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  • 1.
    Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Adam, R.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;RAU, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, South Africa.
    Armand, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Backes, M.
    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, Germany.
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bissaldi, E.
    Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo Fis, Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Barcelona, Spain..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseilles, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Fussling, M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kreter, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Leser, E.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Inst Theoret Phys, Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    de Palma, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Axelsson, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Roberts, O. J.
    Univ Space Res Assoc, USA.
    A very-high-energy component deep in the gamma-ray burst afterglow2019Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 575, nr 7783, s. 464-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays and are considered to be the most energetic explosive phenomena in the Universe(1). The emission from GRBs comprises a short (typically tens of seconds) and bright prompt emission, followed by a much longer afterglow phase. During the afterglow phase, the shocked outflow-produced by the interaction between the ejected matter and the circumburst medium-slows down, and a gradual decrease in brightness is observed(2). GRBs typically emit most of their energy via.-rays with energies in the kiloelectronvolt-to-megaelectronvolt range, but a few photons with energies of tens of gigaelectronvolts have been detected by space-based instruments(3). However, the origins of such high-energy (above one gigaelectronvolt) photons and the presence of very-high-energy (more than 100 gigaelectronvolts) emission have remained elusive(4). Here we report observations of very-high-energy emission in the bright GRB 180720B deep in the GRB afterglow-ten hours after the end of the prompt emission phase, when the X-ray flux had already decayed by four orders of magnitude. Two possible explanations exist for the observed radiation: inverse Compton emission and synchrotron emission of ultrarelativistic electrons. Our observations show that the energy fluxes in the X-ray and gamma-ray range and their photon indices remain comparable to each other throughout the afterglow. This discovery places distinct constraints on the GRB environment for both emission mechanisms, with the inverse Compton explanation alleviating the particle energy requirements for the emission observed at late times. The late timing of this detection has consequences for the future observations of GRBs at the highest energies.

  • 2. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Asano, K.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Bonnell, J.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burgess, J. M.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Chaplin, V.
    Charles, E.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Connaughton, V.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dingus, B. L.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Finke, J.
    Fishman, G.
    Focke, W. B.
    Foschini, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Gibby, L.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Granot, J.
    Greiner, J.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Grupe, D.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hoversten, E. A.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McBreen, S.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Petrosian, V.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Preece, R.
    Raino, S.
    Ramirez-Ruiz, E.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stecker, F. W.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Toma, K.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Uehara, T.
    Usher, T. L.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    von Kienlin, A.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wu, X. F.
    Yamazaki, R.
    Ylinen, T.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ziegler, M.
    A limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects2009Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 462, nr 7271, s. 331-334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A cornerstone of Einstein's special relativity is Lorentz invariance-the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, l(Planck) approximate to 1.62 x 10(-33) cm or E-Planck = M(Planck)c(2) approximate to 1.22 x 10(19) GeV), at which quantum effects are expected to strongly affect the nature of space-time. There is great interest in the (not yet validated) idea that Lorentz invariance might break near the Planck scale. A key test of such violation of Lorentz invariance is a possible variation of photon speed with energy(1-7). Even a tiny variation in photon speed, when accumulated over cosmological light-travel times, may be revealed by observing sharp features in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light-curves(2). Here we report the detection of emission up to similar to 31GeV from the distant and short GRB090510. We find no evidence for the violation of Lorentz invariance, and place a lower limit of 1.2E(Planck) on the scale of a linear energy dependence (or an inverse wavelength dependence), subject to reasonable assumptions about the emission (equivalently we have an upper limit of l(Planck)/1.2 on the length scale of the effect). Our results disfavour quantum-gravity theories(3,6,7) in which the quantum nature of space-time on a very small scale linearly alters the speed of light.

