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  • 1. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Anderson, B.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bignami, G. F.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Luca, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dormody, M.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Gwon, C.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Primack, J. R.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Rea, N.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tibolla, O.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Van Etten, A.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Watters, K.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wolff, M. T.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ziegler, M.
    Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5942, p. 840-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants.

  • 2. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bignami, G. F.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Camilo, F.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Carlson, P.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cognard, I.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Corbet, R.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Desvignes, G.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Luca, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dormody, M.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Edmonds, Y.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Freire, P. C. C.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hobbs, G.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Johnston, S.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kramer, M.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Manchester, R. N.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McLaughlin, M. A.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ransom, S. M.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Rea, N.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stappers, B. W.
    Starck, J. L.
    Striani, E.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Theureau, G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Thorsett, S. E.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Van Etten, A.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Venter, C.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wallace, E.
    Wang, P.
    Watters, K.
    Webb, N.
    Weltevrede, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ziegler, M.
    A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5942, p. 848-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface.

  • 3. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Charles, E.
    Chaty, S.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dormody, M.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Rea, N.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgro, C.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Wang, P.
    Webb, N.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ziegler, M.
    Detection of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5942, p. 845-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the detection of gamma-ray emissions above 200 megaelectron volts at a significance level of 17 sigma from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Globular clusters are expected to emit gamma rays because of the large populations of millisecond pulsars that they contain. The spectral shape of 47 Tucanae is consistent with gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars. The observed gamma-ray luminosity implies an upper limit of 60 millisecond pulsars present in 47 Tucanae.

  • 4. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, O.
    Chaty, S.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Corbel, S.
    Corbet, R.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dubus, G.
    Dumora, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Frailis, M.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hill, A. B.
    Hjalmarsdotter, L.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Koerding, E.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Marchand, L.
    Marelli, M.
    Max-Moerbeck, W.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McColl, N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Migliari, S.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Ong, R. A.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pooley, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Pottschmidt, K.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Rea, N.
    Readhead, A.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Richards, J. L.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, J.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Stevenson, M.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tomsick, J. A.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Wilms, J.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, T.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ziegler, M.
    Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-32009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, no 5959, p. 1512-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  • 5. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Arimoto, M.
    Asano, K.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Band, D. L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Battelino, M.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellardi, F.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bogaert, G.
    Bogart, J. R.
    Bonamente, E.
    Bonnell, J.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Burrows, D.
    Busetto, G.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Ceccanti, M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celotti, A.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Connaughton, V.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    DeKlotz, M.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dingus, B. L.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Edmonds, Y.
    Evans, P. A.
    Fabiani, D.
    Farnier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Finke, J.
    Fishman, G.
    Focke, W. B.
    Frailis, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giommi, P.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Goldstein, A.
    Granot, J.
    Greiner, J.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Haller, G.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Morata, J. A. H.
    Hoover, A.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kavelaars, A.
    Kawai, N.
    Kelly, H.
    Kennea, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Komin, N.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Landriu, D.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Lavalley, C.
    Lee, B.
    Lee, S. H.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lichti, G. G.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Marangelli, B.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McBreen, S.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meegan, C.
    Meszaros, P.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Minuti, M.
    Mirizzi, N.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nelson, D.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Perri, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Petrosian, V.
    Pinchera, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Preece, R.
    Raino, S.
    Ramirez-Ruiz, E.
    Rando, R.
    Rapposelli, E.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Rea, N.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Segal, K. N.
    Sgro, C.
    Shimokawabe, T.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Starck, J. L.
    Stecker, F. W.
    Steinle, H.
    Stephens, T. E.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tagliaferri, G.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Tenze, A.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Turri, M.
    Tuvi, S.
    Usher, T. L.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    Vigiani, L.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    von Kienlin, A.
    Waite, A. P.
    Williams, D. A.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wu, X. F.
    Yamazaki, R.
    Ylinen, T.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ziegler, M.
    Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080916C2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 323, no 5922, p. 1688-1693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gamma-ray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  • 6. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bogaert, G.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Carlson, P.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    Davis, D. S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Dormody, M.
    Silva, E. D. E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Edmonds, Y.
    Farnier, C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. H.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hartman, R. C.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Kanai, Y.
    Kanbach, G.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Kishishita, T.
    Kiziltan, B.
    Knodlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Komin, N.
    Kuehn, F.
    Kuss, M.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Lonjou, V.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Makeev, A.
    Marelli, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    McGlynn, S.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mineo, T.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piano, G.
    Pieri, L.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, F.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. W.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Schalk, T. L.
    Sellerholm, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Thorsett, S. E.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Usher, T. L.
    Van Etten, A.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Wang, P.
    Watters, K.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yasuda, H.
    Ylinen, T.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ziegler, M.
    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova Remnant CTA 12008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 322, no 5905, p. 1218-1221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves [ supernova remnants (SNRs)] are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma- Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma- ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 milliseconds and a period derivative of 3.614 x 10(-13) seconds per second. Its characteristic age of 10(4) years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. We speculate that most unidentified Galactic gamma- ray sources associated with star- forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

