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  • 1.
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Alsyouf, Imad
    Enhancing a Company’s Profitability and Competitiveness Using Integrated Vibration-Based Maintenance: A Case Study2004In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 157, no 3, p. 643-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a model is developed for identifying, monitoring and improving the economic impact of vibration-based maintenance (VBM). This model provides an additional possibility of identifying where, why and how much capital should be invested, and judges whether or not the investment was cost-effective. The model is further utilised to develop relevant maintenance performance measures. When the model was tested in a Swedish paper mill, the main results were: the average yearly maintenance profit achieved using integrated VBM was at least 3.58 million Swedish kronor (SEK) (approximately USD 0.358 million), and average potential savings (economic losses) were around SEK 30 million (USD 3 million). Furthermore, the model facilitated identification of problem areas and recognition of where investments should be made. The major conclusion is that the better the data coverage and quality, the greater control is possible over direct maintenance costs, savings and further profits in maintenance. Moreover, using the model it would be easier and more reliable to detect deviations in the maintenance performance and eliminate their causes at an early stage.

  • 2.
    Althin, Rikard
    et al.
    EMQ, USA.
    Behrenz, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Färe, Rolf
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Mellander, Erik
    IFAU.
    Swedish employment offices: A new model for evaluating effectiveness2010In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 207, no 3, p. 1535-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measure how well Swedish employment offices perform in delivering the services required of them by the Swedish government. In contrast to earlier studies we use a dynamic efficiency framework, which allows us to better model the intertemporal nature of these services, explicitly allowing for placements of intermediate nature across periods. Rather than using second stage analysis to assess the effects of varying local labor market conditions and differences in client characteristics on performance, we include a measure of the office’s expected work load directly in the model. This measure, derived from duration analysis, is designed to capture the variation across offices in resources needed before an average individual can obtain employment. It is estimated from the characteristics of all unemployed individual and local labor market conditions.

    The empirical results demonstrate an increase in the office’s expected work loads over time and point to substantial differences in performance across offices. The results also point toward more than optimal placements in intermediate outputs such as non-matching jobs, training, and continued unemployment.

     

  • 3.
    Berling, Peter
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    The capital cost of holding inventory with stochastically mean-reverting purchase price2008In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 186, no 2, p. 620-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most models of inventory control assume that the per unit purchase price is constant. The capital cost of holding inventory can then be taken into account by adding a fixed interest rate, r, times the purchase price, C, to the out-of pocket holding cost. However, it is not uncommon that the purchase price varies over time. How the capital cost then should be calculated is the focus of the present paper. The paper studies the common single-item inventory model with a fixed set-up cost and assumes that the stochastic purchase price follows the mean-reverting Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. Methods for computing an adjusted interest rate, r, are suggested along with modifications of well-known heuristics and formulas for lot-sizing. Simulation tests, where the optimal policy has been compared to policies obtained using modified versions of the Silver–Meal method, the Part Period algorithm and the EOQ formula, suggest that r should be estimated as the sum of the unadjusted interest rate and the average expected purchase price decrease, measured over a period between 1/3 and 2/3 of the length of the order cycle.