  • 3.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany ; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Physics Institute, Armenia.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    University of Namibia, Namibia.
    Balzer, A.
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.
    Berge, D.
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Birsin, E.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Carr, J.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM,UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chretien, M.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cologna, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Couturier, C.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Cui, Y.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia.;North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Degrange, B.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Djannati-Ata, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Domainko, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Dutson, K.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Dyks, J.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Dyrda, M.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Edwards, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Eger, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Espigat, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Farnier, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Feinstein, F.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Fernandez, D.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Foerster, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gajdus, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giebels, B.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Goyal, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Grondin, M-H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Hadasch, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Haeffner, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hawkes, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hervet, O.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hillert, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofverberg, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ivascenko, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Janiak, M.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katz, U.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Kieffer, M.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Klochkov, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Kolitzus, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Krayzel, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Krueger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Laffon, H.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lefranc, V.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lopatin, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Lu, C-C
    Lui, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mayer, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Orange Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Menzler, U.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Meyer, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mora, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moulin, E.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Odaka, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Oettl, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Opitz, B.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Pekeur, N. W.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Pelletier, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Peyaud, B.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poon, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Prokoph, Heike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Reichardt, I.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    de los Reyes, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;ITA Univ Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Romoli, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Rulten, C. B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Salek, D.
    Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Spengler, G.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Spies, F.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stinzing, F.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Stycz, K.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Tavernet, J-P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Valerius, K.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van der Walt, J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Orange Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, P.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Weidinger, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Weitzel, Q.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Willmann, P.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Woernlein, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Wouters, D.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zabalza, V.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zefi, F.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre2016Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 531, nr 7595, s. 476-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Galactic cosmic rays reach energies of at least a few petaelectronvolts(1) (of the order of 1015 electronvolts). This implies that our Galaxy contains petaelectronvolt accelerators ('PeVatrons'), but all proposed models of Galactic cosmic-ray accelerators encounter difficulties at exactly these energies(2). Dozens of Galactic accelerators capable of accelerating particles to energies of tens of teraelectronvolts (of the order of 10(13) electronvolts) were inferred from recent gamma-ray observations(3). However, none of the currently known accelerators-not even the handful of shell-type supernova remnants commonly believed to supply most Galactic cosmic rays-has shown the characteristic tracers of petaelectronvolt particles, namely, power-law spectra of.-rays extending without a cut-off or a spectral break to tens of teraelectronvolts(4). Here we report deep.-ray observations with arcminute angular resolution of the region surrounding the Galactic Centre, which show the expected tracer of the presence of petaelectronvolt protons within the central 10 parsecs of the Galaxy. We propose that the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* is linked to this PeVatron. Sagittarius A* went through active phases in the past, as demonstrated by X-ray outbursts(5) and an outflow from the Galactic Centre(6). Although its current rate of particle acceleration is not sufficient to provide a substantial contribution to Galactic cosmic rays, Sagittarius A* could have plausibly been more active over the last 10(6)-10(7) years, and therefore should be considered as a viable alternative to supernova remnants as a source of petaelectronvolt Galactic cosmic rays.

  • 4. Andrés, E.
    et al.
    Askebjer, P.
    Bai, X.
    Barouch, G.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bay, R. C.
    Becker, K. -H
    Bergström, L.
    Bertrand, D.
    Bierenbaum, D.
    Biron, A.
    Booth, J.
    Botner, O.
    Bouchta, A.
    Boyce, M. M.
    Carius, Staffan
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Chen, A.
    Chirkin, D.
    Conrad, J.
    Cooley, J.
    Costa, C. G. S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Dailing, J.
    Dalberg, E.
    DeYoung, T.
    Desiati, P.
    Dewulf, J. -P
    Doksus, P.
    Edsjö, J.
    Ekström, P.
    Erlandsson, B.
    Feser, T.
    Gaug, M.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Goobar, A.
    Gray, L.
    Haase, H.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Hardtke, R.
    He, Y. D.
    Hellwig, M.
    Heukenkamp, H.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hundertmark, S.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Kandhadai, V.
    Karle, A.
    Kim, J.
    Koci, B.
    Köpke, L.
    Kowalski, M.
    Leich, H.
    Leuthold, M.
    Lindahl, P.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Loaiza, P.
    Lowder, D. M.
    Ludvig, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Marciniewski, P.
    Matis, H. S.
    Mihalyi, A.
    Mikolajski, T.
    Miller, T. C.
    Minaeva, Y.
    Miočinović, P.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Neunhöffer, T.
    Newcomer, F. M.
    Niessen, P.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Ögelman, H.
    Pérez De Los Heros, C.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Rawlins, K.
    Reed, C.
    Rhode, W.
    Richards, A.
    Richter, S.
    Martino, J. R.
    Romenesko, P.
    Ross, D.
    Rubinstein, H.
    Sander, H. -G
    Scheider, T.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schneider, D.
    Schneider, E.
    Schwarz, R.
    Silvestri, A.
    Solarz, M.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Spiering, C.
    Starinsky, N.
    Steele, D.
    Steffen, P.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Streicher, O.
    Sun, Q.
    Taboada, I.
    Thollander, L.
    Thon, T.
    Tilav, S.
    Usechak, N.
    Vander Donckt, M.
    Walck, C.
    Weinheimer, C.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Wischnewski, R.
    Wissing, H.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Wu, W.
    Yodh, G.
    Young, S.
    Observation of high-energy neutrinos using Čerenkov detectors embedded deep in Antarctic ice2001Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 410, nr 6827, s. 441-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrinos are elementary particles that carry no electric charge and have little mass. As they interact only weakly with other particles, they can penetrate enormous amounts of matter, and therefore have the potential to directly convey astrophysical information from the edge of the Universe and from deep inside the most cataclysmic high-energy regions. The neutrino's great penetrating power, however, also makes this particle difficult to detect. Underground detectors have observed low-energy neutrinos from the Sun and a nearby supernova2, as well as neutrinos generated in the Earth's atmosphere. But the very low fluxes of high-energy neutrinos from cosmic sources can be observed only by much larger, expandable detectors in, for example, deep water3,4 or ice5. Here we report the detection of upwardly propagating atmospheric neutrinos by the ice-based Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA). These results establish a technology with which to build a kilometre-scale neutrino observatory necessary for astrophysical observations1.

