrier biofilm process1998In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 32, p. 1564-1570Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Welander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Henrysson, Tomas
    Welander, Thomas
    Nitrification of landfill leachate using suspended-carrier biofilm technology1997In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 31, p. 2351-2355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Wright, DA
    et al.
    Dawson, R
    Cutler, SJ
    Cutler, HG
    Orano-Dawson, CE
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Naphthoquinones as broad spectrum biocides for treatment of ship’s ballast water: Toxicity to phytoplankton and bacteria2007In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 41, p. 1294-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 16 of 16
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