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  • 1.
    Scholten, O.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands ; Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Trinh, T. N. G.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bonardi, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Buitink, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Correa, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Corstanje, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Falcke, H.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Nikhef, Netherlands ; Netherlands Inst Radio Astron ASTRON, Netherlands ; Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Germany.
    Horandel, J. R.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Nikhef, Netherlands.
    Mitra, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Mulrey, K.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Nelles, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Univ Calif Irvine, USA.
    Rachen, J. P.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Rossetto, L.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Schellart, P.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Princeton Univ, USA.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    ter Veen, S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Netherlands Inst Radio Astron ASTRON, Netherlands.
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Winchen, T.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Measurement of the circular polarization in radio emission from extensive air showers confirms emission mechanisms2016In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 94, no 10, article id 103010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here on a novel analysis of the complete set of four Stokes parameters that uniquely determine the linear and/or circular polarization of the radio signal for an extensive air shower. The observed dependency of the circular polarization on azimuth angle and distance to the shower axis is a clear signature of the interfering contributions from two different radiation mechanisms, a main contribution due to a geomagnetically-induced transverse current and a secondary component due to the build-up of excess charge at the shower front. The data, as measured at LOFAR, agree very well with a calculation from first principles. This opens the possibility to use circular polarization as an investigative tool in the analysis of air shower structure, such as for the determination of atmospheric electric fields.

  • 2.
    Trinh, T. N. G.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Scholten, O.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands ; Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Bonardi, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Buitink, S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Corstanje, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Ebert, U.
    Ctr Math & Comp Sci CWI, Netherlands ; Eindhoven Univ Technol TU e, Netherlands.
    Enriquez, J. E.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Falcke, H.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; NIKHEF, Sci Pk Amsterdam, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Netherlands Inst Radio Astron ASTRON, Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo, Netherlands.;Max Planck Inst Radioastronomy, Germany.
    Horandel, J. R.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; NIKHEF, Netherlands.
    Hare, B. M.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Mitra, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Mulrey, K.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Nelles, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Univ Calif Irvine, USA.
    Rachen, J. P.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Rossetto, L.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Rutjes, C.
    Ctr Math & Comp Sci CWI, Netherlands.
    Schellart, P.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands ; Princeton Univ, USA.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    ter Veen, S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Winchen, T.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Thunderstorm electric fields probed by extensive air showers through their polarized radio emission2017In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 95, no 8, article id 083004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We observe a large fraction of circular polarization in radio emission from extensive air showers recorded during thunderstorms, much higher than in the emission from air showers measured during fair-weather circumstances. We show that the circular polarization of the air showers measured during thunderstorms can be explained by the change in the direction of the transverse current as a function of altitude induced by atmospheric electric fields. Thus by using the full set of Stokes parameters for these events, we obtain a good characterization of the electric fields in thunderclouds. We also measure a large horizontal component of the electric fields in the two events that we have analyzed.

  • 3.
    Trinh, T. N. G.
    et al.
    University Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Scholten, O.
    University Groningen, The Netherlands ; Vrije Universiteit Brussel, The Netherlands.
    Buitink, S.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, The Netherlands ; Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    van den Berg, A. M.
    University Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Corstanje, A.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Ebert, U.
    Center for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI), The Netherlands ; Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Enriquez, J. E.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Falcke, H.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands ; ASTRON, The Netherlands ; Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany.
    Hörandel, J. R.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands ; Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Köhn, C.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nelles, A.
    Rachen, J. P.
    Rossetto, L.
    Rutjes, C.
    Schellart, P.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    ter Veen, S.
    de Vries, K. D.
    Influence of atmospheric electric fields on the radio emission from extensive air showers2016In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 93, no 2, article id 023003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds have been shown to significantly modify the intensity and polarization patterns of the radio footprint of cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers. Simulations indicated a very nonlinear dependence of the signal strength in the frequency window of 30–80 MHz on the magnitude of the atmospheric electric field. In this work we present an explanation of this dependence based on Monte Carlo simulations, supported by arguments based on electron dynamics in air showers and expressed in terms of a simplified model. We show that by extending the frequency window to lower frequencies, additional sensitivity to the atmospheric electric field is obtained.

1 - 3 of 3
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