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  • 1.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hofstetter, Karin
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Keunecke, Daniel
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Microstructure–Stiffness Relationships of Common Yew and Norway Spruce2012In: Strain, ISSN 0039-2103, E-ISSN 1475-1305, Vol. 48, no 4, 306-316 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yew (Taxus baccata L.) exhibits among conifers a unique macroscopic elastic behaviour. For example, it shows a comparatively low longitudinal elastic modulus related to its comparatively high density. We herein explore the microstructural origin of these peculiarities, aiming at the derivation of microstructure–stiffness relationships. We measure stiffness properties of yew at different hierarchical levels and compare them to corresponding stiffnesses of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karsten). Cell wall stiffness is investigated experimentally by means of nanoindentation in combination with microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. On the macroscopic level, we perform uniaxial tension and ultrasonic tests. Having at hand, together with previously reported stiffnesses, a consistent data set of mechanical, chemical and physical properties across hierarchical levels of wood, we discuss influences of microstructural characteristics at different scales of observation. Moreover, a micromechanical model is applied to predict trends of effects of the microstructure on the investigated stiffness properties. On the cell wall level, particularly, the amount of cellulose and its orientation – which was earlier reported to be distinctly different for yew and spruce – result in differences between the two considered species. On the macroscopic scale, model predicted effects of the annual ring structure on transverse stiffness and shear stiffness are found to be smaller than effects of the microfibril angle and mass density.

  • 2.
    Hochreiner, G.
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Füssl, J.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Serrano, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Eberhardsteiner, J.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Influence of Wooden Board Strength Class on the Performance of Cross-laminated Timber Plates Investigated by Means of Full-field Deformation Measurements2014In: Strain, ISSN 0039-2103, E-ISSN 1475-1305, Vol. 50, no 2, 161-173 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cross-laminated timber (CLT) plates are increasingly used in high-performance building structures, a tailored composition of them or, at least, a performance-based classification scheme is not available. Especially, the influence of the quality of the ‘raw’ material (wooden boards) on the load carrying capacity of CLT elements is hardly investigated yet. For this reason, within this work, bending tests on 24 CLT plates consisting of wooden boards from three different strength classes have been carried out. The global mechanical response as well as the formation of failure mechanisms were investigated, including a full-field deformation measurement system, which allowed for a qualitatively as well as quantitatively identification of board failure modes. Interestingly, no influence of the board strength class on the elastic limit load of the CLT plates was observed, but the situation was different for the load displacement history beyond the elastic regime, where basically, two different global failure mechanisms could be distinguished. The obtained knowledge about the ‘post-elastic’ behaviour of CLT plates may serve as a basis for the optimisation of CLT products and the development or improvement of design concepts, respectively. Moreover, the obtained large ‘post-elastic’ capacity reserve of CLT consisting of high quality boards could lead to a better utilisation of the raw material.

  • 3.
    Lederer, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Muszyński, Lech
    Oregon State University, USA.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Exploring a Multi-modal Experimental Approach to Investigation of Local Embedment Behaviour of Wood under Steel Dowels2016In: Strain, ISSN 0039-2103, E-ISSN 1475-1305, Vol. 52, no 6, 531-547 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-modal experimental approach for analysing the embedment behaviour of timber connections with steel dowels is proposed in this study. In this approach, a standard mechanical embedment test on single-dowel connections is combined with an optical measurement of surface deformations of the connection based on digital image correlation principle and an X-ray micro-computed tomography examination of the deformations in the dowel-wood interface. The latter is conducted on cylindrical cores including the dowel hole, physically extracted from the loaded specimen at three characteristic points of the load-deformation curves. The major challenge of this procedure is disrupted load transfer between the cylindrical core specimens and the external material they were plugged in for further analysis. Despite its challenges and limitations, the method revealed a potential for an unprecedented insight into the micromechanics of dowel connections and for effective correlation of the micro-level observations with the external macroscopic load-deformation characteristics.

  • 4.
    Schweigler, Michael
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Constrained displacement boundary condition in embedment testing of dowel-type fasteners in LVL2017In: Strain, ISSN 0039-2103, E-ISSN 1475-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the loading orientation with respect to the grain direction of wood and the influence of the lateral dowel displacement boundary condition on the embedment behaviour of steel dowels in laminated veneer lumber (with parallel-laminated veneers) are investigated in this study. For limit states of the lateral boundary condition, the load-displacement behaviour was experimentally studied by means of full-hole embedment tests on screw-reinforced laminated veneer lumber, for two dowel diameters and up to large dowel displacements. A novel biaxial test set-up is proposed for embedment tests with constrained lateral dowel displacement boundary condition, in order to quantify laterally evoked reaction forces. Corresponding forces were found to change orientation with increasing dowel displacement and amounted to about 20% and 40% of the vertical reaction force for dowel displacements of 5 mm and twice the dowel diameter, respectively. The influence of the lateral displacement boundary condition was highlighted by comparison of the test data with a previously established data set for unconstrained embedment testing. Constrained loading showed a stiffer response and higher nominal embedment stresses, as well as a more pronounced displacement hardening, compared to unconstrained loading.

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