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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Risk assessment of Xenobiotics in stormwater discharged to Harrestrup Å, Denmark2007In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 215, no 1-3, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface waters are highly manipulated in many cities in Europe, and the flow is largely impacted by discharges of stormwater and combined sewer overflow. Toxicity tests shown adverse effects in some of these recipients due to the presence of xenobiotic organic carbons (XOCs). Harrestrup Å, situated in the City of Copenhagen, is one of these recipients, where biotest using algae showed measurable toxicity in eight samples taken in 2003. Twenty-five different XOCs were quantified in the same samples. The present study aimed at identifying the most relevant XOCs out of these 25 to be selected for further analysis with respect to potential source control options.

    Fourteen XOCs (56%) were identified to constitute a potential hazard based on the RICH evaluation (Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards), while 9 XOCs (36%) were found to constitute a hazard towards the aquatic ecosystem based on an environmental-concentration/predicted-no-effect-concentration-quotient. The quantified levels did, however, fulfil the Danish and European surface water quality criteria (QC) and environmental quality standards (ESQ). Thus, although the QC and ESQ are met there is an actual risk due to stormwater-related pollutants. This clearly illustrates that there is a need for monitoring the stormwater quality in order to protect the ecosystems. It also shows that actions are needed to implement source control options and emission barriers.

    Twelve XOCs were selected for further evaluation of possible source control option to be implemented in order to improve the water quality. These are five pesticides (diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, terbutylazine), 4 PAHs (acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrene), 3 others (LAS, nonylphenol and dinitro-o-cresol).

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Christensen, Nina
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge2008In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 226, no 1-3, p. 371-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) present in the sludge. Application on land used for agriculture is, therefore, not socially acceptable in some countries, e.g., Sweden. In this study, literature reviews showed that 541 XOCs potentially could be present in sewage sludge due to their presence in e.g. construction materials, pharmaceuticals, personal care products etc. 192 compounds have been quantified in sewage sludge, which indicate that, although many XOCs have been measured in sludge, there are potentially a vast number of compounds present that have not been analyzed for yet. In a hazard identification of the quantified compounds using their inherent properties and environmental fate it was shown that 99 XOCs could be classified as being hazardous with regard to the solid phase and 23 were found to be priority pollutants in the subsequent hazard assessment. The final selected priority pollutants can act as indicators when assessing sludge quality. They were compared with European legislations and discussed in regard for pointing out the need for mitigation such as substitution. Furthermore, the potential need for implementation of sludge treatment trains in order to meet the society's needs was addressed.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Metals in greywater: Sources, presence and removal efficiencies2009In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 248, no 1-3, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, risk assessment for greywater reuse systems has almost exclusively been focussed on pathogenic microorganisms and conventional water quality parameters. Little is known about the risks from micropollutants present in greywater, nor about the potential for greywater treatment systems to act as barriers for micropollutants. In this paper, the sources, presence and potential fate of cadmium, mercury, lead, and nickel in onsite greywater treatment systems are investigated. Annual metal loads from bathroom greywater are small in comparison with typical municipal wastewater loads but still do not always meet environmental quality standards for surface waters. This study shows that onsite treatment may remove a third to a half of lead, mercury and nickel from bathroom greywater but showed no significant removal of cadmium. Geochemical modelling indicates that metals should not pose a problem for reuse in toilet flushing, irrigation and clothes washing. Rather, the major potential problems associated with the presence of metals in greywater are related to the issue of sludge disposal.

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