  • 5.
    Buitink, S.
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium ; Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Corstanje, A.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Falcke, H.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; ASTRON, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands ; Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Germany.
    Hörandel, J. R.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huege, T.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.
    Nelles, A.
    University of California Irvine, USA.
    Rachen, J. P.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Rossetto, L.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Schellart, P.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Scholten, O.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands ; Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Ter Veen, S.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Trinh, T. N. G.
    Anderson, J.
    Asgekar, A.
    Avruch, I. M.
    Bell, M. E.
    Bentum, M. J.
    Bernardi, G.
    Best, P.
    Bonafede, A.
    Breitling, F.
    Broderick, J. W.
    Brouw, W. N.
    Brüggen, M.
    Butcher, H. R.
    Carbone, D.
    Ciardi, B.
    Conway, J. E.
    de Gasperin, F.
    de Geus, E.
    Deller, A.
    Dettmar, R. -J
    van Diepen, G.
    Duscha, S.
    Eislöffel, J.
    Engels, D.
    Enriquez, J. E.
    Fallows, R. A.
    Fender, R.
    Ferrari, C.
    Frieswijk, W.
    Garrett, M. A.
    Grießmeier, J. M.
    Gunst, A. W.
    van Haarlem, M. P.
    Hassall, T. E.
    Heald, G.
    Hessels, J. W. T.
    Hoeft, M.
    Horneffer, A.
    Iacobelli, M.
    Intema, H.
    Juette, E.
    Karastergiou, A.
    Kondratiev, V. I.
    Kramer, M.
    Kuniyoshi, M.
    Kuper, G.
    van Leeuwen, J.
    Loose, G. M.
    Maat, P.
    Mann, G.
    Markoff, S.
    McFadden, R.
    McKay-Bukowski, D.
    McKean, J. P.
    Mevius, M.
    Mulcahy, D. D.
    Munk, H.
    Norden, M. J.
    Orru, E.
    Paas, H.
    Pandey-Pommier, M.
    Pandey, V. N.
    Pietka, M.
    Pizzo, R.
    Polatidis, A. G.
    Reich, W.
    Röttgering, H. J. A.
    Scaife, A. M. M.
    Schwarz, D. J.
    Serylak, M.
    Sluman, J.
    Smirnov, O.
    Stappers, B. W.
    Steinmetz, M.
    Stewart, A.
    Swinbank, J.
    Tagger, M.
    Tang, Y.
    Tasse, C.
    Toribio, M. C.
    Vermeulen, R.
    Vocks, C.
    Vogt, C.
    van Weeren, R. J.
    Wijers, R. A. M. J.
    Wijnholds, S. J.
    Wise, M. W.
    Wucknitz, O.
    Yatawatta, S.
    Zarka, P.
    Zensus, J. A.
    A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 1017–1017.5 electronvolts from radio observations2016Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 531, nr 7592, s. 70-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmic rays are the highest-energy particles found in nature. Measurements of the mass composition of cosmic rays with energies of 1017–1018 electronvolts are essential to understanding whether they have galactic or extragalactic sources. It has also been proposed that the astrophysical neutrino signal1 comes from accelerators capable of producing cosmic rays of these energies2. Cosmic rays initiate air showers—cascades of secondary particles in the atmosphere—and their masses can be inferred from measurements of the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum3 (Xmax; the depth of the air shower when it contains the most particles) or of the composition of shower particles reaching the ground4. Current measurements5 have either high uncertainty, or a low duty cycle and a high energy threshold. Radio detection of cosmic rays6, 7, 8 is a rapidly developing technique9 for determining Xmax (refs 10, 11) with a duty cycle of, in principle, nearly 100 per cent. The radiation is generated by the separation of relativistic electrons and positrons in the geomagnetic field and a negative charge excess in the shower front6, 12. Here we report radio measurements of Xmax with a mean uncertainty of 16 grams per square centimetre for air showers initiated by cosmic rays with energies of 1017–1017.5 electronvolts. This high resolution in Xmax enables us to determine the mass spectrum of the cosmic rays: we find a mixed composition, with a light-mass fraction (protons and helium nuclei) of about 80 per cent. Unless, contrary to current expectations, the extragalactic component of cosmic rays contributes substantially to the total flux below 1017.5 electronvolts, our measurements indicate the existence of an additional galactic component, to account for the light composition that we measured in the 1017–1017.5 electronvolt range.