  • 4.
    Berling, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics. Lund University.
    Eng-Larsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University.
    Environmental implications of transport contract choice - capacity investment and pricing under volume and capacity contracts2017In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 261, no 1, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the observation that capacity contracts are used by some retailers to increase their transport provider's investments in green transport solutions, we investigate and compare a service provider's optimal investment, and its environmental implications under a volume and a capacity contract respectively. We solve the service provider's investment problem under the assumption that the retailer uses the service to replenish a warehouse with storable goods. We then show that a capacity contract leads to more green transports, but not necessarily a larger investment in green transport solutions. At the same time, the optimal solution involves heavy investment in inventory at the retailer. The investment in inventory is non-decreasing in the cost benefit of the green transports, which may have a significant negative environmental impact. The implication is that a capacity contract will lead to better environmental performance than a volume contract only when the green transports' cost benefit is within a given interval. Whether the capacity contract is the more profitable option for the service provider within this interval depends on inventory related costs and the relative environmental costs from transportation and inventory. Interestingly, owing to this, regulation that target the price of the conventional vehicles, such as a carbon tax, may lead to both an increase or a decrease in environmental performance. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Berling, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics. Lund University.
    Eng-Larsson, Fredrik
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Pricing and timing of consolidated deliveries in the presence of an express alternative: financial and environmental analysis2016In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 250, no 2, p. 590-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipment consolidation has been advocated by researchers and politicians as a means to reduce cost and improve environmental performance of logistics activities. This paper investigates consolidated transport solutions with a common shipment frequency. When a service provider designs such a solution for its customers, she faces a trade-off: to have the most time-sensitive customers join the consolidated solution, the frequency must be high, which makes it difficult to gather enough demand to reach the scale economies of the solution; but by not having the most time-sensitive customers join, there will be less demand per time unit, which also makes it difficult to reach the scale economies. In this paper we investigate the service provider’s pricing and timing problem and the environmental implications of the optimal policy. The service provider is responsible for multiple customers’ transports, and offers all customers two long-term contracts at two different prices: direct express delivery with immediate dispatch at full cost, or consolidated delivery at a given frequency at a reduced cost. It is shown that the optimal policy is largely driven by customer heterogeneity: limited heterogeneity in customers’ costs leads to very different optimal policies compared to large heterogeneity. We argue that the reason so many consolidation projects fail may be due to a strategic mismatch between heterogeneity and consolidation policy. We also show that even if the consolidated solution is implemented, it may lead to a larger environmental impact than direct deliveries due to inventory build-up or a higher-than-optimal frequency of the consolidated transport

  • 6.
    Berling, Peter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Marklund, Johan
    Lund University.
    A model for heuristic coordination of real life distribution inventory systems with lumpy demand2013In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 230, no 3, p. 515-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approximation model for optimizing reorder points in one-warehouse N-retailerinventory systems subject to highly variable lumpy demand. The motivation for this work stems fromclose cooperation with a supply chain management software company, Syncron International, and oneof their customers, a global spare parts provider. The model heuristically coordinates the inventory systemusing a near optimal induced backorder cost at the central warehouse. This induced backorder costcaptures the impact that a reorder point decision at the warehouse has on the retailers’ costs, and decomposesthe multi-echelon problem into solving N + 1 single-echelon problems. The decomposition frameworkrenders a flexible model that is computationally and conceptually simple enough to beimplemented in practice.A numerical study, including real data from the case company, shows that the new model performsvery well in comparison to existing methods in the literature, and offers significant improvements tothe case company. With regards to the latter, the new model in general obtains realized service levelsmuch closer to target while reducing total inventory.

  • 7.
    Ensthaler, Ludwig
    et al.
    University College London, UK.
    Giebe, Thomas
    TU Berlin, Germany.
    Bayesian optimal knapsack procurement2014In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 234, no 3, p. 774-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A budget-constrained buyer wants to purchase items from a shortlisted set. Items are differentiated by observable quality and sellers have private reserve prices for their items. The buyer’s problem is to select a subset of maximal quality. Money does not enter the buyer’s objective function, but only his constraints. Sellers quote prices strategically, inducing a knapsack game. We report the Bayesian optimal mechanism for the buyer’s problem. We find that simultaneous take-it-or-leave-it offers are interim optimal.

  • 8.
    Haftor, Darek
    Emotion Consulting AB.
    A framework for the constitution of modelling processes: a proposition2003In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 145, no 1, p. 202-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that the quality of models significantly affects the outcome of their application, it is important to reflect on the process by which they are actually constructed. This is addressed by the proposed Framework for the Constitution of Modelling Processes, which is presented here along with a few examples of its practical application. This framework is founded on Projective Constructivist Epistemology and provides a generic description of modelling processes, including their purpose, behaviour and structure. The framework may serve as a meta-model for the understanding, classification, use and development of the many different contributions to the field of modelling. Over the past five years, the framework has been actively researched, developed and applied in a variety of practical contexts, including the public, military and business sectors.

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