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  • 1. Albertazz, S.
    et al.
    Basile, F.
    Brandin, Jan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Fornasar, G.
    Hulteberg, C.
    Sanati, M.
    Trifir, F.
    Vaccari, A.
    Pt/Rh/MgAl(O) Catalyst for the Upgrading of Biomass-Generated synthesis gases.2009In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    dos Santos, Victor Hugo J. M.
    et al.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz F.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Classification of Fuel Blends Using Exploratory Analysis with Combined Data from Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 523-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemometric tools were applied for exploratory analysis and classification of fuel blends using the combined information on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and stable isotope analysis through isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Principal component analysisand hierarchical clustering analysis were applied for exploratory analysis, while support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the biodiesel/diesel blends. All of the chemometric models used present better results from the combination of spectral information with isotopic data for biodiesel contents of over 10% in the mixture, with the best results being Obtained from the SVM classification. Therefore, the development presented in this paper could become an important technique to improve the discrimination of the feedstock used in biodiesel production and a resource for quality control in industry.

  • 3.
    Einvall, Jessica
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Albertazzi, Simone
    Bologna University, Italy.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Catator AB.
    Malik, Azhar
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Basile, Francesco
    Bologna University, Italy.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Brandin, Jan
    Catator AB.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Investigation of reforming catalyst deactivation by exposure to fly ash from biomass gasification in laboratory scale2007In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 2481-2488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of synthesis gas by catalytic reforming of product gas from biomass gasification can lead to catalyst deactivation by the exposure to ash compounds present in the flue gas. The impact of fly ash from biomass gasification on reforming catalysts was studied at the laboratory scale. The investigated catalyst was Pt/Rh based, and it was exposed to generated K2SO4 aerosol particles and to aerosol particles produced from the water-soluble part of biomass fly ash, originating from a commercial biomass combustion plant. The noble metal catalyst was also compared with a commercial Ni-based catalyst, exposed to aerosol particles of the same fashion. To investigate the deactivation by aerosol particles, a flow containing submicrometer-size selected aerosol particles was led through the catalyst bed. The particle size of the poison was measured prior to the catalytic reactor system. Fresh and aerosol particle exposed catalysts were characterized using BET surface area, XRPD (X-ray powder diffraction), and H2 chemisorption. The Pt/Rh catalyst was also investigated for activity in the steam methane reforming reaction. It was found that the method to deposit generated aerosol particles on reforming catalysts could be a useful procedure to investigate the impact of different compounds possibly present in the product gas from the gasifier, acting as potential catalyst poisons. The catalytic deactivation procedure by exposure to aerosol particles is somehow similar to what happens in a real plant, when a catalyst bed is located subsequent to a biomass gasifier or a combustion boiler. Using different environments (oxidizing, reducing, steam present, etc.) in the aerosol generation adds further flexibility to the suggested aerosol deactivation method. It is essential to investigate the deactivating effect at the laboratory scale before a full-scale plant is taken into operation to avoid operational problems.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Seemann, Martin C.
    Rodin, Jennie
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of Particulate Matter in the Hot Product Gas from Indirect Steam Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasification of Wood Pellets2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1781-1789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study characterized the particulate matter (PM) formed during the indirect steam bubbling fluidized bed gasification of wood pellets at atmospheric pressure. A system including a dilution probe, a bed of granular activated carbon, and a thermodenuder was used to sample the PM at high temperature with the aim of separating it from condensing inorganic vapors and tars. The particle mass size distribution was bimodal with a fine mode in the <0.5-μm size range and a dominating coarse mode in the >0.5-μm size range. The coarse mode was representatively characterized while condensing inorganic vapors and tars complicated the evaluation of the results for the fine-mode PM. Morphological analysis of the PM indicated that the char content was low. The inorganic fraction was dominated by potassium and chlorine for fine-mode PM and calcium and silicon for coarse-mode PM.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Method for High-Temperature Particle Sampling in Tar-Rich Gases from the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass2010In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 2042-2051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass produces compounds in both gas and particle phases that may be regarded as contaminants. These contaminants include both particulate matter (e.g., fly ash, soot, and fragmented nonvolatilized material) and volatilized metals and tars that condense and form particulate matter during cooling. In this study a method for high-temperature particle sampling in tar-rich gases from the thermochemical conversion of biomass was developed and tested. Both a bed of granular activated carbon and a denuder were used for tar adsorption. First, the transport efficiency of particles was determined both theoretically and experimentally using a K2SO4 reference aerosol, and the losses were found to be smaller in the denuder than in the bed of granular activated carbon. The adsorption capacity was then tested using a model aerosol of K2SO4 and diethyl-hexyl-sebacate (DEL-IS). The adsorption capacity of the bed of granular activated carbon was found to be higher than that of the denuder. The adsorption capacity was also tested using a model aerosol of K2SO4 particles and tar-rich gas from a laboratory-scale gasifier. As for DEHS, the result indicated that the capacity of the bed of granular activated carbon was higher than that of the denuder; it was also found that the adsorption was incomplete when the tar concentrations increased. In addition, the bed of granular activated carbon was successfully tested during experiments using a 100 kW circulating fluidized bed gasifier. The results indicate that the tar adsorption capacity is dependent not only on the total tar concentration but also on the tar composition