  • 6.
    Gomez-Consarnau, Laura
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gonzalez, J M
    Coll-Llado, Montserrat
    Gourdon, Pontus
    Pascher, Torbjörn
    Neutze, Richard
    Pedros-Alio, C
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Light stimulates growth of proteorhodopsin-containing marine Flavobacteria2007Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 445, s. 210-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7. Guan, Y.
    et al.
    Webby, R.
    Capua, I.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    H5N1: How to track a flu virus2012Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 483, nr 7391, s. 535-536Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Perk, Joep
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    PERSPECTIVE The power of disease prevention2013Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 493, nr 7434, s. S6-S6Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9. Schantz, T von
    et al.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Departments of Animal Ecology, University of Lund.
    Andersson, G
    Fröberg, I
    Helgée, A
    Wittzell, H
    Female choice selects for a viability-based male trait in pheasants1989Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 337, s. 166-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent theory on sexual selection1–4 suggests that females in species without paternal care choose mates by their secondary sexual characters because these indicate genotypic quality which will be transmitted to the offspring. These ideas are not yet empiri-cally supported as data quantifying the relationship between female mate choice and female reproductive success are lacking. Only in one case, in Colias butterflies, has it been demonstrated unequivo-cally that females choose 'good genotypes' as mates5 and there is only one study, on Drosophila, demonstrating that mate choice increases one component of offspring fitness6. Spur length of male pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) correlates with various fitness-related properties7. We here present the first experimental field data showing that female pheasants select mates on the basis of male spur length and that female mate choice correlates with female reproductive success. 

  • 10. Schantz, T von
    et al.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Departments of Animal Ecology, University of Lund.
    Andersson, G
    Fröberg, I
    Helgée, A
    Wittzell, H
    Genetics of long-spurred pheasants (reply).1989Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 339, s. 432-433Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Srinivas, Vivek
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lebrette, Hugo
    Stockholm University.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Stockholm University.
    Kutin, Yuri
    Max Planck Inst Chem Energy Convers, Germany.
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Stockholm University.
    Lerche, Michael
    Stockholm University.
    Eirich, Jürgen
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Branca, Rui M. M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cox, Nicholas
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Högbom, Martin
    Stockholm University;Stanford Univ, USA.
    Metal-free ribonucleotide reduction powered by a DOPA radical in Mycoplasma pathogens2018Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 563, nr 7731, s. 416-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyses the only known de novo pathway for the production of all four deoxyribonucleotides that are required for DNA synthesis(1,2). It is essential for all organisms that use DNA as their genetic material and is a current drug target(3,4). Since the discovery that iron is required for function in the aerobic, class I RNR found in all eukaryotes and many bacteria, a dinuclear metal site has been viewed as necessary to generate and stabilize the catalytic radical that is essential for RNR activity(5-7). Here we describe a group of RNR proteins in Mollicutes-including Mycoplasma pathogens-that possess a metal-independent stable radical residing on a modified tyrosyl residue. Structural, biochemical and spectroscopic characterization reveal a stable 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) radical species that directly supports ribonucleotide reduction in vitro and in vivo. This observation overturns the presumed requirement for a dinuclear metal site in aerobic ribonucleotide reductase. The metal-independent radical requires new mechanisms for radical generation and stabilization, processes that are targeted by RNR inhibitors. It is possible that this RNR variant provides an advantage under metal starvation induced by the immune system. Organisms that encode this type of RNR-some of which are developing resistance to antibiotics-are involved in diseases of the respiratory, urinary and genital tracts. Further characterization of this RNR family and its mechanism of cofactor generation will provide insight into new enzymatic chemistry and be of value in devising strategies to combat the pathogens that utilize it. We propose that this RNR subclass is denoted class Ie.

  • 12. Zopf, David
    et al.
    Ohlson, Sten
    HyClone Laboratories, Inc., 1725 South State Highway 89-91, Logan, Utah 84321, USA.
    Weak-affinity Chromatography1990Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 346, s. 87-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak-affinity chromatography is a new method using readily reversible biospecific recognition as the basis for chromatographic separations. 

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