  • 7.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Univ Hamburg Inst Expt Phys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin 2, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan 0019, Armenia .
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan 0019, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan 375036, Armenia.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Balenderan, S.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, Durham DH1 3LE, England.
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Gravitat Astroparticle Phys Amsterdam GRAPPA, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland ; Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA .
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Becker-Tjus, J.
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    de Wilt, P.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M-H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J-P
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C-C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mora, K.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P-O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J-P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H-S
    The exceptionally powerful TeV gamma-ray emitters in the Large Magellanic Cloud2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6220, p. 406-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, has been observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) above an energy of 100 billion electron volts for a deep exposure of 210 hours. Three sources of different types were detected: the pulsar wind nebula of the most energetic pulsar known, N 157B; the radio-loud supernova remnant N 132D; and the largest nonthermal x-ray shell, the superbubble 30 Dor C. The unique object SN 1987A is, unexpectedly, not detected, which constrains the theoretical framework of particle acceleration in very young supernova remnants. These detections reveal the most energetic tip of a g-ray source population in an external galaxy and provide via 30 Dor C the unambiguous detection of g-ray emission from a superbubble.

  • 8. Acciari, V. A.
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Bautista, M.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Butt, Y.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Celik, O.
    Cesarini, A.
    Chow, Y. C.
    Ciupik, L.
    Cogan, P.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fortin, P.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Gall, D.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Horan, D.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Imran, A.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kieda, D.
    Kildea, J.
    Konopelko, A.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    LeBohec, S.
    Maier, G.
    McCann, A.
    McCutcheon, M.
    Millis, J.
    Moriarty, P.
    Ong, R. A.
    Otte, A. N.
    Pandel, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Petry, D.
    Pohl, M.
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Smith, A. W.
    Swordy, S. P.
    Theiling, M.
    Toner, J. A.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vincent, S.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Williams, D. A.
    Wissel, S.
    Wood, M.
    Walker, R. C.
    Davies, F.
    Hardee, P. E.
    Junor, W.
    Ly, C.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goehring, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Holleran, M.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kendziorra, E.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martin, J. M.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J. -F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schroeder, R.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Spangler, D.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Anderhub, H.
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Antoranz, P.
    Backes, M.
    Baixeras, C.
    Balestra, S.
    Barrio, J. A.
    Bastieri, D.
    Gonzlez, J. Becerra
    Becker, J. K.
    Bednarek, W.
    Berger, K.
    Bernardini, E.
    Biland, A.
    Bock, R. K.
    Bonnoli, G.
    Bordas, P.
    Tridon, D. Borla
    Bosch-Ramon, V.
    Bose, D.
    Braun, I.
    Bretz, T.
    Britvitch, I.
    Camara, M.
    Carmona, E.
    Commichau, S.
    Contreras, J. L.
    Cortina, J.
    Costado, M. T.
    Covino, S.
    Curtef, V.
    Dazzi, F.
    De Angelis, A.
    Del Pozo, E. De Cea
    Mendez, C. Delgado
    De los Reyes, R.
    De Lotto, B.
    De Maria, M.
    De Sabata, F.
    Dominguez, A.
    Dorner, D.
    Doro, M.
    Elsaesser, D.
    Errando, M.
    Ferenc, D.
    Fernndez, E.
    Firpo, R.
    Fonseca, M. V.
    Font, L.
    Galante, N.
    Lopez, R. J. Garcia
    Garczarczyk, M.
    Gaug, M.
    Goebel, F.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hayashida, M.
    Herrero, A.
    Hildebrand, D.
    Hoehne-Moench, D.
    Hose, J.
    Hsu, C. C.
    Jogler, T.
    Kranich, D.
    La Barbera, A.
    Laille, A.
    Leonardo, E.