  • 6.
    Jiang, Junfei
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Lang, Lin
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Liu, Huacai
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Yin, Xiuli
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Wu, Chuang-zhi
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Partial oxidation of filter cake particles from biomass gasification process in the simulated product gas environment2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 1703-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration failure occurs when filter media is blocked by accumulated solid particles. Suitable operating conditions were investigated for cake cleaning by partial oxidation of filter-cake particles (FCP) during biomass gasification. The mechanism of the FCP partial oxidation was investigated in a ceramic filter and by using thermo-gravimetric analysis through a temperature-programmed route in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation of the FCP in the simulated product gas environment was examined at 300–600°C in a ceramic filter that was set and heated in a laboratory-scale fixed reactor. Four reaction stages, namely drying, pre-oxidation, complex oxidation and non-oxidation, occurred in the FCP partial oxidation when the temperature increased from 30°C to 800°C in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation was more effective for FCP mass loss from 275 to 725°C. Experimental results obtained in a ceramic filter indicated that the best operating temperature and FCP loading occurred at 400°C and 1.59 g/cm2, respectively. The FCP were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller before and after partial oxidation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that partial oxidation of the FCP can result in a significant decrease in C–Hn (alkyl and aromatic) groups and an increase in C=O (carboxylic acids) groups. The scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller analysis suggests that during partial oxidation, the FCP underwent pore or pit formation, expansion, amalgamation and destruction.

  • 7.
    Larsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Einvall, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Andersson, Arne
    Lund University.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Targeting by Comparison with Laboratory Experiments the SCR Catalyst Deactivation Process by Potassium and Zinc Salts in a Large-Scale Biomass Combustion Boiler2006In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1398-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deactivation of a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst of type V2O5−WO3/TiO2 has been studied in this work through comparisons of results from a full-scale biomass combustion plant with those from laboratory experiments. In the latter, the catalyst was exposed to KCl, K2SO4, and ZnCl2 by both wet impregnation with diluted salt solutions and deposition of generated submicrometer aerosol particles by means of an electrostatic field. The reactivity of freshly prepared and deactivated catalyst samples was examined in the SCR reaction, for which the influence of the different salts and the method of exposure were explored. Chemical and physical characterizations of the catalyst samples were carried out focusing on surface area, pore volume, pore size, chemical composition, and the penetration profiles of potassium and zinc. Particle-deposition deactivation as well as commercially exposed catalyst samples were shown to impact surface area and catalyst activity similarly and to have penetration profiles with pronounced peaks. Salt impregnation influenced pore sizes and catalyst activity more strongly and showed flat penetration profiles. Deposition of submicrometer-sized particles on the monolithic SCR catalyst has been shown to induce deactivation of the catalyst with characteristics resembling those obtained in a commercial biomass combustion plant; the laboratory process can be used to further assess the deactivation mechanism by biomass combustion.

