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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Occupational choice and returns to self-employment among immigrants2011Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 900-922Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Self-employment has been stressed as a way for immigrants to enter and improve their situation in the labour market. However, research shows that some people who become self-employed revert to wage employment or unemployment. The purpose of the paper is to study the labour market consequences of temporary self-employment on paid employment among immigrants.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses micro-econometric methods to estimate the effect of self-employment, relative to continued wage employment, on earnings and employment opportunities in 2006. The paper also identifies the type of wage earner that temporarily enters self-employment.

    Findings – The paper finds that, relative to continued wage employment, self-employment, with few exceptions, does not improve outcomes in the wage sector of immigrants and may in fact be associated with lower earnings and difficulties in returning to paid employment.

    Practical implications – The results indicate that encouraging immigrant wage earners to become self-employed should be done with care, since self-employment does not necessarily improve subsequent labour market outcomes.

    Originality/value – This study will be valuable to those who are interested in the economic consequences of immigrant self-employment.

  • 2.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Herbert, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Beyond retirement: who stays at work after the standard age of retirement?2019Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 917-938Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Drawing on a unique combination of longitudinal administrative data and a postal survey, the purpose of this paper is to identify the socio-economic factors and individual characteristics that affect senior citizens' decision to continue working on the Swedish labour market after the standard retirement age. Design/methodology/approach By using standard econometric techniques (multinomial logit model) on a large representative sample of 20,000 senior citizens residing in Sweden, the auhtors analyse the extent to which socio-economic factors and individual characteristics including personality traits affect the decision of senior citizens to delay retirement and to continue working after the standard retirement age. Findings The results of our estimations show clearly that good health, high educational attainment/high-skilled jobs, good psychosocial work environment, employment status (to be self-employed), personality traits (extraversion, openness to experience and conscientiousness) as well as industrial sectors (agriculture, healthcare and transport) are strong predictors of the continuation of work after the standard retirement age (65 years old). Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, the paper is the first attempt in Sweden to analyse jointly a large range of factors influencing the decision to remain in the labour force after the standard/normal pension age, including psychosocial working conditions and personality traits.

  • 3.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Jolivet, Annie
    Working longer in European countries: underestimated and unexpected effects2012Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 612-628Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyse the main evolutions and the current situation of the 50-74 year olds on the labour market in eight European countries (Denmark France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, Poland and the UK). Design/methodology/approach - Based on a cross-country comparative approach, this overview draws on detailed analysis of the situation of older workers and public policies in each of the selected countries but also on a wide range of available studies and statistics on employment and welfare outcomes. Findings - The eight selected countries display similarities: a u-shaped pattern of employment rates of older workers (55-64 years old) over the last 40 years, with an increase since the mid 1990s, the later exit of higher educated workers and the higher prevalence of non-standard employment contracts among older workers. On the other hand, considerable disparities can be observed regarding the gender gap in employment rate, current employment rates, self-employment and part-time employment among older workers. Social implications - Specific questions will be more acute with the effective postponement of retirement: increasing inequalities between groups of older workers, increasing uncertainty about the age of retirement, the way to keep lower educated workers in their jobs, sustainable working conditions, increasing risks of age discrimination, and impact of care of older relatives. Originality/value - This paper offers a synthetic overview with a special attention paid to the main features of the countries' exit patterns at the end of the working life, the prevailing public policies and the specificity of the different national employment and societal models.

  • 4.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Althin, Rikard
    Efficiency and productivity of employment offices:: evidence from Sweden2005Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 196-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to measure the efficiency and productivity of Swedish employment offices.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using four inputs, five outputs, and two quality attributes the efficiency and productivity of 253 Swedish employment offices are evaluated using models of relative technical efficiency and Malmquist productivity indices. The results are computed as solutions to linear programming problems for the 1992-1995 periods.

    Findings – Results of the study find that the mean efficiency across offices varies between 74 and 78 percent. The mean productivity change demonstrates a decrease of 11 percent during the 1992-1993 period, and an increase of 7 and 13 percents during 1993-1994 and 1994-1995 respectively.

    Research limitations/implications – Different background characteristics of job seekers could possibly bias the result for some of the offices. Further research could use a dynamic model where different job seeker characteristics are taken into consideration.

    Practical implications – The paper provides an opportunity for inefficient/low productivity offices to study how offices identified as more efficient are producing their services.

    Originality/value – This paper demonstrates how efficiency and productivity could be measured in a multi-input, multi-output employment office service sector setting where quality aspects are allowed to play a part.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2018Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 534-549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    We investigate whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signals living in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We conducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with an advertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either a bad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a job interview (the callback rate).

    Findings

    We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects. However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lower if they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, we find that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, and this is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect.

    Originality/value

    Empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labor market outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant. We provide such evidence.

  • 6.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Predicted earnings and the propensity for self-employment - evidence from Sweden2009Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 349-359Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the predicted earnings differential between self-employment and wage-employment on self-employment propensities in Sweden using a large data set from the year 2003.

    Design/methodology/approach – The analysis in the paper is based on the presumption that the individual chooses to work in either the self-employed or the wage-employed sector. The separate earnings functions for the self-employed and the wage-employed are estimated in order to predict an individual's earnings in each sector. In order to overcome selectivity problems a Heckman approach is used at this stage. Finally, a structural probit model, where the difference in predicted earnings from the two sectors is included as an independent variable, is estimated.

    Findings – The main result is that the predicted differential between self-employment and wage-employment earnings plays an important role for the self-employment decision and that an increase in this earnings differential will lead to a higher self-employment rate and to an increase in total employment in Sweden.