    Lindfors, E.
    Lombardi, S.
    Longo, F.
    Lopez, M.
    Lorenz, E.
    Majumdar, P.
    Maneva, G.
    Mankuzhiyil, N.
    Mannheim, K.
    Maraschi, L.
    Mariotti, M.
    Martinez, M.
    Mazin, D.
    Meucci, M.
    Miranda, J. M.
    Mirzoyan, R.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Moldon, J.
    Moles, M.
    Moralejo, A.
    Nieto, D.
    Nilsson, K.
    Ninkovic, J.
    Oya, I.
    Paoletti, R.
    Paredes, J. M.
    Pasanen, M.
    Pascoli, D.
    Pauss, F.
    Pegna, R. G.
    Perez-Torres, M. A.
    Persic, M.
    Peruzzo, L.
    Prada, F.
    Prandini, E.
    Puchades, N.
    Reichardt, I.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribo, M.
    Rico, J.
    Rissi, M.
    Robert, A.
    Ruegamer, S.
    Saggion, A.
    Saito, T. Y.
    Salvati, M.
    Sanchez-Conde, M.
    Satalecka, K.
    Scalzotto, V.
    Scapin, V.
    Schweizer, T.
    Shayduk, M.
    Shore, S. N.
    Sidro, N.
    Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Sitarek, J.
    Sobczynska, D.
    Spanier, F.
    Stamerra, A.
    Stark, L. S.
    Takalo, L.
    Tavecchio, F.
    Temnikov, P.
    Tescaro, D.
    Teshima, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Turini, N.
    Vankov, H.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zandanel, F.
    Zanin, R.
    Zapatero, J.
    Radio Imaging of the Very-High-Energy gamma-Ray Emission Region in the Central Engine of a Radio Galaxy2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5939, p. 444-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 10(12) electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE gamma-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole.

  • 9. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Bazer-Bachi, A. R.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot.
    Behera, B.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Bochow, A.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Borrel, V.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Bulik, T.
    Buesching, I.
    Boutelier, T.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Charbonnier, A.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chounet, L. -M
    Clapson, A. C.
    Coignet, G.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubois, F.
    Dubus, G.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Egberts, K.
    Emmanoulopoulos, D.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fiasson, A.
    Foerster, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gerbig, D.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Glueck, B.
    Goret, P.
    Goering, D.
    Hauser, D.
    Hauser, M.
    Heinz, S.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hoffmann, A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Hoppe, S.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    de Jager, O. C.
    Jahn, C.
    Jung, I.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Kerschhaggl, M.
    Khangulyan, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Keogh, D.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Kossakowski, R.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Marandon, V.
    Martineau-Huynh, O.
    Marcowith, A.
    Masbou, J.
    Maurin, D.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Medina, M. C.
    Mehault, J.
    Moderski, R.
    Moulin, E.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    de Naurois, M.
    Nedbal, D.
    Nekrassov, D.
    Nicholas, B.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Ohm, S.
    Olive, J-F
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Orford, K. J.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Panter, M.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pedaletti, G.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Pita, S.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raubenheimer, B. C.
    Raue, M.
    Rayner, S. M.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Rieger, F.
    Ripken, J.
    Rob, L.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Ruppel, J.
    Sahakian, V.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schoeck, F. M.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Shalchi, A.
    Sikora, M.
    Skilton, J. L.
    Sol, H.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Superina, G.
    Szostek, A.
    Tam, P. H.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Terrier, R.
    Tibolla, O.
    Tluczykont, M.
    van Eldik, C.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Venter, L.
    Vialle, J. P.
    Vincent, P.
    Vivier, M.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Ward, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Detection of Gamma Rays from a Starburst Galaxy2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, no 5956, p. 1080-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of similar to 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays-tracers of such cosmic rays-from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H. E. S. S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy.