  • 8.
    Lin, Leteng
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Online investigation of steam gasification kinetics of biomass chars up to high temperatures2014In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 607-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a novel aerosol-based method has been further developed and applied for on-line investigating of steam gasification kinetics of suspended biomass char particles. By combining the aerosol method with thermogravimetric analysis, the gasification kinetics were established in steam (33 vol%)-N2 atmosphere from 800°C to 1300°C for char samples produced from pelletized wood, straw, and miscanthus. The aerosol method includes steps for generating, suspending, and gasifying char particles. The conversion of the char particles was established by measuring the change in particle size distributions and mass concentrations using an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer and a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), respectively. The reactivity of three char samples could be ranked as wood > miscanthus > straw. The activation energy was 155 kJ·mol-1 for wood char, 199 kJ·mol-1 for miscanthus char, and 222 kJ·mol-1 for straw char. Results interpreted from TEOM and APS measurements indicated that the effective density of char particles initially decreased until a certain level of conversion was reached, and then remained constant. 

  • 9.
    Morgalla, Mario
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Benzene Conversion in a Packed Alumina Bed Continuously Fed with Woody Char Particles2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 7670-7677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Article investigates the decomposition of benzene (as a model tar) over finely dispersed char particles continuously distributed into a packed bed. Fragmented char particles and benzene plus a gasification agent (H2O or CO2) were supplied into a ceramic reactor that was heated electrically. The supplied char particles were retained in the reactor by a bed of alumina grains. Woody char as well as iron-doped and potassium-doped woody char were used. The influence of the gasification agent, char concentration, char weight time (proportional to the instant char mass present in the bed), and bed temperature (600-1050 degrees C) was investigated. Increasing the char concentration and char weight time increased benzene conversions for all tested chars. At similar char weight times, the benzene conversion increased with temperature, whereas the iron- and potassium doped char did not affect the specific conversion. At similar char concentrations, changing the gasification agent from CO2 to steam as well as using doped char led to decreased benzene conversions. This can be explained by accelerated char gasification reactions and thus a diminished char mass in the packed bed. Furthermore, benzene conversion rates were enhanced in the presence of CO2 as compared to steam. As the temperature was increased from 950 to 1050 degrees C, the benzene conversions were slightly reduced. This was interpreted as a combined effect of the enhanced benzene conversion rates and reduced char weight times. The highest benzene conversions achieved in the experiments were approximately 80% at 950-1000 degrees C using CO2 as gasification agent and supplying approximately 20-30 g N m(-3) undoped woody char.

  • 10.
    Morgalla, Mario
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Benzene conversion in a packed bed loaded with biomass char particles2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 554-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the conversion of benzene in a packed bed containing fine char particles. Benzene and steam were simultaneously supplied to a tubular ceramic reactor that was heated electrically. Fragmented char particles were suspended and continuously supplied via a separate supply line. A packed bed of crushed alumina balls was positioned in the reactor to retain the char particles. The benzene conversion in the hot char bed was investigated by varying the bed temperature (900–1100 °C), steam concentration (0–27 vol %), and char concentration (5–50 g Nm–3). The highest conversions achieved in the experiments were approximately 75%. At comparable char concentrations, similar benzene conversions occurred at 900 and 1000 °C. Increasing the temperature to 1100 °C or increasing the steam concentration reduced the benzene conversion. The results indicate that the reduced conversion was due to enhanced char gasification reactions at elevated temperatures and steam concentrations and thus to reduced char mass in the packed bed.