    Originality/value – The policy relevance of this question is evident since previous research has shown that self-employed individuals do not only create jobs for themselves but also for others. Thus, an increase in the earnings from self-employment relative to the earnings from wage-employment will increase the self-employment rate as well as total employment.

  • 7.
    Löfmark, Monika Hjeds
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi.
    Search strategies of the unemployed in the Russian Federation2008Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 523-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of job search and human capital of the unemployed in the Russian Federation for obtaining a job the following year.

  • 8.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Elg, Ulf
    Lunds universitet.
    Jonnergård, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Gender-based career differences among young auditors in Sweden2013Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 572-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not gender-related differences affect the likelihood of promotion. Design/methodology/approach - The research is done on a unique dataset on the Swedish audit industry, an industry with a well-defined and well-known career ladder. We apply an ordered probit model to take all steps in the career ladder into consideration simultaneously. Findings - Females are on average less likely to be promoted. Separate regressions for males and females identified that the estimated promotion probability increases for males as an effect of having a child, but decreases more for males than females if males are highly involve in the care of these children. Thus, females who are involved in childcare are penalised by lower probability of promotion; however, males who are highly involved in childcare have much more to lose in terms of promotion than females do. For a family, this becomes a question of how to lose the least. Originality/value - Having access to unique data, from a policy perspective our study gives some new insight into the uneven distribution between genders of career interruptions related to childcare.

  • 9.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ethnic concentration and economic outcomes of natives and second-generation immigrants2016Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 157-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between childhood neighbourhood ethnic composition and short- and long-run economic outcomes of second-generation immigrants and natives in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We use Swedish longitudinal register data and apply regression analysis methods to investigate the correlation between three ethnic neighbourhood variables(share of immigrants, share of immigrants with the same ethnic background and share of immigrants with other descent) in childhood with short- and long-run economic outcomes (earnings, unemployment, reliance on social assistance and educational attainment).

    Findings

    The results show that second-generation immigrants raised in immigrant-dense neighbourhoods have a lower probability to continue to higher education, whereas, their earnings, unemployment and social assistance tendencies are unaffected. On the contrary, natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Moreover, the social assistance and unemployment of non-Nordic second-generation immigrants appears to be negatively correlated with the neighbourhood share of co-ethnics and positively correlated with the neighbourhood proportion of other ethnic groups. Overall, we find that the results are very similar in the short- and long-run.

    Originality/value

    This paper expands the literature on children and ethnic segregation and in contrast to earlier research in this context, it focuses on second-generation immigrants and their performance in comparison to natives. This study contributes to this research area by investigating a large variety of outcomes, looking at both immigrant, own-ethnic group and other-ethnic group concentration and including both short- and long-run correlations.

  • 10.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Handelshögskolan BBS.
    Agerström, Jens
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Handelshögskolan BBS.
    Implicit Prejudice and Ethnic Minorities:  Arab-Muslims in Sweden2009Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, nr 1/2, s. 43-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine whether Swedish employers implicitly/automatically hold negative attitudes toward Arab-Muslims, an ethnic minority group subjected to substantial labor market discrimination in Sweden and, more specifically, associate members of this minority group with lower work productivity, as compared with native Swedes.

    Design/methodology/approach – Adapted versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwaldet al., 1998) designed to measure implicit attitudes and productivity stereotypes toward Arab-Muslims were used. Corresponding explicit measures were administered.

    Findings – The results clearly show that employers have stronger negative implicit attitudes toward Arab-Muslims relative to native Swedes as well as implicitly perceiving Arab-Muslims to be less productive than native Swedes. Notably, the explicit measures reveal much weaker negative associations.

    Practical implications – Since Arab-Muslims are automatically perceived as being less productive, the present findings suggest that negative implicit productivity stereotypes could have significant effects on labor market outcomes, such as when employers make hiring decisions. Given that many hiring decisions are presumably based on “gut-feelings”, implicit attitudes and stereotypes, more so than their explicit counterparts, may exert a substantial impact on how employers contemplate and make decisions regarding human resources.

    Originality/value – Whereas traditional research has focused on self-conscious, explicit work-related attitudes toward various ethnic minority groups, the study offers a novel approach to understanding work-related prejudice

  • 11.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Employment effects of union-bargained minimum wages: evidence from Sweden’s retail sector2015Inngår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 694-710Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of collectively agreed increases in minimum wages for manual workers on employment transitions and hours.

    Design/methodology/approach– The econometric approach relies on the identification of workers affected by minimum wage changes, depending on their position in the wage distribution and contrasts outcomes for these workers to those for unaffected workers, with slightly higher wages.

    Findings– The analysis suggests that separations increase as minimum wages increase and that substitution between worker groups in response to changes in minimum wages is important in retail. In general, though, hours do not change much as minimum wages increase.

    Research limitations/implications– Analyses that deal with employment consequences of increasing minimum wages but disregard hours may exaggerate the overall decline in employment to the extent that job losses are concentrated among low-paid, part-time workers.

    Practical implications– With union-bargained minimum wages, unions and employers need to carefully consider the effects of increasing rates on employment.

    Social implications– The findings that there is a trade-off between higher wages among the low-paid and employment loss and that employment to some extent is reshuffled between individuals should be important from a welfare perspective.

    Originality/value– The literature on employment effects of minimum wages is large, but very few studies are concerned with union-bargained minimum wages. The assumptions of the econometric model are tested in a novel way by imposing fictitious minimum wages on lower-level non-manuals in the same industry, with turnover characteristics similar to those of manuals but covered by a different collective agreement with non-binding actual minimum wages.

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