  • 10. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Belfiore, A.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hayashi, K.
    Hays, E.
    Jóhannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knödlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. -H
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Martin, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Pierbattista, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Stanford University, USA..
    Rainò, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Parkinson, P. M. S.
    Sgrò, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spinelli, P.
    Strong, A. W.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Troja, E.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Z.
    Zimmer, S.
    Bontemps, S.
    A Cocoon of Freshly Accelerated Cosmic Rays Detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 334, no 6059, p. 1103-1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shockwaves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through theambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-gigaelectronvolt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population.

  • 11. Askebjer, P.
    et al.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Bergström, L.
    Bouchta, A.
    Carius, Staffan
    Coulthard, A.
    Engel, K.
    Erlandsson, B.
    Goobar, A.
    Gray, L.
    Hallgren, A.
    Halzen, F.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Johansson, S.
    Kandhadai, V.
    Liubarsky, I.
    Lowder, D.
    Miller, T.
    Mock, P. C.
    Morse, R.
    Porrata, R.
    Price, P. B.
    Richards, A.
    Rubinstein, H.
    Schneider, E.
    Sun, Q.
    Tilav, S.
    Walck, C.
    Yodh, G.
    Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer1995In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 267, no 5201, p. 1147-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of the ice at the geographical South Pole have been investigated at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer. The absorption and scattering lengths of visible light (∼515 nanometers) have been measured in situ with the use of the laser calibration setup of the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) neutrino detector. The ice is intrinsically extremely transparent. The measured absorption length is 59 ± 3 meters, comparable with the quality of the ultrapure water used in the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven and Kamiokande proton-decay and neutrino experiments and more than twice as long as the best value reported for laboratory ice. Because of a residual density of air bubbles at these depths, the trajectories of photons in the medium are randomized. If the bubbles are assumed to be smooth and spherical, the average distance between collisions at a depth of 1 kilometer is about 25 centimeters. The measured inverse scattering length on bubbles decreases linearly with increasing depth in the volume of ice investigated.

  • 12. Björck, S.
    et al.
    Kromer, B.
    Johnsen, S.
    Bennike, O.
    Hammarlund, D.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Possnert, G.
    Rasmussen, T.L.
    Wohlfarth, B.
    Hammer, C.U.
    Spurk, M.
    Synchronized terrestrial-atmospheric deglacial records around the North Atlantic.1996In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 274, no 5290, p. 1155-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of synchronization of three carbon-14 (C-14)-dated lacustrine sequences from Sweden With tree ring and ice core records, the absolute age of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal climatic shift was determined to be 11,450 to 11,390 +/- 80 years before the present. A 150-year-long cooling in the early Preboreal, associated with rising Delta(14)C values, is evident in all records and indicates an ocean ventilation change. This cooling is similar to earlier deglacial coolings, and box-model calculations suggest that they all may have been the result of increased freshwater forcing that inhibited the strength of the North Atlantic heat conveyor, although the Younger Dryas may have begun as an anomalous meltwater event.