  • 11.
    Pettersson, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Andersson, Sven
    Babcock & Wilcox Volund AB, Sweden;Chalmers University Technol, Sweden.
    Bäfver, Linda
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Investigation of the Collection Efficiency of a Wet Electrostatic Precipitator at a Municipal Solid Waste-Fueled Combined Heat and Power Plant Using Various Measuring Methods2019In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 5282-5292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from measurements of mainly submicrometer particles at the inlet and outlet of a newly designed industrial wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) in a combined heat and power plant fueled with municipal solid waste. The measurements were carried out with dual electric low-pressure impactors in parallel at the precipitator inlet and outlet. In addition, measurements were carried out with traditional total dust filters, low-pressure impactors, a scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aerodynamic particle sizer. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol particles and measure the efficiency of the WESP with special attention to fine and ultrafine particles. In general, the WESP performance and response to varying conditions was found to be in line with predictions made for the design. The WESP featured a cooled collector surface, but based on the limited results, no conclusion could be drawn regarding any possible improvement from collector cooling. The characterization of the aerosol particulate matter was challenging because of fast fluctuations in particle concentration. Methodological considerations are pointed out, mainly regarding the SMPS and ELPI measuring systems.

  • 12.
    Yang, Jingjing
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Characterization of Particles and Inorganic Vapors through High-Temperature Extraction in a Biomass-Fired Grate Boiler2013In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 5915-5922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a method for sampling particles and inorganic vapors in hot flue gases was examined in laboratory studies and then applied in field measurements. The method included a hot dilution probe, where the dilution ratio can be controlled. The laboratory results indicated that applied flow rates and dilution ratios can be optimized to produce two distinct particle modes in the particle size distribution: one from the original particles and one from the condensing vapors. The field measurements were performed in a moving grate biomass boiler, and the probe was used for sampling at two positions, at 800 and 1100 degrees C. The size distributions and the size-resolved elemental composition of the samples showed that, at 800 degrees C, alkali sulfates had formed a fine particle mass mode at around 100 nm and that alkali chlorides condensed in the probe to form an additional ultrafine mode in the 10-30 nm range. At 1100 degrees C, a similar bimodal size distribution was obtained as for 800 degrees C; however, the particle diameter of the fine mode was lower and the particle mass concentration was about one-third of the mass at 800 degrees C. The elemental analysis of the ultrafine mode sampled at 1100 degrees C indicated that it was formed mainly from condensing alkali sulfates. In addition, the sample contained detectable amounts of Zn. The suggested interpretation of these results was that, at 1100 degrees C, Zn had oxidized to form ZnO particles and that the formation and condensing of alkali sulfates was in progress, while alkali chlorides were present as vapor.

  • 13.
    Yang, Jingjing
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Gjövik Univ Coll, Norway.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Morgalla, Mario
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Gjövik Univ Coll, Norway.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    High-Temperature Characterization of Inorganic Particles and Vapors in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Cofiring Wood and Rubber Waste2015In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of varying fuel mixtures and using a lime additive were studied in a 125-MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler. A high-temperature aerosol measurement method using a hot-dilution probe was used to characterize the particles and condensing inorganic vapors upstream from the superheater. The particle size distributions of the extracted samples indicate that when high-sulfur rubber waste, waste wood, and forest fuel were cocombusted, the hot flue gas contained no substantial amount of particulate matter in the fine (<0.3 mu m) particle size range, although the SO2 concentration exceeded 70 ppm. Only a nucleation mode was observed, which was presumably formed from inorganic vapors that condensed in the sampling probe. The size-segregated elemental analysis of the extracted samples indicated that when lime was added, the nucleation mode mainly comprised condensed alkali chlorides, while the sulfates dominated the mode when no lime was added. The presumed explanation for the sulfates in the nucleation mode was the sulfation of the alkali chlorides inside the sampling system. When only the wood fuels and no rubber fuel were cocombusted, the SO2 concentration in the gas was approximately 5 ppm. In this case, an alkali sulfate particle mode formed at approximately 70 nm in the hot flue gas. In addition, vapors of alkali chlorides and lead formed particulate matter inside the sampling probe when using low dilution ratios.

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