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  • 1.
    Alawode, Abiodun
    et al.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Eselem-Bungu, Paul
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Amiandamhen, Stephen
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Meincken, Martina
    Stellenbosch University, Department of Forest and Wood Science.
    Tyhoda, Luvuyo
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Properties and characteristics of novel formaldehyde-free wood adhesives prepared from Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu seed kernel extracts2019In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 95, article id 102423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is renewed interest in the domestication of Irvingia tree species due to the potential use of various parts of the tree as raw materials for a wide range of applications such as biodiesel production, cosmetics, perfumes, soap, weight-loss supplement etc. The current study investigates the properties of extracts from the seed kernels of two Irvingia species – Irvingia gabonensis (IG) and Irvingia wombolu (IW) as natural wood adhesives. Three extraction methods using various solvent/solute media were compared in terms of yield, composition and mechanical properties. Statistically, the analysis revealed significant differences between the different extraction methods. The adhesion properties of the extracts were tested on wood veneers according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard (ASTM D – 906-64). The shear strength of the extracts ranged from 0.55 to 1.5 MPa and 0.86 to 1.7 MPa for IG and IW, respectively. The initial decomposition temperature of all Irvingia Kernel extract ranges from 138.3 – 149.11 oC for IG and 129.5 – 145.3 oC for IW. As a result, the hot melt temperature for the adhesive experiments was set around 150 oC. The results indicate that Irvingia kernel extract is a more promising source of non-formaldehyde based adhesives in wood composite production.

  • 2.
    Bastani, Alireza
    et al.
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Koddenberg, Tim
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Militz, Holger
    Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany.
    Study of adhesive bondlines in modified wood with fluorescence microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography2016In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 68, p. 351-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantitative penetration of three coldset wood adhesives [one-component polyurethane (PU), emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI), poly (vinyl acetate) (PVAc)] under hydraulic pressure into different types of modified wood was studied using fluorescence microscopy and the results were compared to these of a previous study without pressure on adjacent wood samples. The effective penetration (EP) of PU was negatively affected by furfurlylation and NMM modification when pressure was applied. For PVAc, 30% NMM treatment and heat treatment of Scots pine and beech at 210 °C had a negative effect on its EP, but against this the EP of this adhesive increased after heat treatment of beech at 195 °C. In the case of furfurylation, the depth of penetration of all adhesives was less into wood treated with higher concentration of furfuryl alcohol. PU showed a much deeper penetration into NMM-modified and heat-treated wood than the other adhesives with the exception of heat-treated beech at 195 °C. Application of pressure led to rather different results as compared to the EP data when no pressure was applied. The three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of the penetration of PU adhesive into heat-treated Scots pine was also examined by X-ray micro-computed tomography (XµCT). The 3D flow pattern of PU adhesive into heat-treated Scots pine was clearly depicted by XµCT.

  • 3.
    Blyberg, Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Serrano, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Adhesive joints for structural timber/glass applications: Experimental testing and evaluation methods2012In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 35, p. 76-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of three different adhesives, silicone, acrylate and polyurethane, intended for adhesive joints in structural timber/glass applications is presented in this paper. Intentionally, adhesives with a wide range of properties were chosen. The adhesive bonds between timber and glass were tested both in tension and in shear with a bond area of 800 mm2. Special fixtures were designed both for gluing and testing the specimens. The results include strength and failure type of the adhesive bond as well as deformation of the bond lines, measured with LVDTs and a non-contact optical 3D-deformation measuring system used in combination with finite element modelling in order to obtain detailed information about the behaviour.

    Of the tested adhesives, the acrylate (SikaFast 5215) provided the largest strength, both in tension and shear. The mean strength obtained for this adhesive bond was 3.0 MPa in tension and 4.5 MPa in shear.

    Further, it is demonstrated how rotations in the specimen during the test can be detected with the optical measuring system and how finite element modelling can be used to study the stress distribution internally in the adhesive bond. One conclusion obtained from the combination of results from the optical measuring system and finite element modelling is that the behaviour of the silicone adhesive is highly influenced by its near incompressible behaviour.

  • 4.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Meyer, Bettina
    Fraunhofer WKI, Germany.
    Larsen, Annelise
    IKEA of Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Schwab, Harald
    Fraunhofer WKI, Germany.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Influencing factors, repeatability and correlation of chamber methods in measuring formaldehyde emissions from fiber- and particleboards2019In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 95, p. 1-9, article id 102420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been focus on lowering emission levels of wood-based boards. However, the accuracy and correlationbetween EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007 chamber methods at emission levels below 0.05 ppm are not wellinvestigated, and information about their correlation to the EN 16516 method is limited. In this paper, the lowemission level of interest was determined by measuring emissions from particles, fibers and pressed boards withoutglue. The effect of analytical methods and edge-sealing on chamber emissions was determined, and accuracies andcorrelations of the EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007 chambers were defined at low emission levels (< 0.05 ppm). Inaddition, some emission values were compared to those obtained with EN 16516. The EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007methods had high accuracy. The acetyl acetone and 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine analytical methods showed lowstandard deviations (< 5%), except at emission levels below 0.02 ppm. This could be counteracted by using a directreagent absorber solution. Opening 5% of the edge of boards affected emissions and was dependent on board type.ASTM D 6007 and EN 717-1 methods were highly correlated for both particleboards (r2=0.9167) and fiberboards(r2=0.9443) at emission levels below 0.05 ppm. EN 16516 emissions were 2.6 times greater than those of EN 717-1 at emission range<0.05 ppm, exceeding the conversion factor of two given in the German legislation. The EN 717-1 to EN 16516 correlation needs to be further evaluated for different board types and emission ranges

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