  • 13. Collaboration, V E R I T A S
    et al.
    Aliu, E.
    Arlen, T.
    Aune, T.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bradbury, S. M.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Bugaev, V.
    Byrum, K.
    Cannon, A.
    Cesarini, A.
    Christiansen, J. L.
    Ciupik, L.
    Collins-Hughes, E.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Cui, W.
    Dickherber, R.
    Duke, C.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Finnegan, G.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Galante, N.
    Gall, D.
    Gibbs, K.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Godambe, S.
    Griffin, S.
    Grube, J.
    Guenette, R.
    Gyuk, G.
    Hanna, D.
    Holder, J.
    Huan, H.
    Hughes, G.
    Hui, C. M.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Imran, A.
    Kaaret, P.
    Karlsson, N.
    Kertzman, M.
    Kieda, D.
    Krawczynski, H.
    Krennrich, F.
    Lang, M. J.
    Lyutikov, M.
    Madhavan, A. S.
    Maier, G.
    Majumdar, P.
    McArthur, S.
    McCann, A.
    McCutcheon, M.
    Moriarty, P.
    Mukherjee, R.
    Nuñez, P.
    Ong, R. A.
    Orr, M.
    Otte, A. N.
    Park, N.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pizlo, F.
    Pohl, M.
    Prokoph, Heike
    Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron Germany.
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rose, H. J.
    Ruppel, J.
    Saxon, D. B.
    Schroedter, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    \c Sentürk, G. D.
    Smith, A. W.
    Staszak, D.
    Te\v sić, G.
    Theiling, M.
    Thibadeau, S.
    Tsurusaki, K.
    Tyler, J.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Vincent, S.
    Vivier, M.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Ward, J. E.
    Weekes, T. C.
    Weinstein, A.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Williams, D. A.
    Zitzer, B.
    Detection of Pulsed Gamma Rays Above 100 GeV from the Crab Pulsar2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 334, no 6052, p. 69-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma rays from the Crab pulsar at energies above 100 giga–electron volts (GeV) with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The detection cannot be explained on the basis of current pulsar models. The photon spectrum of pulsed emission between 100 mega–electron volts and 400 GeV is described by a broken power law that is statistically preferred over a power law with an exponential cutoff. It is unlikely that the observation can be explained by invoking curvature radiation as the origin of the observed gamma rays above 100 GeV. Our findings require that these gamma rays be produced more than 10 stellar radii from the neutron star.

  • 14. IceCube Collaboration, Group Authors
    et al.
    Fermi-LAT Collaboration, Group Authors
    MAGIC Collaboration, Group Authors
    AGILE, Group Authors
    ASAS-SN, Group Authors
    HAWC, Group Authors
    HESS, Group Authors
    INTEGRAL, Group Authors
    Kanata, Group Authors
    Kiso Subaru Observing Te, Group Authors
    Kapteyn, Group Authors
    Liverpool Telescope, Group Authors
    Swift NuSTAR, Group Authors
    VERITAS, Group Authors
    VLA 17B-403 Team, Group Authors
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Multimessenger observations of a flaring blazar coincident with high-energy neutrino IceCube-170922A2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 146, p. 146+-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous detections of individual astrophysical sources of neutrinos are limited to the Sun and the supernova 1987A, whereas the origins of the diffuse flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos remain unidentified. On 22 September 2017, we detected a high-energy neutrino, IceCube-170922A, with an energy of ~290 tera–electronvolts. Its arrival direction was consistent with the location of a known γ-ray blazar, TXS 0506+056, observed to be in a flaring state. An extensive multiwavelength campaign followed, ranging from radio frequencies to γ-rays. These observations characterize the variability and energetics of the blazar and include the detection of TXS 0506+056 in very-high-energy γ-rays. This observation of a neutrino in spatial coincidence with a γ-ray–emitting blazar during an active phase suggests that blazars may be a source of high-energy neutrinos.

