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  • 1.
    Addassi, Mouadh
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University.
    Inverse analyses of effective diffusion parameters relevant for a two-phase moisture model of cementitious materials2018In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 106, p. 117-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present an inverse analyses approach to determining the two-phase moisture transport properties re-levant to concrete durability modeling. The purposed moisture transport model was based on a continuumapproach with two truly separate equations for the liquid and gas phase being connected by the sorption ki-netics. The moisture properties of ten binder-systems containingfly ash, calcined clay, burnt shale and graymicro-filler, were investigated experimentally. The experiments used were, (i) sorption test (moisturefixation),(ii) cup test in two different relative humidity intervals, (iii) drying test, and, (iv) capillary suction test. Masschange over time, as obtained from the drying test, the two different cup test intervals and the capillary suctiontest, was used to obtain the effective diffusion parameters using the proposed inverse analyses approach. Themoisture properties obtained with the proposed inverse analyses method provide a good description of the testperiod for the ten different binder-systems.

  • 2.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Lund Institute of Technology.
    A theoretical model describing diffusion of a mixture of different types of ions in pore solution of concrete coupled to moisture transport2003In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 481-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical model is established for diffusion of different types of ions in pore solution of concrete and the coupling to moisture flow and moisture content. Mass exchanges between ions in pore solution and solid hydration products in the concrete are also considered. The basic concepts behind the so-called mixture theory are used. The development of a mass balance principle for ions in pore solution is established. This principle accounts for (i) diffusion caused by concentration gradients of ions and gradients of the so-called internal electrical potential, (ii) convection, i.e. the effect on the motion of ions due to a motion of the pore solution in concrete, (iii) the effect on the concentration due to changes in the moisture content, and finally, (iv) the effect of mass exchange of ions between solid hydration products and the bore solution phase. The model is general in the sense that all different types of ions appearing in pore solution phase can-be included and computed for during quite arbitrary boundary conditions.

  • 3.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Lund Institute of Technology.
    Diffusion of a mixture of cations and anions dissolved in water1999In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 1261-1270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In service life modeling of concrete, the ion transport in the pore solution is crucial. The main deterioration phenomena associated with ions in the pore solution are (1) corrosion due to external chloride ions reaching the embedded reinforcement bars; (2) carbonation due to presence of dissolved carbon dioxide (which will form carbonic acid with water) supplied from the surrounding air. and (3) leaching of hydroxide ions from the pore solution to the surrounding environment. Models dealing with diffusion of ions are usually based on the mass balance equations for the individual diffusing ions together with constitutive relations for the mass density flows and for the mass exchange among the constituents. The important consequences of electroneutrality among the diffusing ions, however, is often omitted in models dealing with diffusion of ions in the pore solution of concrete. Here a method will be examined that allows diffusion of different ions in water, which satisfies both the electroneutrality requirement and the mass balance laws. For simplicity the effect of built-up electric double layers on the charged pore walls will not be treated.

  • 4.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Lund Institute of Technology.
    Prestudy on diffusion and transient condensation of water vapor in cement mortar2002In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 955-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics of sorption of water vapor in mature cement mortar are examined experimentally by the use of a sorption balance (DVS1000). The relative humidity in the sample chamber is obtained by mixing dry and saturated air using flow regulators with very high accuracy. A predefined change of relative humidity in the sample chamber can be obtained in about 30 s. The time needed for equilibration in terms of the mass of a finely grained mortar sample is shown to be in the order of 2500 min for a 0-96% step in relative humidity at 25 degreesC. This fact calls for a refinement of modeling of diffusion of water vapor in materials such as mortar to take into account the kinetics of sorption. The established model involves a transient mass exchange term that explicitly describes the rate of condensation at internal material surfaces. This function becomes zero when located at the equilibrium sorption isotherm. The 'global' mass diffusion velocity of water vapor in the air-filled porosity is assumed to be significantly affected by the mass concentration of liquid water in the pore space. A satisfying match between the proposed model and measurements presented by U. Daian [Transp. Porous Media 4 (1989) 1.] was obtained by using nonlinear diffusion and sorption characteristics. In order to get a satisfying match, the sorption kinetics was, however, forced to be much slower than the recorded values obtained by the sorption balance. Some speculations as to the reason of this marked difference are performed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Johannesson, Björn
    et al.
    Lund Institute of Technology.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    Lund Institute of Technology.
    Microstructural changes caused by carbonation of cement mortar2001In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 925-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The change of specific surface area and pore size distribution due to carbonation of an ordinary Portland cement mortar is investigated. The adsorption of water vapor on noncarbonated and well-carbonated cement mortar is measured in order to evaluate the difference in specific surface area for the two samples using the BET theory. From the measured desorption the pore size distribution is calculated using the Kelvin formula. A sorption balance is used to measure the sorption characteristics for the two studied sample qualities. In this method dry and saturated air are mixed in desired proportion in a closed system. One of the benefits of the method is that the samples not are exposed to carbon dioxide during testing, i.e., undesired effects caused by carbonation on the sorption can be eliminated. The specific surface area for a noncarbonated sample was calculated, using the measured adsorption data, to be 8% higher than for the well-carbonated sample. The difference in pore size distributions was more marked than the difference in specific surface area for the two samples. The well-carbonated mortar had about twice as much volume attributed to small pores as the noncarbonated cement mortar.

  • 6.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette Rica
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A study of the water vapor sorption isotherms of hardened cement pastes: Possible pore structure changes at low relative humidity and the impact of temperature on isotherms2014In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 56, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using water vapor sorption isotherms measured by the “dynamic vapor sorption” (DVS) method, a resaturation study was conducted to investigate possible pore structure changes of hardened cement paste samples caused by the drying at low relative humidity during desorption measurements. The results indicate that either the relatively short term drying does not cause any microstructure changes or the pore structure of the hardened cement paste samples can be restored during the absorption process. Additionally, the temperature dependency of sorption isotherms was investigated using both hardened cement paste samples and a model material MCM-41. The pronounced impact of temperature on desorption isotherms of cement based materials as reported in literature was not found in this investigation. The results suggest that the differences between the sorption isotherms measured at different temperatures are mainly caused by the temperature dependent properties of water.

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