  • 15.
    Pingoud, Kim
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Cowie, Annette
    Bird, Neil
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Rüter, Sebastian
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Soimakallio, Sampo
    Türk, Andreas
    Woess-Gallasch, Susanne
    Bioenergy: Counting on Incentives: (In Letters)2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 327, no 5970, p. 1199-1200Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Stephens, Lucas
    et al.
    Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, USA;Amer Council Learned Soc, USA;Univ Penn, USA.
    Fuller, Dorian
    UCL, UK.
    Boivin, Nicole
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany.
    Rick, Torben
    Smithsonian Inst, USA.
    Gauthier, Nicolas
    Arizona State Univ, USA.
    Kay, Andrea
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany;Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Marwick, Ben
    Univ Washington, USA.
    Armstrong, Chelsey Geralda Denise
    Smithsonian Inst, USA.
    Barton, C. Michael
    Arizona State Univ, USA.
    Denham, Tim
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Douglass, Kristina
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    Driver, Jonathan
    Simon Fraser Univ, Canada.
    Janz, Lisa
    Trent Univ, Canada.
    Roberts, Patrick
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany.
    Rogers, J. Daniel
    Smithsonian Inst, USA.
    Thakar, Heather
    Texas A&M Univ, USA.
    Altaweel, Mark
    UCL, UK.
    Johnson, Amber L.
    Truman State Univ, USA.
    Sampietro Vattuone, Maria Marta
    Natl Univ Tucuman, Argentina.
    Aldenderfer, Mark
    Univ Calif, USA.
    Archila, Sonia
    Univ Los Andes, Colombia.
    Artioli, Gilberto
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Bale, Martin T.
    Yeungnam Univ, South Korea.
    Beach, Timothy
    Univ Texas Austin, USA.
    Borrell, Ferran
    CSIC, Spain.
    Braje, Todd
    Calif Acad Sci, USA.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jimenez Cano, Nayeli Guadalupe
    Univ Autonoma Yucatan, Mexico.
    Capriles, Jose M.
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    Diez Castillo, Agustin
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Cilingiroglu, Ciler
    Ege Univ, Turkey.
    Cleary, Michelle Negus
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Conolly, James
    Trent Univ, Canada.
    Coutros, Peter R.
    Univ Puget Sound, USA.
    Covey, R. Alan
    Univ Texas Austin, USA.
    Cremaschi, Mauro
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    Crowther, Alison
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany;Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Der, Lindsay
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    di Lernia, Savino
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Italy.
    Doershuk, John F.
    Univ Iowa, USA.
    Doolittle, William E.
    Univ Texas Austin, USA.
    Edwards, Kevin J.
    Univ Aberdeen, UK;Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Erlandson, Jon M.
    Univ Oregon, USA.
    Evans, Damian
    Ecole Francaise Extreme Orient, France.
    Fairbairn, Andrew
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Faulkner, Patrick
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Feinman, Gary
    Field Museum Nat Hist, USA.
    Fernandes, Ricardo
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany;Univ Oxford, UK;Masaryk Univ, Czech Republic.
    Fitzpatrick, Scott M.
    Univ Oregon, USA.
    Fyfe, Ralph
    Univ Plymouth, UK.
    Garcea, Elena
    Univ Cassino & Southern Latium, Italy.
    Goldstein, Steve
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany.
    Goodman, Reed Charles
    Univ Penn, USA.
    Guedes, Jade Dalpoim
    Univ Calif San Diego, USA.
    Herrmann, Jason
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Hiscock, Peter
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Hommel, Peter
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Horsburgh, K. Ann
    Southern Methodist Univ, USA.
    Hritz, Carrie
    Ives, John W.
    Univ Alberta, Canada.
    Junno, Aripekka
    Univ Groningen,Netherlands.
    Kahn, Jennifer G.
    Coll William & Mary, USA.
    Kaufman, Brett
    Univ Illinois, USA.
    Kearns, Catherine
    Univ Chicago, USA.
    Kidder, Tristram R.
    Washington Univ, USA.
    Lanoe, Francois
    Univ Arizona, USA.
    Lawrence, Dan
    Univ Durham, UK.
    Lee, Gyoung-Ah
    Univ Oregon, USA.
    Levin, Maureece J.
    Stanford Univ, USA.
    Lindskoug, Henrik B.
    Univ Catolica Temuco, Chile.
    Antonio Lopez-Saez, Jose
    CSIC, Spain.
    Macrae, Scott
    Trent Univ, Canada.
    Marchant, Rob
    Univ York, UK.
    Marston, John M.
    Boston Univ, USA.
    McClure, Sarah
    UC Santa Barbara, USA.
    Mccoy, Mark D.
    Southern Methodist Univ, USA.
    Miller, Alicia Ventresca
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany.
    Morrison, Michael
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Australia.
    Matuzeviciute, Giedre Motuzaite
    Vilnius Univ, Lithuania.
    Mueller, Johannes
    Univ Kiel, Germany.
    Nayak, Ayushi
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany.
    Noerwidi, Sofwan
    Balai Arkeol Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Peres, Tanya M.
    Florida State Univ, USA.
    Peterson, Christian E.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, USA.
    Proctor, Lucas
    Univ Connecticut, USA.
    Randall, Asa R.
    Univ Oklahoma, USA.
    Renette, Steve
    Univ Penn, USA.
    Schug, Gwen Robbins
    Appalachian State Univ, USA.
    Ryzewski, Krysta
    Wayne State Univ, USA.
    Saini, Rakesh
    Dr Harsingh Gour Cent Univ, India.
    Scheinsohn, Vivian
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Schmidt, Peter
    Univ Florida, USA;Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    Sebillaud, Pauline
    Jilin Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Seitsonen, Oula
    Univ Oulu, Finland;Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Simpson, Ian A.
    Univ Stirling, UK.
    Soltysiak, Arkadiusz
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Speakman, Robert J.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Spengler, Robert N.
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany.
    Steffen, Martina L.
    Univ Arizona, USA.
    Storozum, Michael J.
    Fudan Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Strickland, Keir M.
    La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Thompson, Jessica
    Yale Univ, USA.
    Thurston, T. L.
    SUNY Buffalo, USA.
    Ulm, Sean
    James Cook Univ, Australia.
    Ustunkaya, M. Cemre
    McDonald Inst Archaeol Res, UK.
    Welker, Martin H.
    Penn State Univ, USA.
    West, Catherine
    Boston Univ, USA.
    Williams, Patrick Ryan
    Field Museum, USA.
    Wright, David K.
    Seoul Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Wright, Nathan
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Zahir, Muhammad
    Hazara Univ, Pakistan;Hazara Univ, Pakistan.
    Zerboni, Andrea
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    Beaudoin, Ella
    Smithsonian Inst, USA.
    Garcia, Santiago Munevar
    Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, USA.
    Powell, Jeremy
    Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, USA.
    Thornton, Alexa
    Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, USA.
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Germany;Univ Augsburg, Germany.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Goldewijk, Kees Klein
    PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, Netherlands.;Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Ellis, Erle
    Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, USA.
    Archaeological assessment reveals Earth's early transformation through land use2019In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 365, no 6456, p. 897-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally transformative human use of land accelerated with the emergence of agriculture, but the extent, trajectory, and implications of these early changes are not well understood. An empirical global assessment of land use from 10,000 years before the present (yr B.P.) to 1850 CE reveals a planet largely transformed by hunter-gatherers, farmers, and pastoralists by 3000 years ago, considerably earlier than the dates in the land-use reconstructions commonly used by Earth scientists. Synthesis of knowledge contributed by more than 250 archaeologists highlighted gaps in archaeological expertise and data quality, which peaked for 2000 yr B.P. and in traditionally studied and wealthier regions. Archaeological reconstruction of global land-use history illuminates the deep roots of Earth's transformation and challenges the emerging Anthropocene paradigm that large-scale anthropogenic global environmental change is mostly a recent phenomenon.

  • 17.
    Verhagen, Josanne H.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Herfst, Sander
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A M
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    How a virus travels the world2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6222, p. 616-617Article in journal (Refereed)
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